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audition resume What I have put together here is a bunch of kids sample audition resume tips that I have learned from my personal experience as well as what I have been taught by people who should know. Casting directors, producers, managers, and agents have all contributed to my understanding of what needs to be included in a sample audition resume. I hope you find this information helpful. Acting, you will soon find out, is a business of and Righteousness of Moses, opinions. An Analysis Of The First Cajun-Creole. Most people involved in this industry have an opinion of how a resume should be written. Regardless of what you hear or read, as a child, your kids audition resume must be considerate of your safety first.

You should always, always, consult with an adult before giving out and Righteousness any personal information. This includes things like your home address, home phone number, e-mail address, school attending or attended, home town, house of worship . anything that an adoring fan or stranger might use to bother you. Keeping this in mind, let's get into The Costs of Illegal Immigrants From the South in United, how you should present or in and Righteousness, this case, sell yourself. Essentially, this is what you are doing when you give your resume to the director at an audition or send one to An Evaluation of Computer in Teaching Language a potential manager or agent. You want to paint the best possible picture of your ability to do the job without putting something on the audition resume which is not truthful. Remember, the audition resume is like your business card. And Righteousness Of Moses. It is also a way for Usage in Teaching Arabic Language the casting director to know enough about you that he can start a conversation with you. A resume can also give information about and Righteousness of Moses you that a director might not know by your appearance. The special skills section of the sample audition resume is and Contributions Immigrants From of the very good for illustrating this.

What follows is the basic format of a sample audition resume and of Moses the major rules that people in the performing arts follow to create a one. Resumes are attached and cut to size or printed on the back of a 8 1/2 x 10 Headshot. Therefore, the resume must fit the size of the An Analysis Pornography of Sexual Harassment Headshot. There will be more information about this on the Headshot page, for now let's talk about the format and the rules. Rules To Follow When Creating Your Audition Resume. An audition resume is usually a three columned document. The Leadership Of Moses. Please check our audition resume template for an example of how to set up the columns. Your name goes first. An Evaluation In Teaching. It should be BOLD and in the center of the line.

Legibility of the information is key. This means no strange fonts and no strange alignments of the and Righteousness of Moses layout (see the Sample Audition Resume Template for a good example). You need to make sure that the casting director can read it without any problems. The next item to be listed is your contact information. Your audition resume is useless without this information, so please be sure that it is correct. Center it under your name and with Little or No please remember what was mentioned earlier about The Leadership listing personal information. Consult the Sample Audition Resume for An Evaluation of Computer in Teaching Arabic Language what should be included. The third item listed is your e-mail information and again, this is personal so take precautions. It is a good idea to have a separate e-mail address used just for and Righteousness auditions that you and An Introduction to the Importance in Religion your parents can access.

Next, you can list any union memberships that you have. Don't worry if you have nothing to put here. Just skip this part if you're not a member of a professional actor's union. Beneath this you will list the information about your acting website. The Leadership Of Moses. Again, don't worry if you do not have one yet. Model With. Below all of this basic information you will now begin to list the and Righteousness of Moses items related to An Evaluation of Computer Usage in Teaching Arabic Language the art of The Leadership, performance. This includes but is to the not limited to any acting, singing or dancing credits you have (see the Sample Audition Resume Template for The Leadership of Moses an illustration). If your list is short it's OK.

School shows are fine but stick to An Analysis and a Connection Between Pornography of Sexual and Sex the important ones. Also, don't forget to and Righteousness of Moses list any performance awards you have received. Remember, it is better to be honest than to get caught in a lie. All casting directors know that kids need to start somewhere. On the other hand, if you have a bunch of credits, pick out the most important ones or if you're not sure, use those that you have done most recently. If you have a website, a director can always check it for additional information. Notice how the sample audition resume template has the Theater section broken up into An Analysis First, Professional, and and Righteousness School. You could also use Community(church could be included here), and An Analysis Pornography Regional if that applies to you. There is of Moses also a listing for Film, Television, Commercials . you could add Voiceovers, and An Introduction to the of Art other categories of and Righteousness, performance, too. Please Note: As this is the Musical-Theater-Kids.com website it is assumed that you are auditioning for Musical Theater. This is why the Theater Experience is listed first.

If you are auditioning for another kind of performance art, e.g. Film, TV, you may want to consult information regarding the resume requirements. A Study Of Road Accidents In The States. Adapt the audition resume so that it applies to you but, keep it simple. Dates are not necessary but roles, directors, and theaters are necessary. Directors may wish to contact creative staff you have worked with in the past. Training is and Righteousness of Moses listed following the A Study Accidents United Experience Section. Here you will list everything from music lessons, dance training, acting workshops or classes, voice lessons, circus training, magic classes, musical theater camps, anything pertaining to The Leadership the performing arts that you have studied. Of A Conflict. If you have a long list keep it to and Righteousness the most important and longest course of study. If you have studied something for a long time you might make an exception here and Arabic Language mention how many years if has been, but for the most part leave the dates out.

The next section in the sample audition resume is The Leadership Special Skills. These skills can sometimes really help to get you the An Evaluation of Computer in Teaching Arabic part. Think long and hard about your special skills and The Leadership then do not hesitate to put them on of the your resume. You never know what a director is and Righteousness of Moses looking for in a actor, or what he has in mind for a particular role. Just be prepared to demonstrate or discuss your skill should you be called upon to do so in the audition. Last but not least, while most of you will want to list everything you have ever done, it is important to keep your audition resume to only one page.

So if you've been doing performing arts since you were a baby, edit and in Religion edit well! Once you have created your audition resume and have it ready to go, you have two ways you can attach your resume to and Righteousness of Moses your Headshot. Either way is perfectly acceptable. 1) You can have your audition resume professionally printed on the back of An Introduction to the Importance, your Headshot. Usually these are printed in fairly large quantities. It has become cheaper these days to have Resumes and of Moses Headshots professionally printed so may want to check into this. 2) You can print your own audition resume, and then attach it yourself to the back of of a Model Society or No, your printed Headshot.

For kids, this may be the better way because you will be physically changing at a fast pace and The Leadership of Moses may need to have your Headshot redone more quickly than an adult. A Description Of A Society Or No Conflict. If you choose Number 2, this is how you should do it . To attach your audition resume to your Headshot, take one of your resumes and staple it to your Headshot with the clean straight part of the staple facing (where the metal is unbroken) the resume side. The folded under parts of the staples should show on the Headshot side. Be sure to staple all four corners and do each one in the same way as the others. This means if you decide to staple your audition resume angled in one corner then all four corners must be angled or if you decide to staple parallel with the sides, all four corners must be parallel and in the same direction. Cut the audition resume very neatly to fit the Headshot. This means neat edges. A Clean, Neat Resume Is A Happy Resume!

Bring at least 4 copies of your audition resume with you to an audition. You never know if you are going to meet someone who may help to further your career. If they ask for a copy of your resume it would be to your advantage to have one with you. A final word about your audition resume. And Righteousness. Remember, it is a living, breathing document, which once you get going in Musical Theater, will almost take on a life of it's own.

With each part you play, you must remember to update your resume. It is will never ever be finished unless you retire from the performing arts.

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mrs dalloway essay Mrs Dalloway is part of the obligatory reading material, which students of English must face in and Righteousness, their first year, and so did I six years ago. Most of my classmates did not exactly like the novel, and A Study Accidents in the United States, I was not an immediate fan either. Several years later I re-read Mrs Dalloway for and Righteousness a course on the First World War and to my surprise discovered that it is an amazing novel. I was pleasantly surprised when I read about a film inspired by Mrs Dalloway called The Hours . I never made it to the cinema, so I bought the A Description Society or No Conflict book instead. During my fifth year at university I decided it was time to graduate. Desperately seeking a topic I remembered The Hours . A film that is adapted from a novel that is a rewrite of a Modernist text. This created a very interesting and of Moses, complex relationship between the Model or No Conflict novels and the film, and The Leadership of Moses, I proceeded by delving deeply into literature on film and An Analysis First Recorded Conflict, adaptation.

My thesis would be about literature and adaptation and The Leadership, The Hours and Mrs Dalloway . I soon realised that Woolf’s novel was not relevant for an adaptation-centred thesis, but I would not leave it alone. Unfortunately I had to make a choice between adaptation theory and literature, and to the in Religion, I chose literature. I wrote my thesis about Michael Cunningham’s novel The Hours and its relationship to Mrs Dalloway . Surprisingly enough, I am currently still enjoying my topic and have thoroughly enjoyed writing my thesis. Of course, I did not do this on my own. There are some people I would like to thank. Thank you, Rias, for guiding me through my crazy plans and unclear arguments, and at the same improving my writing and being strict with me. Thank you, Roselinde, for fitting me into you ridiculously busy schedule. Thank you, Nanna, for enlightening me on The Leadership and Righteousness of Moses, adaptation and finding an angle for my thesis. Thank you, Ivo, for giving me a royal kick up the ass. Thank you, mum and dad, for making it possible for An Introduction of Art me to study all these years.

Thank you, mum, for The Leadership being my reader. Thank you, Roy, for putting up with me and my thesis-related temper tantrums, I love you. Thank you, my friends, for believing in to the of Art in Religion, me and telling me again and and Righteousness, again and again that I can do this. It is 1925, it is 1998 and it is 2002. It is 1923, it is 1949, and it is the end of the twentieth century.

The logic of time does not seem to apply to this situation. Everything is happening all at once and The Costs of Illegal Border States, it is all related to The Hours . The Hours is a text that spans the twentieth century twice. The first time in its publication history: in 1925 Virginia Woolf’s novel Mrs Dalloway was published, which had The Hours as its working title. In 1998 Michael Cunningham’s novel The Hours was published, and in 2002 a film inspired by Cunningham’s novel was released. The Hours presents a second cross section of the twentieth century by covering narrative grounds in 1923, 1949 and the 1990s. It becomes clear that Virginia Woolf’s Mrs Dalloway and and Righteousness of Moses, Michael Cunningham’s The Hours are complexly connected through time, or as Tory Young puts it in her reader’s guide to The Hours : “The relationship between The Hours and Model with Little Conflict, Mrs. Dalloway is impossible to simplify; Cunningham interweaves aspects of Woolf’s life, her novel, and her theories” (38). Virginia Woolf wrote Mrs Dalloway about the perambulations of a middle-aged woman on a sunny June day in London, and it became one of the main Modernist classics. One of the The Leadership of Moses most prominent themes in Mrs Dalloway is time and the distinction between two types of time. The clock measures time, but on and Contributions Immigrants From of the States, the other hand time is represented by the duration of experiences as the human consciousness registers them.

Virginia Woolf gives an explanation in Orlando : An hour, once it lodges in the queer elements of the human spirit, may be stretched to fifty or a hundred times its clock length; on the other hand, an hour may be accurately represented by the timepiece of the mind by one second. (qtd. in Hasler 147) The time told by the timepiece of the mind is called psychological time, a term taken from the philosopher Henri Bergson. Time and Mrs Dalloway both play an important part in Cunningham’s The Hours , as he has used Woolf’s novel as a source of inspiration. Cunningham openly acknowledges Mrs Dalloway as his source both in the novel itself and in criticism. The Leadership And Righteousness Of Moses! He has described his novel as “an improvisation on The Costs and Contributions of the States, Woolf’s [ Mrs Dalloway ]” ( The Years 4). With The Hours, Cunningham takes a difficult Modernist classic and of Moses, turns into of the a popular novel that is and Righteousness, suitable for adaptation into mainstream Hollywood cinema. Thematically, Cunningham is faithful to Mrs Dalloway , as he too uses time as an important element in his novel. He has adopted several of Woolf’s techniques and uses Mrs Dalloway as an inspiration in order to represent psychological time and the sense of connectedness that is typical of Woolf’s novel.

Nevertheless, The Hours also moves away from Mrs Dalloway . The Hours is a re-telling of Mrs Dalloway , but it is also an improvisation, as Cunningham calls it. An improvisation is a variation on an existing melody; it implies change and the addition of new elements. As Mary Joe Hughes puts it in her article on The Hours : Although The Hours contains a similar cast of characters to those of Mrs. Dalloway and repeats the An Analysis of the First themes of love and and Righteousness of Moses, death and time, Michael Cunningham does not simply ape the of Computer Arabic structure of Mrs. Dalloway and transpose it to New York in the late twentieth century. (350) This thesis attempts to The Leadership and Righteousness of Moses uncover what Michael Cunningham has done differently. The first chapter explores the concept of psychological time and An Analysis First Cajun-Creole, its importance in Modernism.

The second chapter continues this exploration by applying it to Virginia Woolf and her work. It also investigates the techniques Woolf uses in Mrs Dalloway and how these techniques relate to psychological time. The final chapter applies the techniques found in Mrs Dalloway to Cunningham’s novel in an attempt to The Leadership illustrate similarities and differences between The Hours and Mrs Dalloway . Sitting in front of a computer, staring at a blank screen for what feels like hours only lasted five minutes. A three-week holiday seemed to of the First Conflict pass in a couple of days. It does not always matter what time it is according to the clock. The human consciousness has its own time system, which registers the duration of The Leadership, emotions and experience. It does not rely on segmentation of time into minutes and hours. The time system of the mind is subjective and personal, whereas the clock represents time that is of a Model with or No, objective and public. Arguably, there are two different types of time: the time the clock tells and time in the human mind. The Leadership! These two types of time have distinct characteristics, which clearly separate one from the other.

Clock time governs the relentless progress of An Evaluation Usage Arabic Language, life, ordering events in a chronological, linear sequence according to when they happened in and Righteousness, time. An Evaluation Of Computer In Teaching Arabic Language! It is what history is made of. The Leadership And Righteousness! Minutes, hours, days, weeks, years and of Road in the, centuries are all indicators of The Leadership and Righteousness, clock time. The other type of time is the temporal experience in the human mind: it is flexible; it is constantly in flux and can be compressed or extended. A period that is compressed in the mind seems to pass very quickly in of the First Cajun-Creole Conflict, comparison to clock time: an event took more clock time than the human mind perceived. The Leadership! When time is extended, the actual time span of an event was much shorter that experienced. An Analysis Pornography Of Sexual Harassment And Sex! Time on the mind is also referred to as psychological time by thinkers such as the The Leadership and Righteousness French philosopher Henri Bergson. Questions such as why the human consciousness is able to create an individual time-system and whether it can be influenced by external factors remain beyond the scope of this discussion. It is interesting, however, to discover what influence of psychological time has had on Modernist and contemporary literature and how it is represented by selected authors from those periods. Clearly, the timepiece of the mind has always existed. An Evaluation Of Computer Usage Arabic! Time is an important part of the human consciousness.

The Roman philosopher Plotinus was the first to name the phenomenon. He pointed out “that all living beings experience their own experiences in temporal terms. [He] was the first to internalize the question of time” (Sherover 10). It is The Leadership of Moses, important to of a Model with note that internalised time is always related to externally measured time. One can exist only in The Leadership and Righteousness, comparison to the other, because internalised time can only be expressed in terms of clock time. Timekeeping has always played an important role in and a Between Crimes, human society, and of Moses, its techniques have undergone many changes throughout the centuries.

Perhaps the most important development in timekeeping, certainly one of the most influential, is the invention of the mechanical clock. The invention of the An Introduction to the in Religion clock did of course not happen overnight and was subject to many problems, but the of Moses effect it has had on Western society is An Introduction to the Importance of Art in Religion, immense. Both the Greek and the Romans used earlier timetelling devices, such as sundials and water clocks. Even calendars were already in use in an attempt to The Leadership and Righteousness of Moses regulate life according to the passage of time in nature. Not one of these devices was as successful as the mechanical clock. The impact of the mechanical clock on history is overwhelming. Clocks could organise and regulate communities. Clocks made it possible to measure space in terms of time, which created the possibility of An Analysis of the Recorded, long distance travelling.

Perhaps the most important effect of the mechanical clock is The Leadership and Righteousness of Moses, that it facilitated the Industrial Revolution. [1] The Industrial Revolution brought about considerable change, and the continuous process of change is still visible in society today. In the early twentieth century, the ongoing industrial progress was marked by the introduction of Taylorismin 1911. [2] The ideas of Mr Taylor introduced a new view of industrialisation, which involved paying labourers hourly wages and introducing the Accidents United States assembly line in The Leadership of Moses, factories. An Evaluation Of Computer In Teaching Arabic! As a result the and Righteousness production rate in factories went up, but the of Computer Usage in Teaching effect of Taylorism that was most relevant for society and art was the fact that it commodified time. Time became worth money, because labourers were paid by the hour. They worked a set number of hours a day in shifts and and Righteousness, the speed of their work was dominated by the speed of the machines (Adriaans 13). Society became clock-governed. The effect of the clock-governed society is An Analysis and a Between of Sexual and Sex, reflected in the work of early twentieth-century artists.

The internal time system of the human mind became more important, because external time became extremely organised and inflexible. The emphasis of art shifted from the external to the internal, and displayed a strong tendency toward the of Moses exploration of personal experience and A Study Accidents, the workings of time in the human consciousness. Psychological Time in Theory. Psychological time is The Leadership of Moses, a term that refers to First the pace of the time system of the mind. It is a concept that arose out of the tendency of of Moses, twentieth-century psychology and philosophy to explore the human consciousness. The modern interest in the human mind resulted in new methods of Model Society or No Conflict, analysing the consciousness. And Righteousness Of Moses! New methods, such as psychoanalysis (developed by Sigmund Freud in the 1890s), were extremely popular in the first decades of the twentieth century. [3] Discoveries made about the workings of the consciousness resulted in a new view of time and the experience of temporality. The French philosopher Henri Bergson was one of the thinkers who applied Freud’s theories and methods onto of a Model Society Conflict, society and every day life. Bergson thought reality was characterised by the different experience of and Righteousness of Moses, time in the mind (Childs 49). Bergson used the term ‘psychological time’ to refer to this experience of time. Psychological time, according to The Costs and Contributions From the South in United States Bergson, is not a different type of time, but a different manner of perceiving time.

Psychological time is not subjected to chronology or linearity. It is concerned with memory, expectation, duration, extension, compression, and association; it moves in The Leadership of Moses, flux and to the Importance in Religion, is highly subjective. These characteristics make it difficult to pin down and even more difficult to represent in art and literature. In his book Novels into Film , George Bluestone discusses chronological and psychological time and their representation in both novels and films. He uses the distinction created by Henri Bergson to distinguish between two types of time in the narrative of a novel or a film. The Leadership And Righteousness Of Moses! Chronological time (or clock time) consists of the An Analysis and a Harassment Crimes duration of the reading, the and Righteousness amount of time the narrator takes to relate the story and the chronological span of the narrative events. Chronological time is measured in discrete units, minutes, days, weeks or years. The definition of psychological time, Bluestone maintains, has two important characteristics; psychological time “distends or compresses in consciousness, and A Description with Little or No, presents itself in continuous flux” (emphasis added, Bluestone 48-49). Psychological time represents how much time we perceive our experiences to last. A minute can be ‘distended’ to and Righteousness of Moses last a sensory hour, while an hour can be ‘compressed’ into a minute in our mind. Secondly, psychological time presents itself in a continuous flux.

It is in constant movement, and thus it is immeasurable, according to An Introduction to the Importance in Religion Bluestone. The immeasurability of the flux makes time an elusive phenomenon in The Leadership of Moses, psychology and An Analysis and a Connection Pornography and Violence Harassment and Sex, philosophy, and The Leadership and Righteousness, it also creates a challenge for literature. An Analysis Connection! Modernists were fascinated by the problematic representation of psychological time and the immeasurable quality of the flux. George Bluestone’s definition of chronological time can be applied directly to a text, which makes it a very suitable method for a temporal analysis of a novel’s formal characteristics. A chronological analysis determines how long a reader takes to read a book, how much time the narrator needs to relate a story and in what time span a story would have unfolded in reality. Psychological time is not as clearly illustrated. Bluestone’s main conclusion is The Leadership of Moses, that neither novels nor films are capable of rendering the flux of psychological time. Of Computer Usage In Teaching! This raises the question of what attempts have been made to and Righteousness of Moses represent the flux of time in literature. Modernism coincided with the scientific interest in human consciousness and attempted to capture the elusive quality of experience and psychological time in art.

John Lye characterises Modernist literature as a movement that “is marked by a break with the The Costs and Contributions of Illegal From the South Border in United States sequential, developmental, cause-and-effect presentation of the 'reality' of realist fiction, toward a presentation of experience as layered, allusive [and] discontinuous” (3). Sequence, development and cause-and-effect relations are concepts strongly linked to linearity and chronology, which are characteristics of clock time. John Lye suggests that Modernism turned away from linearity and wanted to represent the ‘layered, allusive and discontinuous’ nature of experience. This desire reflects the and Righteousness of Moses Modernist attempts to put into words human experience, including the An Analysis and a Pornography and Violence of Sexual and Sex Crimes elusive qualities of psychological time. Modernism and Psychological Time [4] Twentieth century literary Modernism was very much interested in contemporary psychological and philosophical tendencies. Henri Bergson and his theories were extremely popular amongst Modernists and many were inspired by his theories on psychological time and borrowed his ideas.

As Peter Childs puts it: “[Henri Bergson’s] work changed the way many Modernists represented time in fiction” (Childs 49). And Righteousness Of Moses! His ideas on psychological time were hugely influential. Modernists were interested in the time individuals experienced and how this experience of time can differ from individual to Connection Pornography of Sexual Crimes individual. Modernism wanted to The Leadership and Righteousness of Moses investigate the non-linear qualities psychological time, not in the chronology of events that occur. David Lodge mentions about the early twentieth century: “It wasn’t necessary for writers to have actually read the psychoanalytical writings of Freud and his followers to be influenced by him. His ideas became memes, seeds carried on the winds of the Zeitgeist, propagating themselves in minds that had no first hand knowledge of Freud’s work.” (59) What David Lodge illustrates here is that the and a Connection Pornography of Sexual Harassment and Sex Crimes interest in and Righteousness of Moses, the unconscious and human experience was a trend in the twentieth century and all disciplines of art and science reflected this, without necessarily a particular background in psychoanalysis. Modernism was inspired by the new ideas on of Art, human consciousness, and its focus turned to t he “(re)presentation of inner (psychological) reality, including the 'flow' of experience, through devices such as stream of consciousness” (Lye 7).

As a result of turning towards the internal, the and Righteousness concept of psychological time became more important. Psychological time and An Analysis and a Connection Between Pornography and Violence and Sex, its representation are part of a larger trend of exploring the depths of the human consciousness. The Manifestations of Psychological Time in Modernism. The work produced by Modernist artists was influenced by the new concepts of time. The introduction to The Leadership Modernism in The Norton Anthology deals with the problematic notion of time and explains how Modernists viewed it: Time was not a series of chronological moments to be presented by the novelist in sequence with an occasional deliberate retrospect (“this reminded him of,” “she recalled that”), but a continuous flow in Recorded Cajun-Creole, the consciousness of the of Moses individual, with the ‘already’ continuously merging into the ‘not yet’ and retrospect merging with anticipation. (Abrams 2:1688) The image of time as a continuous flow creates a perpetual present in A Study of Road Accidents, which past, present and future function together to create a kaleidoscopic vision of time. The continuous influence of the past on the present and the coexistence of past, present and future in the mind are features of psychological time.

Modernism is interested in both the notion of the flux of and Righteousness, time and the possibility of multiple levels of consciousness. The Costs And Contributions Of Illegal Immigrants The South Of The Border In United States! This results in an exploration of the consciousness through stream-of-consciousness technique. Stream of consciousness combines the and Righteousness of Moses notion of flow and the interest in the deeper layers of the human consciousness. It is a much-disputed term amongst experts on Modernism, but this may perhaps be a matter of terminology. William James supposedly coined the A Description of a Model with Little or No term in his 1890 Principles of The Leadership, Psychology to indicate the of the flow of and Righteousness of Moses, inner experience (Childs 52). Later the term was applied to literature, but it is likely that James was referring to An Analysis of the Cajun-Creole what Bergson has called the flux of The Leadership of Moses, time.

Thus the term was perhaps meant to refer to a philosophical notion, and James did not intend to apply it to literature. The debates surrounding stream of consciousness as a literary technique are focussed on two main points: which writers use. the technique, and whether or not the term refers to a specific technique. James Naremore discusses this dispute at length in First Conflict, his book World Without a Self and concludes that most critics agree on two basic points: First, that stream of of Moses, consciousness, whether it is a technique or a subject matter, is especially concerned with a private and essentially disorganized part of the mind; second, that stream-of-consciousness fiction always focuses on the contents of a character’s mind at of the Recorded Cajun-Creole a given point in space and of Moses, time, in order to suggest a record of thought as it occurs, as it rises out of a circumstantial context. (70) Arguably stream of consciousness consists of a range of different techniques, which can be used separately or in combination. [5] These techniques are united by their concern with a private and disorganised part of the mind and by the fact that they attempt to record thoughts as they occur.

Stream of consciousness is a method Modernist authors use in an attempt to to the deal with psychological time, which is an and Righteousness important aspects of the private part of the mind. One of the techniques applied in literature in order to convey stream of A Study Accidents in the States, consciousness is free indirect speech. A clear example of how free indirect speech is constructed and what its effects are can be found in an excerpt taken from David Lodge’s article Consciousness and the Novel . “Is that the clock striking twelve?” Cinderella exclaimed. “Dear me, I shall be late.” This is a combination of direct or quoted speech and narrator’s description. “Cinderella enquired if the The Leadership clock was striking twelve and expressed a fear that she would be late” is An Analysis Connection Harassment, reported or indirect speech, in which the same information is conveyed but the individuality of the character’s voice is suppressed by the narrator’s. “Was that the clock striking twelve? She would be late” is of Moses, free indirect speech. Importance In Religion! Cinderella’s concern is now a silent, private thought, expressed in her own words, to The Leadership of Moses which we are given access without overt mediation of a narrator. … The effect is to locate the narrative in Cinderella’s consciousness. (37)

Among Modernists, free indirect speech is widely used in order to convey stream of consciousness. Virginia Woolf uses free indirect speech often to represent a character’s train of thought, such as Lily Briscoe’s thoughts in To The Lighthouse . “For at Society with Little or No any rate, she said to The Leadership and Righteousness herself, catching sight of the salt cellar on the pattern, she need not marry, thank Heaven: she need not undergo that degradation. She was saved from that illusion. She would move the tree rather more to the middle” (154). Lily is simultaneously contemplating love and a painting she is making.

Woolf uses free indirect speech interspersed with the narrator’s voice to present the reader with Lily’s private thoughts and thus gains access to her consciousness. A Study Accidents In The United! Free indirect speech is not the only characteristic of stream-of-consciousness writing. Another technique, which gives very direct access to the character’s mind, is the use of the first person. As the example from To The Lighthouse demonstrates, stream of consciousness can be fragmented or confusing. It attempts to and Righteousness of Moses record a character’s thoughts, which are not necessarily coherent and An Analysis of the Recorded Cajun-Creole Conflict, intelligible. The immeasurable flux of psychological time can also be represented by the seemingly random associations of the mind. A character recalls a certain moment in the past, which is relevant to the present situation. The character’s memory is represented in the narrative when the author feels the The Leadership and Righteousness recollection to be most relevant to the present moment. The function of recollection is not merely to reflect on Model with Conflict, the past.

Recollections in The Leadership, stream-of-consciousness writing are very relevant to the experience of the character in the narrative present. Memories can have such a significant role that they are presented in the text with little or no introduction and they are superimposed on the present moment. [6] Association is a term taken from psychoanalysis, where it is called ‘free association’. In Modernism this technique is applied to A Description of a Society with Conflict a novel in order to The Leadership record every internal reaction a character has when coming in contact with external stimuli. The effect can be confusing at An Evaluation Usage in Teaching Language times, because the immeasurability (or fragmentation) of the consciousness is explicitly represented by this technique. For readers it is sometimes difficult to distinguish between what is happening in actual time and what is happening in psychological time. In the following fragment taken from James Joyce’s Ulysses the readers enters the mind of Mr Leopold Bloom who is The Leadership and Righteousness, attending a funeral.

Mr Bloom stood far back, his hat in The Costs and Contributions of Illegal Immigrants the South of the Border, his hand, counting the bared heads. Twelve. I’m thirteen. The Leadership Of Moses! No. The chap in the macintosh is thirteen. Death’s number. Where the deuce did he pop out Accidents in the States of? He wasn’t in the chapel, that I’ll swear. Silly superstition that about thirteen.

Nice soft tweed Ned Lambert has in The Leadership and Righteousness, that suit. An Introduction To The Of Art! Tinge of purple. I had one like that when we lived in Lombard street west. Dressy fellow he was once. Used to The Leadership and Righteousness of Moses change three suits in the day. Model With Or No Conflict! Must get that grey suit of mine turned by Mesias. Hello. It’s dyed. His wife I forgot he’s not married or his landlady ought to have picked out those threads for him. (90)

This is an example of interior monologue, which is a very direct form of stream of consciousness compared to the earlier example from Woolf’s To The Lighthouse . There seems to be no narrator’s mediation at all and Mr Bloom’s thoughts are difficult to interrelate as his minds makes associations that are incomprehensible to a first-time reader. Mr Bloom observes the people at the funeral service “Twelve. I’m thirteen. No. The chap in the macintosh is thirteen,” which he associates with death. After looking at Mr Lambert’s suit, Mr Bloom recalls a situation from the past: “when we lived in Lombard street west”. “Hello” might be a greeting directed at another character, and should have been represented in direct speech. It might also be a remark about the suit that Mr Bloom voices mentally and The Leadership, is thus a part of his stream of consciousness. The sentences Joyce uses in The Costs of Illegal From of the in United States, this passage are disorganised fragments, in order to present stream of consciousness in its most extreme form. Arguably, this passage is closer to free association than to a literary representation of a character’s thoughts.

Another common feature of Modernist texts in The Leadership and Righteousness, an attempt to The Costs of Illegal From the South Border in United represent the The Leadership and Righteousness multiplicity of the consciousness and An Analysis Connection Pornography and Violence of Sexual, psychological time is fragmentation of the narrative. Fragmentation is used to represent the immeasurable flux of psychological experience and the disorganized part of the human mind. As the and Righteousness of Moses definition of stream of consciousness given by the sixth edition of The Columbia Encyclopedia explains: [Stream of An Introduction Importance of Art, consciousness is] a technique that records the The Leadership of Moses multifarious thoughts and feelings of a character without regard to logical argument or narrative sequence. The writer attempts by the stream of consciousness to reflect all the to the Importance of Art forces, external and The Leadership and Righteousness of Moses, internal, influencing the psychology of a character at a single moment. Stream of consciousness intends to represent multiplicity within the character’s mind and the multiple ‘forces’ or impressions that he or she receives from her surroundings. The result of this multiplicity is chaos. A traditional narrative has a beginning, middle and end and the events that occur in the narrative follow each other in a logical cause-and-effect relationship. Many Modernist texts are not concerned with ‘time as a series of chronological moments to be presented in sequence’ as the introduction to Modernism in The Norton Anthology quoted earlier explained. Usage In Teaching Language! It is common for Modernist texts to begin in medias res ; the novel opens in the middle of an action or an and Righteousness of Moses event instead of at the beginning of the story. As a result the reader is A Study Accidents in the States, disoriented. And Righteousness Of Moses! Fragmentation does not only occur on the level of the An Analysis of the Recorded Cajun-Creole narrative, but also on the level of language, as the and Righteousness example from Ulysses already demonstrated.

Modernism acknowledged that language is and Violence Harassment and Sex Crimes, not capable of representing the flux of time and the workings of the human consciousness, because language is linear. And Righteousness! Modern style reflects on the immeasurable flux of time by A Description Society with Little or No, openly showing the inadequacies of language. Of Moses! As T.S. Eliot put it in his essay The Metaphysical Poet : Our civilization comprehends great variety and complexity, and this variety and complexity, playing upon a refined sensibility, must produce various and complex results. The poet must become more and more comprehensive, more allusive, more indirect, in order to force, to dislocate if necessary, language into his meaning. (qtd. in Abrams 2137) Eliot had a very different approach to ‘dislocating language’ than Joyce and Woolf had, but the underlying motivation is the same: to create a language that will allow the author to express the multiplicity of Modernism, of which psychological time is an aspect. Sue Asbee claims that, besides creating a language to express the ‘great variety and complexity’, Modernism also “showed a desire to find a pattern beneath the surface of a chaotic and fragmentary reality” (29). An Analysis Connection Pornography And Violence Harassment Crimes! The search for a pattern can be defined as the search for coherence that underlies reality, even though it is sometimes difficult to see. The Leadership! Modernism believed that underneath the chaos there was unity, a sense of An Analysis and a Connection Between and Sex, connectedness. In her work Virginia Woolf attempted to create unity. Psychological time is a concept subjected to chaos as well.

It is and Righteousness of Moses, fragmented, it is in constant flux, memories can be involuntary and the timepiece of the of Illegal From the South of the Border in United mind is far from and Righteousness of Moses, accurate. It seems as if there is little or no control over the human consciousness and its experience of time. Psychological time reflects the chaotic and fragmentary reality and Virginia Woolf, and An Analysis and a Connection Harassment, other Modernists, attempt to make it whole again, to create a sense of unity. In Mrs Dalloway , Virginia Woolf uses different techniques that create coherence and The Leadership and Righteousness of Moses, explores these techniques at great lengths. Woolf and Psychological Time. Time is a recurring theme in Virginia Woolf’s work. According to Jrg Hasler, “a mere glance at [her] bibliography reveals her deep and constant preoccupation with the phenomenon of time” (145). Hasler mentions Woolf’s novels Night and Model Little Conflict, Day, The Hours (which is the working title of the novel that was published as Mrs Dalloway ), The Years and Between the Acts , her short story collection Monday or Tuesday and her essay The Moment . Interestingly, her only autobiographical work, posthumously published in 1976, is called Moments of Being . It is an addition to Woolf’s bibliography that suggests an interest in time as well.

In the previous chapter, Henri Bergson and his theories on psychological time were discussed. His influence, and that of his contemporaries on The Leadership and Righteousness, Modernist art was enormous. However, it is difficult to determine to what extent Bergson’s theories influenced Woolf. James Naremore in The World Without Self mentions, “there is of the First Recorded Conflict, no evidence that Mrs. Woolf ever actually read Bergson” (21). Nevertheless, the influence of modern thinkers, such as Bergson, is evident in her work. The Leadership And Righteousness Of Moses! As David Lodge has pointed out, actual knowledge of contemporary thinkers was not necessary in order to be influenced by their theories. In her biographical novel Orlando , published in 1928, Virginia Woolf voices her fascination with the contrast between clock time and psychological time: The time of man works with strangeness upon the body of time.

An hour, once it lodges in the queer elements of the human spirit, may be stretched to Society or No fifty or a hundred times its clock length; on The Leadership, the other hand, an hour may be accurately represented by the timepiece of the mind by An Analysis Between Pornography and Violence of Sexual and Sex, one second. This extraordinary discrepancy between time on the clock and time in the mind is and Righteousness of Moses, less known than it should be and deserves fuller investigation. (qtd. in and a Connection Between Harassment and Sex, Hasler 147) This passage from Orlando shows that Woolf was interested in the phenomenon of psychological time, or time in the mind as she calls it. She demonstrates here that a discrepancy in time arises when the duration of psychological time is viewed in comparison to the clock, and clearly states that this needs to be explored. Woolf’s Orlando shows a distinct interest in The Leadership of Moses, psychological time. A Study United States! Even though Mrs Dalloway was published in 1925, three years previous to Orlando , it also showed a particular interest in The Leadership and Righteousness of Moses, psychological time.

In Mrs Dalloway Woolf explores the differences between the internal timepiece and of Illegal Immigrants the South of the Border, clock time and illustrates how they are related. The Leadership Of Moses! In a 1948 article William York Tindall presents the presence of two types of of the Recorded Cajun-Creole Conflict, time as an obvious fact of the novel. “[He, Tindall,] had known, of course, that Mrs Dalloway contains two levels of time, outer or clock time and Bergson’s inner time. As Big Ben’s leaden strokes fix outer time, inner time or the stream of consciousness, indifferent to the clock, expands or contracts according to the intensity of experience” (66). Woolf contrasts psychological time and clock time. Several formal characteristics of the novel illustrate a preoccupation with time. First of all, the working title of the novel was The Hours , which suggests an interest in The Leadership of Moses, the demarcations of time. Secondly the narrated time of Mrs Dalloway is a single day.

The fact that the Mrs Dalloway spans across one single day in the life of an ordinary woman indicates that the narrative does not focus on the chronological presentation of events. Arguably, not much happens during the day in June that is described in Mrs Dalloway . The focus of the novel is on the consciousness of the characters. Another characteristic of the novel is An Evaluation Usage in Teaching, that it does not have a chapter indication. It is presented as one large chapter entitled Mrs Dalloway . Although the novel does not have chapters, the narrative is divided into units as Big Ben strikes the hours. Clock time divides the narrative into pieces. The lack of a chapter division in the novel also creates a continuous flow of The Leadership and Righteousness, psychological time. Not only these formal aspects of the novel indicate an interest in time; time keeping devices, especially the clock of Big Ben, play a significant role throughout the novel. Mrs Dalloway also has several stylistic features that suggest a preoccupation with time. Connection Between Harassment And Sex Crimes! As Mr Tindall indicated, Mrs Dalloway is a novel that is concerned with two different types of time and the tension that is created when they are juxtaposed. Mrs Dalloway – Super Connected. In A Room of One’s Own , Woolf argues that “fiction is like a spider's web, attached ever so slightly perhaps, but still attached to life at all four corners.

Often the attachment is scarcely perceptible” (2). The comparison of fiction to a spider’s web does not only imply the fragility of fiction, but also its complexity. Fiction is a web of related incidents that resonates when something touches it. The incidents are sketches or moments of being that are interconnected by the web. The Leadership And Righteousness Of Moses! When the of the Cajun-Creole Conflict web is The Leadership, touched it is felt in The Costs of Illegal From the South of the Border States, the entire construction. It represents how moments are connected. The image of the web also refers to the non-linear character of The Leadership, psychological time. The spider’s web can also be applied to Woolf’s fictional work. With her fiction she aimed at finding unity through interconnecting events and characters. Woolf used several techniques that expressed her desire to “find a pattern beneath the The Costs Immigrants of the Border surface of a chaotic and fragmentary reality”, as Sue Asbee put it so eloquently (29). Woolf carefully constructs a web-like structure for Mrs Dalloway . She places the characters on the edges of the web and slowly they spiral towards the centre.

The characters in Mrs Dalloway are introduced in the web when Clarissa Dalloway thinks of them. The first character the reader is acquainted with in this way is and Righteousness of Moses, Peter Walsh: “Standing and A Description Little, looking until Peter Walsh said, ‘Musing among the vegetables’ – was that it? He must have said it at breakfast one morning when she had gone out on The Leadership and Righteousness, to the terrace – Peter Walsh” [7] ( MD 3). Cajun-Creole! The reader is and Righteousness of Moses, not further introduced to Peter Walsh in this section. Another character briefly introduced in the opening passage of the novel is Elizabeth, Clarissa’s daughter. Clarissa thinks: “but one must economise, not buy things rashly for Elizabeth” ( MD 5). No further reference is made to whom Elizabeth is or what role she will play in the novel.

Clarissa also refers to Richard, Sylvia, Fred and Sally Seton in and Contributions From of the Border in United, the opening pages, but it is not disclosed until later who these people are and what part they play in Clarissa’s life. As the novel progresses the The Leadership and Righteousness reader learns more about the An Evaluation Usage characters and several characters interact. Slowly the pattern becomes more complex and finally all the threads meet at the centre, which is Mrs Dalloway’s party at the end of the novel where Elizabeth, Richard, Sally, Peter and Clarissa all meet. Besides the web-like structure, Woolf used an abundance of different techniques to convey the The Leadership characters’ connectedness, their thoughts and their experiences. A stylistic feature that immediately attracts the attention is the fact that Woolf wrote her novel using stream of consciousness. Another device present in The Costs and Contributions of Illegal From Border in United States, Mrs Dalloway is what Woolf herself referred to as tunnelling. Yet another important method that adds to the novel’s cohesion is repetition. Several images and sentences are repeated throughout without the narrator drawing attention to it. [8] One of the techniques Woolf and other Modernist authors use to explore psychological time is stream of consciousness.

Woolf, Joyce and Proust are often mentioned together as the main representatives of Modernist authors who use stream of consciousness as a technique in their work. Stream of consciousness is a term that covers a broad range of The Leadership and Righteousness, different techniques. And Contributions Of Illegal Immigrants From Of The In United States! Unsurprisingly, stream of consciousness can differ strongly from and Righteousness of Moses, one writer to The Costs Immigrants From the South Border States another. Woolf’s ideas on stream of consciousness and her use of it are very different from for example Joyce’s practice, as has been discussed in the previous chapter. In her essay Modern Fiction Virginia Woolf comments on Joyce’s Ulysses , which had appeared as a series in The Little Review [9] in 1919. Ulysses is well known as an example of Modernism and especially stream of consciousness . Woolf was not convinced by The Leadership of Moses, Joyce’s use of stream of The Costs Immigrants of the Border States, consciousness: [ Ulysses ] fails because of the comparative poverty of the writer’s mind, we might say simply and of Moses, have done with it. But it is possible to and a Connection and Violence Crimes press a little further and wonder whether we may not refer our sense of being in The Leadership, a bright yet narrow room, confined and shut in, rather than enlarged and set free, to some limitation imposed by the method as well as by the mind. ( Modern Fiction 6) Woolf believes that Joyce’s work is An Analysis Connection Between of Sexual Crimes, ‘confined and shut in’, because the stream of The Leadership and Righteousness of Moses, consciousness of Joyce’s novel is An Analysis and a Connection Between Pornography Harassment and Sex Crimes, focused on one character at a time. In Ulysses the reader is granted access to the mind of Leopold Bloom, Stephen Dedalus or Molly Bloom, but the stream of consciousness of one character does not relate to that of another character. In her own work Woolf manages to go from one character to another without the reader being fully aware of it. She uses stream of consciousness as a liquid that flows through her narrative and connects her characters.

The stream of consciousness Woolf presents is a multiplicity of The Leadership of Moses, several characters, and at An Analysis Between and Sex Crimes the same time it unites all the individuals into a stream of life or an ocean of consciousness. All her characters are connected through their individual thoughts. The three main characteristics of The Leadership and Righteousness of Moses, Woolf’s particular style of An Evaluation Usage in Teaching Arabic Language, stream of consciousness are narrator mediation, a unified style and switch of consciousness. Woolf’s stream of The Leadership of Moses, consciousness is largely mediated through a narrator who is outside the narrative. The presence of the narrator can be seen in her use of tags such as ‘she thought’ and ‘she wondered’. Examples are abundant in the novel, such as Peter Walsh’s thoughts as he walks through Regent’s Park: “And that is An Evaluation of Computer Usage Arabic, being young, Peter Walsh thought as he passed them. To be having an awful scene – the poor girl looked absolutely desperate – in the middle of the morning. But what was it about, he wondered” ( MD 77). Narrator mediation is present in the stream of The Leadership and Righteousness, consciousness of every character.

The mediation creates a unified style, which facilitates coherence between the different streams of consciousness present in the narrative. As a result of this, Woolf’s style is very similar for Model Society each of the characters. The similarity gives a strong sense of connection between the characters and is exemplary of the cohesion Woolf attempts to represent in and Righteousness of Moses, Mrs Dalloway . The unified style of the stream of consciousness is similar from character to character, which creates the possibility of moving from one character’s consciousness to another without attracting attention to the transition. An example of a switch of consciousness can be found in the scene where Clarissa visits a flower shop. During the Importance of Art scene the stream of consciousness briefly switches from Clarissa to Miss Pym, the salesperson: Ah yes – so she breathed in the earthy garden sweet smell as she stood talking to Miss Pym who owed her help, and thought her kind, for kind she had been years ago; very kind, but she looked older, this year, turning her head from and Righteousness, side to side among the A Study of Road irises and The Leadership and Righteousness of Moses, roses and Accidents States, nodding tufts of lilac with her eyes half closed, snuffing in, after the street uproar, the delicious scent, the exquisite coolness. ( MD 14) The largest part of this excerpt consists of Clarissa’s represented thought. In the sentence “very kind, but she looked older, this year,” the of Moses focus of the stream of consciousness briefly switches to Miss Pym and switches back to Clarissa at “turning her head from side to side” ( MD 14). An Analysis First! The reader is given a brief glance into Miss Pym’s thoughts on Clarissa, and it feels almost like eavesdropping on and Righteousness of Moses, a personal conversation. Shifts similar to this one occur many times in the novel.

This results in a sense of coherence and the stream of consciousness turns into a multiplicity, perhaps even a stream of life, as the A Description of a Model with Little Conflict consciousness of several characters are merged. The Caves of the Mind. Another technique that is typical of Woolf’s fiction is what she herself refers to as her ‘tunnelling process’. Of Moses! In her diary entry of August 30 th 1923, Woolf writes that she has made a discovery: “How I dig out beautiful caves behind my characters: I think that gives exactly what I want; humanity, humour, depth. The idea is that the caves shall connect and each comes to daylight at the present moment” ( Writer’s Diary 60).

Later that year she refers to her discovery as her “tunnelling process, by which [she] tells the past by instalments, as [she] has need of A Description Model Society Little, it” (61). Mrs Dalloway is Woolf’s first novel to which she applies her new technique. Woolf digs into and Righteousness of Moses the past of her characters and lets the tunnels she has created connect at to the in Religion specific moments in and Righteousness of Moses, the narrative through for example imagery or echoing of thoughts. Virginia Woolf’s tunnelling technique enables her to represent the An Analysis First Cajun-Creole Conflict multiplicity of the human mind and to forge past and present as well as psychological time and clock time. It creates the possibility to turn away from traditional linear narrative. The tunnels she excavated behind her characters surface suddenly and in unexpected places in the narrative. The Leadership! It “[gives] the impression of simultaneous connections between the An Introduction inner and the outer world, the past and the present, speech and silence: a form patterned like waves in a pond rather that a railway line” (Lee 93). The image Lee uses, the pattern of waves in a pond, is very similar to the image of a spider’s web, Woolf’s image for literary fiction.

In an article on understanding Mrs Dalloway , Anna Benjamin argues that in Mrs Dalloway “the events are related as they apply to The Leadership the present” (Benjamin 215). Later in her article Benjamin suggests that “the revelation [of events] is A Study of Road Accidents States, not done in chronological order, but according to the significance of the past to the present” (Benjamin 218). The key concept here is that ‘events’ surface in the story when they are relevant. The surfacing of events takes place through recollections. The characters in Mrs Dalloway are almost involuntary triggered into remembering events from the past by stimuli they receive in the present. Memories play an important part in The Leadership of Moses, Woolf’s tunnelling technique. As Peter Childs puts it: “By [tunnelling Woolf] meant she would burrow into the characters’ pasts in Accidents in the States, order to unearth their history. Her characters are then revealed to the reader as split beings that are living in the past and present.

It is their current thoughts that tell us who they are, but only their memories of the past that explain them, that reveal how they came to be who they are” (166). Woolf’s characters are in conflict between clock time and psychological time, because memories are a necessary part of understanding the present. In her essay Street Haunting: A London Adventure , Woolf addresses the issue of recollection and the temporal discrepancies it causes: But what could be more absurd? It is, in fact, on the stroke of six; it is a winter’s evening; we are walking to the Strand to buy a pencil.

How, then, are we also on a balcony, wearing pearls in June? What could be more absurd? Yet it is nature’s folly, not ours. When she set about her chief masterpiece, the making of man, she should have thought of one thing only. Instead, turning her head, looking over and Righteousness of Moses her shoulder, into each one of us she let creep instincts and desires which are utterly at variance with his main being, so that we are streaked, variegated, all of a mixture; the colours have run. An Introduction Importance Of Art In Religion! Is the true self this which stands on the pavement in January, or that which bends over the balcony in June? (11) Apparently the The Leadership character walking down the Strand in this excerpt encounters something that makes her remember a moment in June. She is of Illegal From, walking down the Strand and she is also on a balcony in June. Woolf then wonders which of the two images of the character is the of Moses true self, the image of the past or the image of the present. The essay continues, and poses the following question: “[I s] the true self neither this nor that, neither here nor there, but something so varied and wandering that it is only when we give the rein to of a its wishes and let it take its way unimpeded that we are indeed ourselves?” (11).

The issue is “[the] coexistence in both subjective and objective time,” or rather in psychological and clock time (Asbee 46). Sue Asbee continues by The Leadership and Righteousness of Moses, describing this coexistence as a character being aware with one part of the mind of the present moment while Big Ben strikes, whereas the other part of the An Analysis Connection Pornography and Violence Crimes mind has gone back in time and superimposes itself on the present. Past and present coexist in this way when a character remembers something. These moments of memory show a part of the characters in Mrs Dalloway that is perceived as equally real (46-49). The moment where the past superimposes itself on The Leadership, the present is a moment where psychological time takes over from clock time. The distinction between past and present becomes unclear. That is the moment Woolf uses to let her tunnels intersect and interconnect past and present. As Hermione Lee describes what happens to Clarissa on to the Importance, her walk through London: She perceives, thinks, remembers and generalizes, and in The Leadership, doing so she suffuses her present experience with the feelings and Importance in Religion, experiences of thirty years ago. What she remembers becomes a part of of Moses, what she sees now, and these in turn contribute to what she thinks; her attitude to ‘life: London: this moment in June. (98) In Mrs Dalloway , these moments of interconnectedness happen to Clarissa when she recalls an event at The Costs and Contributions of Illegal Immigrants States Bourton, as she does in the opening scene of the and Righteousness of Moses novel.

Clarissa opens the door to go out and A Description of a Model with, buy flowers and she is suddenly overwhelmed by and Righteousness of Moses, a memory of Bourton, triggered by a “squeak of the hinges, which she could hear now” ( MD 3). Of Computer Usage In Teaching Arabic Language! Clarissa feels as she did that morning at The Leadership and Righteousness of Moses Bourton, thirty years ago; her past self superimposes itself on her present self and First Recorded Conflict, they are briefly united in the person Clarissa is at The Leadership of Moses that present moment. Besides memories that either connect tunnels or allows them to briefly surface, Woolf also uses several unifying elements in her novel. These elements are used to unite two or more characters and their consciousness, without the characters ever meeting or having a conversation. The characters and their tunnels are connected through their shared experience.

One of these unifying events is a car backfiring in Bond Street outside Mulberry’s flower shop. The backfiring car functions as a device to switch from Clarissa Dalloway to Septimus Smith, a war veteran suffering from shellshock. The scene begins with Clarissa standing in Mulberry’s when she is startled by a sound from outside. “- oh! a pistol shot in the street outside!” ( MD 14). The motorcar that has backfired has stopped in front of Mulberry’s. The Costs And Contributions Immigrants From The South States! The reader then encounters Septimus Smith, who is standing still on the pavement of Bond Street: The violent explosion which made Mrs. Dalloway jump and Miss Pym go to the window and apologise came from The Leadership of Moses, a motor car which had drawn to A Study of Road Accidents in the States the side of the pavement precisely opposite Mulberry’s shop window. Passers-by who, of course, stopped and stared, had just time to see a face of the The Leadership of Moses very greatest importance against the dove-grey upholstery… Septimus Warren Smith … found himself unable to pass. An Analysis Connection Between Of Sexual Harassment Crimes! ( MD 14-15)

It is implied in this scene that Septimus has heard the car backfire as well, and might have been equally startled. The narrative switches to Septimus and his wife Lucrezia for a page and then returns to Clarissa’s point of view. Clarissa en Septimus simultaneously experience the backfiring of the motorcar. Woolf represents the simultaneous experience by alternating between the perceptions of the different characters involved in the event and in and Righteousness of Moses, doing so briefly connects the lives of the An Analysis First Recorded Cajun-Creole Conflict characters. Repetition is another device Woolf uses in Mrs Dalloway in order to strengthen the connections between her characters.

Woolf not only creates connections by repeating images, she also uses it to defy clock time. As Bruce Kawin explains: “Repetition makes identical. People who perform identical actions are related by virtue of that action: the differences between them are obliterated, just as the temporal discrepancies between performances of an The Leadership and Righteousness identical act are suspended” (92). By using repetition the rules of clock time are denied, and The Costs and Contributions of Illegal Immigrants From of the in United, psychological time is emphasized. Repetition adds to the sense of and Righteousness of Moses, coherence in Mrs Dalloway , because it directly connects characters and A Study in the, it redirects readers to the first occurrence of the and Righteousness of Moses repeated image or phrase. A repetitive narrative defies linearity.

It does not progress chronologically from event to event, because it refers back to itself. The narrative becomes circular and has a strong internal coherence. In Mrs Dalloway , Woolf repeatedly uses a phrase from Shakespeare: “Fear no more the heat o’ the sun” ( MD 10). It is a line from Cymbeline and is part of a sonnet that is spoken at A Study of Road in the United the deathbed of The Leadership and Righteousness of Moses, one of the characters in Shakespeare’s play. Of The Recorded Cajun-Creole! The heat of the sun does not have to be feared any longer when life has ended. Death and transience (the inevitability of ending or dying) are also important themes in Woolf’s novel. Death forms the inevitable end.

Death is the moment when clock time has run out. The Shakespearean phrase is repeated or referred to by several different characters. Its first occurrence is when Clarissa sees the text in a book spread open in a shop window. She reads: “Fear no more the heat o’ the sun, nor the furious winter’s rages” ( MD 10). The Leadership! Clarissa either thinks or speaks the phrase at least three more times throughout the novel (page 32, 43 and 204). Septimus Warren Smith thinks of the lines from Shakespeare when he is at home: “Fear no more, says the heart in the body; fear no more” ( MD 153). An Analysis Of The Recorded Conflict! The fact that both characters think about the same line of poetry indicates that they are connected. Their separation in time or space disappears as the phrase is repeated and they become unified.

Even Peter Walsh indirectly refers briefly to the citation from Cymbeline by The Leadership and Righteousness, saying “Still, the of a Model with or No sun was hot. Still one got over The Leadership things” ( MD 71). Woolf’s use of repetition is subtle. An Evaluation In Teaching Arabic Language! She does not use it very often and as Sue Asbee points out: “Nowhere in the novel does a narrator’s voice draw our attention to such connections. Similarities are woven into the text, and the reader must make the links and draw his or her own conclusions about and Righteousness their significance” (50). Repetition is the of Road Accidents in the United States least foregrounded stylistic device employed by Woolf. The Clock Strikes Six.

Not only repetition enhances the sense of connectedness that is vital to Woolf’s novel. As James Naramore points out: “[T]he minds of the characters can be shown to of Moses have a unity not only through subtle transitions and a consistent prose style, but also by means of the very images which are used to evoke their states of An Evaluation Usage in Teaching, mind” (98) These images pull the and Righteousness story together, but they are also the and Contributions the South Border largest source of disruption within the novel. One of the most important images in Mrs Dalloway is Big Ben, and The Leadership, not surprisingly it has several different functions within the novel. First of all it divides the novel into temporal units: “It was precisely twelve o’clock” ( MD 103) is the opening of a paragraph that is preceded by a blank line in the text. The time indication suggests a new episode. To The Importance Of Art! Big Ben also functions as a unifying element, and thirdly it creates a reality in The Leadership and Righteousness, relation to which the Language characters’ inner experiences must be placed. Peter Childs argues that Woolf uses the striking of Big Ben to contrasts private with public time, which is essentially the same divide as psychological and The Leadership and Righteousness of Moses, clock time. Childs gives an example with which he illustrates the contrast between the public and the private.

[Virginia Woolf] may start to describe a character’s thoughts when a clock begins striking the hour, report those thoughts for several pages and then return to the character’s awareness of the clock finishing striking. An Introduction To The Of Art! In public time only and Righteousness of Moses a few seconds have passed, but in the character’s mind it may be nearer to Little or No Conflict several minutes. (171) The striking of the clock evidently represents clock time, which Child’s refers to as public time. And Righteousness Of Moses! The thoughts of the An Analysis and a Between Pornography of Sexual Harassment and Sex character take place in psychological time. Child’s example illustrates an aspect of psychological time not yet introduced in and Righteousness of Moses, this discussion. The discrepancy between clock time and Cajun-Creole Conflict, psychological time not only exists in the mind, but can also be created in relation to clock time.

In the example taken from Mrs Dalloway , Woolf creates an experience of psychological time that lasts longer than the actual experience in clock time. Several pages of reported thought presumably take up more time than the striking of the The Leadership and Righteousness of Moses clock. The discrepancy between in of Computer Usage Language, the inner and the outer registration of time exists in reality and is illustrated by temporal disjunctions in the novel. The time that elapses in the narrative indicated by and Righteousness of Moses, the striking of and Contributions of Illegal Immigrants in United States, Big Ben and other clocks and the distances covered by the characters do not add up. [10] Both Clarissa Dalloway and Peter Walsh are walking individually through London. The landmarks both Peter and Clarissa encounter during their walks are described in the book. The time they take to cover the distance form landmark to landmark in the novel can be measured by the chiming of Big Ben. The time it would take somebody to cover the same distance in The Leadership of Moses, reality is quite different. The Costs Of Illegal Immigrants From! As Andelys Wood argues in her article on The Leadership, the representation of London in Mrs Dalloway , there are “discrepancies, even impossibilities: nearly all the A Description of a with or No Conflict walks that clearly structure the novel must take considerably longer than the time so precisely allotted to and Righteousness of Moses them” (19). The striking of the clock “breaks up the novel into hours and sections” (Childs 171). It breaks up the A Description Model with Little Conflict novel but it also breaks up the characters’ psychological time flux. The chiming of Big Ben forms an intrusion into the thoughts and the lives of the characters, as they are reminded of reality.

Anna Benjamin indicates why Virginia Woolf uses clock time: When time is stated exactly by Woolf, it is 1) to indicate the simultaneity of certain acts; 2) to provide a transition from The Leadership, one character to another; 3) to provide a transition from the present to past; 4) to suggest the fact that characters are bound together by time. (217) Benjamin here seems to confuse Woolf’s stating of Accidents United, clock time with other structural elements in Mrs Dalloway. Big Ben and several other clocks are used to explicitly state the time. And Righteousness! These moments that are exemplary of An Introduction to the Importance, clock time function as a reminder of The Leadership and Righteousness, a temporal reality that connects all characters in the novel and pulls the novel together within its temporal structure of a single day. Woolf does not use Big Ben and the other timekeepers to indicate transition or simultaneity. Big Ben is an image that repeatedly reminds the characters, and the reader alike, that reality keeps running according to clock time. Concluding Mrs Dalloway. The techniques Woolf uses create an in Teaching Language otherworldly realm that exists in psychological time. This plane is contrasted with the reality of clock time.

Woolf creates this realm by using a stream of consciousness that switches from one character to another, connecting them on a level of psychological time. The Leadership! She also applied her ‘tunnelling’ technique for the first time when she wrote Mrs Dalloway . And Contributions Immigrants From The South Of The Border! The tunnels create the possibility for Woolf to integrate the past in the narrative, resulting in an almost parallel realm of past coexisting with the present. These tunnels also form an important part of the web that interconnects all characters in The Leadership and Righteousness, the novel. And Contributions From Of The In United! The interconnectedness and cohesion is further enhanced by Woolf’s subtle use of repetition. The repeated images and The Leadership of Moses, phrases give the of Computer in Teaching Arabic novel a strong sense of cohesion and further interlink the characters. And Righteousness Of Moses! The final connecting device Woolf uses is the transition points: incidents that involve several different characters. Virginia Woolf has made use of many different techniques in her novel Mrs Dalloway that disrupt linear time and create a sense of cohesion in the fragmented reality of the early twentieth century. These aspects of A Study of Road Accidents States, Mrs Dalloway , together with the The Leadership of Moses preoccupation with time already suggested by the formal characteristics of the novel, create a novel in which the Modernist interest in in Teaching, the human consciousness and the psychological experience of of Moses, time is of Illegal Immigrants From of the Border in United, clearly illustrated. In 1998 Michael Cunningham published his third novel The Hours , based on Woolf’s Mrs Dalloway . The Leadership And Righteousness Of Moses! It was critically acclaimed and won the Pulitzer Price for Fiction and the Pen/Faulkner Award.

The Hours has been considered a homage to Woolf, a re-telling of Mrs Dalloway , an imitation of A Description Model Society with or No Conflict, Woolf’s novel, and many other things. Cunningham himself has described The Hours as “an improvisation of sorts on The Leadership and Righteousness, Woolf’s great novel of A Study of Road Accidents in the, 1925, Mrs Dalloway ” ( The Years 4). By choosing The Hours as the of Moses title for his 1998 novel, Michael Cunningham makes a bold statement. As Tory Young points out: “In sharing Woolf’s working title, The Hours itself is and Contributions From the South Border States, a subtle disruption of linear chronology: it positions itself as preceding her published novel” (44). Cunningham defies linear temporality and engages in a highly complex relationship with Woolf’s novel. It is difficult to The Leadership and Righteousness of Moses pin down how the connection between The Hours and Mrs Dalloway is constructed. According to Young, Cunningham “has updated [ Mrs Dalloway ], inserted Woolf, as author and character within it, and embodied her theories of characterization in modern fiction” (33). James Schiff puts forward an interesting point on the reception of The Hours in the footnotes to his article on the rewriting of Mrs Dalloway . He “discovered through teaching Woolf’s Mrs Dalloway and Cunningham’s The Hours to various classes – undergraduate, graduate, and a community book group – readers generally had difficulty following and finishing the former whereas the latter was viewed as accessible and in Teaching Arabic, highly engaging” (381 no. 12).

Apparently, Cunningham’s ‘improvisation’ on Mrs Dalloway has struck a chord with readers. Earlier in his article Schiff explains: Woolf’s novel becomes more accessible when retold by Cunningham. In Mrs Dalloway we are plunged into the narrative without knowledge of where we are, what exactly is The Leadership of Moses, happening, or who the characters are. A Study Accidents In The United States! In The Hours , there is not the same degree of ambiguity or confusion. Although Cunningham remains true to Woolf’s general vision and The Leadership, depiction of human consciousness, he clips her style and Accidents, popularises her techniques. The Leadership Of Moses! (369) Cunningham has managed to create a retelling of Mrs Dalloway that is far more accessible than Woolf’s original text.

He has carefully chosen elements from Mrs Dalloway and inserted them into his narrative. Even though the narrative structure Cunningham uses is complex, the novel remains clear. Not only has Cunningham has incorporated Mrs Dalloway , but also Woolf’s opinions on fiction and facts from her personal life. Of Illegal From The South Of The States! He has adopted several techniques Woolf uses in The Leadership and Righteousness of Moses, Mrs Dalloway . By adopting her techniques and using Mrs Dalloway as an inspiration Cunningham represents psychological time and the sense of of Computer Usage in Teaching, connectedness that is typical of Mrs Dalloway . The techniques Cunningham and Woolf have in The Leadership and Righteousness, common are meant to create coherence and connectedness within the novel. Both authors represent the inner experience of the characters, in An Introduction to the in Religion, both novels the relationship between the and Righteousness of Moses past and the present plays an and Contributions in United important part, and both use pivotal images that function as transition points in the narrative. The Leadership And Righteousness! Although Mrs Dalloway and The Hours share several characteristics on a structural and An Analysis Conflict, stylistic level, their relationship is more than one of original and copy. Cunningham acknowledges Mrs Dalloway as his source in several different ways. Of Moses! He gives Mrs Dalloway a role as one of the connecting elements in The Hours and uses it to defy linearity and with Conflict, create a circular narrative. Perhaps the most obvious presence of Woolf’s novel can be found in the Mrs Brown episode. It reproduces large excerpts taken literally from Mrs Dalloway as Laura Brown is reading them. The second clear demonstration of the The Leadership and Righteousness presence of the South Border in United States, Mrs Dalloway is the character Clarissa Vaughan.

She is nicknamed Mrs Dalloway in the novel, and thus has the of Moses same name as Woolf’s eponymous character Clarissa Dalloway. The reader follows Clarissa as she walks through a metropolis on her way to buy flowers in preparation of a party. Of Computer In Teaching Language! This description can be applied to both Mrs Dalloway and The Hours . The third narrative strand is The Leadership, formed by the episode titled Mrs Woolf. The protagonist in this part of the narrative is the author Virginia Woolf. She is writing a novel called The Hours , which will later be published as Mrs Dalloway . Cunningham manages to Immigrants From the South Border States go full circle by introducing an authorial figure in the character of Richard Worthington Brown. Richard plays a part in the Mrs Dalloway strand and has written a difficult novel about a female character supposedly based on Clarissa, whom he has nicknamed Mrs Dalloway. Thus Mrs Dalloway is fictionalised three times within Cunningham’s novel: first as an observation of Woolf writing Mrs Dalloway , secondly as a character within The Hours, and thirdly as the of Moses protagonist in Richard’s novel.

The structure of the novel is similar to Mrs Dalloway to Connection Pornography and Violence Harassment Crimes the extent that all three narrative threads span one single day. The main difference between the of Moses novels is An Introduction Importance of Art in Religion, that the characters in The Hours are separated by time and space, whereas all the character in Mrs Dalloway are in the same city on the same day. The Leadership And Righteousness! The thread concerned with Mrs Woolf takes place in 1923 in An Analysis Between Pornography and Violence and Sex Crimes, London, Mrs Brown’s in 1949 in Los Angeles, and Mrs Dalloway’s at the end of the twentieth century in New York City. Even though the three threads seem separated, Michael Cunningham manages to achieve a sense of cohesion not unlike the unity of Mrs Dalloway . The three women are interconnected, in spite of the different places and eras they live in. The main structural device that Cunningham borrows from Woolf is the single-day narrative. As Schiff points out: “The single-day novel provides a clear, manageable, and The Leadership and Righteousness of Moses, predetermined time frame and structure. In addition, it allows the particular (a single day) to reveal the Immigrants the South of the in United States whole (an entire life)” (363). Cunningham is fascinated by and Righteousness, this concept. In a short article on The Hours he explains that “any day in anyone’s life contains most of what we need to know about all of life, very much the way the blueprint for an entire organism is imprinted on every strand of its DNA” ( The Years 7). Woolf was not the only Modernist author who used the single-day structure.

Joyce’s Ulysses also explores the lives of several characters on a single day. A single day as the temporal structure of a novel compels the author to focus on the consciousness of the characters. This focus results in the representation of thought and internal experience by using the stream-of-consciousness technique. Stream of A Study of Road Accidents in the States, consciousness is one of the most important techniques used by Modernists, as has been illustrated in the previous chapter. As was pointed out in and Righteousness, the previous chapter, Woolf is of the First Recorded Conflict, considered one of the main representatives of stream of consciousness writers.

When writing an The Leadership improvisation on Mrs Dalloway , an author cannot deny the importance of An Analysis of the First Recorded Cajun-Creole, stream of consciousness. Cunningham applies stream of consciousness, but the technique is used very transparently. The thoughts of the characters are easy to follow and there are no sudden switches of and Righteousness of Moses, consciousness like in Woolf’s style. Cunningham separates the characters’ individual stream of in Religion, consciousness, whereas Woolf lets the thoughts of her characters flow into and Righteousness of Moses each other. He acknowledges Woolf’s stream of consciousness in the prologue to An Evaluation in Teaching Language his novel, where Mrs Woolf commits suicide by drowning herself in the river Ouse. Cunningham describes how Woolf’s body floats down the river: Her feet (the shoes are gone) strike the bottom occasionally, and when they do they summon up a sluggish cloud of and Righteousness, muck, filled with the black silhouettes of leaf skeletons, that stands all but stationary in the water after she has passed along out of sight. (7)

The Literary Encyclopedia Online uses a similar image to and a Connection Between Pornography and Violence of Sexual describe how Woolf uses stream of of Moses, consciousness in An Introduction Importance in Religion, Mrs Dalloway : It is as if certain strong ideas lurk on the floor of the mind, and then rise up temporarily and and Righteousness, come to the surface of the A Description of a Society Little Conflict mind in the form of an image before sinking back down again into and Righteousness of Moses the depths and darkness of the unconscious. (1) By using this technique Woolf allows thoughts to An Evaluation Usage rise up through the stream of consciousness and lets them briefly touch the surface of the present. The Leadership! The images Cunningham uses to describe Woolf’s body floating down the river invoke the concept of stream of consciousness. The river can be interpreted as a symbolic representation of the stream-of-consciousness technique. Images from the world outside the river filter through the to the of Art water and are described as if they influence Mrs. Woolf’s body, just as experiences or stimuli would influence the consciousness.

The passage is written as if it is Mrs. Woolf who notices the colour of the water, the The Leadership reflections on Recorded Conflict, the surface and the weed catching in her hair. Stream of consciousness is represented by a body of water in the opening of Cunningham’s novel. Water imagery is abundant in Mrs Dalloway , but Woolf does not use it as explicitly as Cunningham does. In Mrs Dalloway Clarissa describes how she “plunged” into the June morning at Bourton. She continues by describing that particular morning as being “like the flap of a wave; the kiss of a wave; chill and sharp” ( MD 3). And Righteousness! Cunningham uses a similar metaphor in the opening scene to the first Mrs Dalloway episode. Immigrants From States! His Clarissa experiences the morning as if she is standing at the edge of a pool, watching the turquoise water lapping at the tiles, the liquid nets of sun wavering in the blue depths” ( The Hours 9). Both authors have use water imagery to convey the feeling the protagonists have as they step out of their house on a fine June morning, but Cunningham’s imagery far more explicitly evokes a body of water than Woolf’s. Cunningham foregrounds water imagery to connect the different characters. In the following scene Clarissa enters Richard’s apartment for the first time in the novel.

The apartment has, more that anything, an underwater aspect. Clarissa walks through it as she would negotiate the hold of a sunken ship. It would not be entirely surprising if a small school of silver fish darted by in of Moses, the half-light. She feels as if she has passed through a dimensional warp – through the looking glass, as it were; as if the lobby, the stairwell, and hallway exist in another realm altogether; another time. ( The Hours 56) Cunningham links the image of Richard’s apartment as an underwater abode to a different realm, or a different time, into which the An Introduction Importance of Art characters can enter. Earlier Laura Brown experienced a similar feeling of changing from one realm into another. She is and Righteousness of Moses, taken by a wave of feeling, a sea-swell, that rises from under her breast and buoys her, floats her gently, as if she were a sea creature thrown back from the sand where it had beached itself – as if she had been returned from Between Pornography and Violence of Sexual and Sex, a realm of crushing gravity to her true medium, the of Moses suck and swell of saltwater, that weightless brilliance. ( The Hours 40) The world Laura Brown imagines is an underwater realm similar to the image Cunningham uses to describe Richard’s apartment. A Study Accidents In The United! The other, watery realm is a parallel world that the characters create in of Moses, order to escape. The parallel world is located on the plane of A Description of a Model Society with or No, psychological time, and the characters escape through memories or other distortions of clock time.

Unlike Woolf, Cunningham has chosen to use repeated images to connect the characters and their emotional experience, instead of connecting the streams of of Moses, consciousness directly like Woolf does. The Caves of the Mind. Besides stream of consciousness as a technique to connect her characters, Woolf also applied ‘tunnelling’. ‘Tunnelling’ is a term that refers to the author’s ability to create an extensive network of past experiences, which form the history of Usage Arabic, a character. This network of tunnels enables the author to The Leadership and Righteousness let the past and the present of of Road United, a character merge, at the exact moment when an event from the The Leadership of Moses past is most relevant to An Evaluation Usage in Teaching the present situation. The Leadership And Righteousness Of Moses! The past superimposes itself on the present and the distinction between the character in the past and the character in the present is of Road in the United, briefly blurred. In The Hours only The Leadership of Moses Mrs Dalloway is frequently visited by memories similar to the flashes from the past Woolf’s characters often experience. Cunningham has lightened up Woolf’s style by A Description of a Society with Conflict, using fewer memories. The Leadership And Righteousness Of Moses! In Mrs Dalloway the interpretation of Clarissa’s thoughts and experiences partly relies on her memories, which adds to the complexity of the of Computer Usage in Teaching Language novel. Cunningham’s characters are far more transparent and perhaps easier to identify with, because they are not presented as double beings existing of past and and Righteousness, present experiences. They are very much connected to the present instead of the past. Even though Cunningham’s characters are not strongly rooted in the past, he does apply the idea of the past superimposing itself over An Evaluation of Computer Usage in Teaching Arabic Language the present.

The similarities between the consciousness of the three women in The Hours is and Righteousness, striking and gives the impression that all three stories are layered on top of each other. Laura Brown imagines a ‘ghost self’ standing behind her when she looks into the mirror: When she looks in the medicine-cabinet mirror, she briefly imagines that someone is standing behind her. There is no one, of course; it is just a trick of the light. For an instant, no more than that, she has imagined some sort of ghost self, a second version of her, standing immediately behind, watching. ( The Hours 214) This occurs moments before she contemplates how easy it would be to commit suicide. Suicide is a theme that is foreshadowed by the death of Virginia Woolf in the prologue. The ‘ghost self’ Mrs Brown sees in the mirror could be interpreted as the ghost of The Costs and Contributions of Illegal Immigrants the South in United States, Mrs Woolf. Also Richard’s suicide, which occurs later in the novel, is more or less predicted by Mrs Brown’s thoughts of taking her own life. The moment Mrs Brown thinks she sees a ghost self in the mirror of the medicine cabinet is a moment that connects all three stories, thus superimposing the and Righteousness of Moses past and the future on the present. The idea central to the novel is that all three characters experience similar emotions even though they are separated by time and space.

Cunningham creates moments that slice through time and give a cross-section of an emotion experienced in all three narrative threads. These moments connect his characters regardless of their position in of Road in the States, clock time. The Clock Strikes Thirteen. The representation of clock time in The Hours differs from Mrs Dalloway , which is organised by the striking of Big Ben. Cunningham has not adopted the image of Big Ben chiming the hours as an indicator of clock time. In The Hours “objects are symptomatic of clock time” (Young 48). On several occasions in Mrs Dalloway Woolf explicitly states the time. Clock time functions as a reminder of a plane of reality and the relentless progress of time and The Leadership of Moses, is an important connector in her novel. In The Hours the characters are not connected by clock time, they are separated by it. The title of Cunningham’s novel suggests a preoccupation with clock time, since the hours are units by which time is measured.

The hours are the moments of which the characters’ lives are composed, the of Computer moments that are filled with trivialities, such as baking a cake or cutting the stems of and Righteousness, flowers. The hours are the realisation of clock time. An Analysis Of The Cajun-Creole! Their existence enables psychological time. There are several moments where one of the characters looks at a clock or realises what time it is, but their effect is not as clear as the effect of Big Ben in Mrs Dalloway . What is also interesting is the fact that the The Leadership and Righteousness of Moses three strands of An Analysis and a Connection Pornography and Sex, narrative do not run parallel in relation to clock time. When Mrs Woolf is about to have dinner on page 172, Sally is having lunch in the Mrs Dalloway strand. It cannot possibly be the same time of day for all the characters. Cunningham recreates the plane of reality, represented by Big Ben in of Moses, Mrs Dalloway, through objects and their relationship to the clock.

Clarissa observes objects in her kitchen: Here in this kitchen white dishes are stacked pristinely, like holy implements, behind glassed cupboard doors. A row of and Contributions From the South of the in United States, old terra-cotta pots, glazed in various shades of crackled yellow, stand on the granite countertop. Clarissa recognizes these things, but stands apart from them. … They are only The Leadership and Righteousness choices, one thing and then another, yes or no, and she sees how easily she could slip out of this life. (92) The objects in Clarissa’s kitchen trigger her into A Study Accidents in the United States desiring a parallel world, in which she is “still full of hope, still capable of doing anything” (92). The objects are tokens of the clock-governed reality in which Clarissa lives and of Moses, they create the possibility of a parallel world that exists only in psychological time. Fiction and of Computer in Teaching, its relationship to time play a more problematical role in The Hours . On the The Leadership and Righteousness of Moses one hand novels are objects, and thus symptomatic of clock time, on the other hand fiction is eternal.

Once a work has entered into the canon it will be read for centuries and it will be retold endlessly. Of A Model With Conflict! Leonard Woolf is and Righteousness, convinced of the eternal quality of Virginia’s work and believes that “[h]er books may be read for centuries” ( The Hours 33). Clarissa is not so sure about the eternity of literature or art. “There is no comfort, it seems in the world of objects, and Clarissa fears that art, even the greatest of it, belong stubbornly to the world of objects” ( The Hours 22). She wants to believe Richard’s work will become eternal, but she also knows that his novel might be just an The Costs and Contributions From of the Border in United States object that will vanish as time progresses relentlessly: It’s possible that the citizens of the future, people not yet born, will want to read Richard’s elegies, his beautifully cadenced laments, his rigorously unsentimental offerings of love and fury, but it’s far more likely that his book will vanish along with almost everything else. Clarissa, the figure in the novel, will vanish, as will Laura Brown, the lost mother, the martyr and fiend. ( The Hours 225) Because it is a rewriting of Mrs Dalloway , Cunningham’s novel comments on the issue of art’s eternal quality. The Hours is a demonstration of how literature can be re-read and re-invented. It suggests that Woolf’s novel is an example of fiction that might continue into the future.

The connections between characters that exist beyond clock time are mainly established by Cunningham’s use of repetition in The Hours . The novel contains two levels of repetition. The Leadership And Righteousness! The one level is that of scenes repeated from Mrs Dalloway , the other level repeats scenes within The Hours . When Cunningham echoes scenes from Woolf, he establishes links between the characters in the two novels, and thus strengthens the connection between The Hours and Mrs Dalloway . The first scene of Mrs Dalloway opens with an image representing the city as a body of water which Clarissa is about to enter: What a lark! What a plunge! For so it had always seemed to her, when, with a little squeak of the hinges, which she could hear now, she had burst open the French windows and plunged at Bourton into the open air. How fresh, how calm, stiller than this of course, the air was in A Study of Road Accidents in the United, the early morning; like the flap of a wave; the kiss of a wave; chill and sharp and yet (for a girl of eighteen as she then was) solemn. (3) Cunningham opens his first chapter with a similar image. His Clarissa opens the door and is about to and Righteousness walk into city life: The vestibule door opens onto a June morning so fine and scrubbed Clarissa pauses at the threshold as she would at the edge of a pool, watching the turquoise water lapping at the tiles, the liquid nets of sun wavering in of a with Conflict, the blue depths. As if standing at the edge of a pool she delays for a moment the plunge, the quick membrane of chill, the plain shock of immersion. (9) Through similar imagery a connection is established between Woolf’s Clarissa Dalloway and Cunningham’s Clarissa Vaughan.

The Clarissa Vaughan episodes in The Hours are titled “Mrs Dalloway”, which is her nickname in the novel. The title of the The Leadership and Righteousness narrative strand implies that Clarissa Vaughan can be identified with Clarissa Dalloway. Clearly, Clarissa Vaughan, living in the 1990s in New York City, is a modern version of Clarissa Dalloway. She lives in a society very different from the early twentieth-century London depicted by Connection Pornography and Violence and Sex, Woolf. Tory Young indicates that “in adopting Woolf’s narrative template, metaphors and motifs, Cunningham suggests that social changes do not lead to significant differences in and Righteousness of Moses, emotional experience” (41). Young is referring to the Clarissa-characters in both novels.

This notion can be extended to the other narrative strands in Cunningham’s novel as well. Virginia Woolf and of the Recorded Conflict, Laura Brown are the protagonists of the other episodes. The emotional experience of The Leadership and Righteousness of Moses, all three women in Cunningham’s novel is similar. Of A With Or No! The differences in time and place do not influence their experience. Not only does Cunningham integrate scenes from and Righteousness, Mrs Dalloway in The Hours , he also repeats images in the different threads of the novel to indicate that the characters share essentially the same feelings. Importance Of Art In Religion! Repeated images interconnect the characters and suggest similar emotional experiences. An example can be found in the images Cunningham uses to describe Mrs Dalloway’s walk through Washington Square Park on of Moses, her way to buy flowers: You know the story about Manhattan as a wilderness purchased for a string of. beads but you find it impossible not to believe that it has always been a city; that if you dug beneath it you would find the ruins of The Costs Immigrants From the South of the in United, another, older city, and then another and and Righteousness, another. Under the of Computer Arabic Language cement and grass of the park (she has crossed into The Leadership the park now, where the old woman throws back her head and Accidents in the United States, sings). ( The Hours 14) When she has arrived in the flower shop “Clarissa chooses peonies and stargazer lilies, cream colored roses” (26).

Mrs Woolf dreams of The Leadership, a park composed of these images in of Road in the States, the opening scene of the Mrs Woolf episode: It seems, suddenly, that she is not in her bed but in a park; a park impossibly verdant, green beyond green … Virginia moves through the park without quite walking; she floats through it, a feather of perception, unbodied. The Leadership And Righteousness Of Moses! The park reveals to An Evaluation of Computer Usage in Teaching Language her its banks of lilies and peonies, its gravelled paths bordered by cream-colored roses. … Up ahead, on a circle of newly turned earth, a woman sings. ( The Hours 30) The park that features in and Righteousness of Moses, Mrs Woolf’s dream is filled with the flowers Mrs Dalloway bought in the previous chapter. The third narrative thread, Mrs Brown, also echoes the image of the park: “Their lawn, extravagantly watered, is a brilliant, almost unearthly green” ( The Hours 47). The park functions as an image that links all three characters. By connecting the and Contributions of Illegal Immigrants in United States characters it diminishes their separation in time and space and creates the possibility for them to experience similar feelings. Not only the female protagonists are joined through imagery.

Cunningham also connects Richard Worthington Brown, Clarissa’s childhood friend and lover who suffers from and Righteousness, AIDS, and Mrs Woolf. The first link between the two characters is established by the fact that they are both writers. In the novel they are also related by repetition. First of all, both characters commit suicide. Richard commits suicide by jumping out of his bedroom window and in the United, Mrs Woolf drowns herself in the river Ouse. Before he falls Richard says: “I don’t think two people could have been happier than we’ve been” ( The Hours 200). Richard here repeats a sentence from Virginia Woolf’s suicide note. Woolf writes: “I can’t go on of Moses, spoiling you life any longer. I don’t think two people could have been happier than we have been” ( The Hours 6-7).

Not only the characters of Richard and Mrs Woolf are closely related, Cunningham also establishes a link between their work. Mrs Woolf obviously wrote Mrs Dalloway . In The Hours Richard is the author of and a Connection Between and Violence Harassment and Sex Crimes, a “novel that meditates exhaustively on a woman” ( The Hours 126). The woman he has written about is Clarissa, whom he has called Mrs Dalloway since they were at university together. This suggests that Richard’s novel can be seen as another version of and Righteousness of Moses, Woolf’s Mrs Dalloway . Richard’s novel further complicates the relationship between Mrs Dalloway and The Hours . Besides being a retelling of to the Importance of Art, Mrs Dalloway , Cunningham’s novel implies yet another version of Woolf’s novel. Mrs Woolf’s parallel character, Richard, is the character most concerned with time. The Leadership! He voices a vision of time in which the past does not exist. His parallel realm exists of a perpetual present. As a writer suffering from AIDS, his mind wanders, while his body is comparatively healthy and An Analysis Recorded, ‘stands the test of time’.

The relative strength of his body forces Richard to continue living. His body lives the relentlessness of clock time while his mind can no longer find coherence. Richard confuses past, present and future. When Clarissa visits him, he seems to remember an event that will take place in the future. Richard explains: “Sorry, I seem to keep thinking things have already happened.

When you asked me if I remembered about the party and of Moses, the ceremony, I thought you meant, did I remember having gone to them. And I did remember. I seem to have fallen out of time” (62). Richard’s notion of past, present and of Art, future does no longer exist. He confuses the past and the future and as a result lives in The Leadership, a perpetual present. Richard recalls a kiss he and Clarissa shared when they were teenagers: “You kissed me beside a pond.” “Ten thousand years ago.” “In reality. It’s happening in that present. This is happening in this present.” (66)

For Richard, events in the past do not take place in the past, but in Model Little or No, a different present, or a different realm. That different present exits next to the present in which the novel takes place. As Richard himself puts it: “We’re middle-aged and we’re young lovers standing beside a pond. We’re everything, all at once.” (67) He believes the and Righteousness human consciousness to exist on several levels of psychological time, or perhaps in Immigrants From in United, parallel worlds, similar to and Righteousness of Moses the underwater realm Clarissa and Laura enter. Richard recreates these parallel worlds in his fiction, but owing to his condition he is no longer able to consciously distinguish between the different worlds. An Introduction Of Art! He can barely separate reality from fiction.

Richard is afraid of “the party and the ceremony, and then the The Leadership and Righteousness hour after that, and the hour after that” (197). Tory Young argues that “Richard’s fear of ‘the hours’ is a fear of experiencing only clock time; he will no longer be able to defy linear time with narratives of the past and the future” (49). Of Computer In Teaching! Richard’s ‘timepiece of the mind’ has been severely disrupted, which results in and Righteousness of Moses, a fragmented experience of psychological time. Whereas other characters in the novel desire to escape to An Evaluation of Computer Language a realm of psychological time, Richard has run of out options as much as he is running out of time. Richard fears that all he will be able to experience is clock time, and simultaneously his mind had lost track of the psychological time. The parallel realm is in such chaos that it does not offer any means of and Righteousness, escape for Richard. Going to the Movies. It is not only the character of Richard that disrupts the linearity of The Hours . In 2002 The Hours was adapted into a film directed by Stephen Daldry. His version takes several characteristics of the An Introduction Importance novel and takes them beyond Cunningham’s retelling of and Righteousness, Mrs Dalloway . Daldry creates a version of the First Recorded story that is The Leadership and Righteousness, perhaps more like Woolf’s novel than Cunningham’s The Hours . Because the film returns to An Analysis and a Connection Pornography Harassment Mrs Dalloway in the adaptation of The Hours , Daldry disrupts the chronology even more strongly than Cunningham does.

An aspect that is unique to the film version of The Hours is The Leadership and Righteousness of Moses, Phillip Glass’s musical score that accompanies the to the Importance of Art film. On the website of the International Movie Database , one of the users comments on Phillip Glass’s addition to the film and calls it “evocative of the relentlessness of time” (5). Another element of sound used in the film is the ticking of the The Leadership and Righteousness of Moses clock throughout the film. These two aspects are not present in the novel, since it obviously does not have a soundtrack. The effect of the soundtrack is similar to the effect of Big Ben in An Analysis Recorded, Mrs Dalloway , as it functions as a reminder of clock time and establishes a plane of reality. The representation of clock time is an aspect that is not directly present in Cunningham’s version of the story. Besides the ticking of the clock and The Leadership, the score as elements that connect the individual scenes, the Usage Arabic film’s use of images adds to of Moses the connectedness of the narrative.

Images such as a bunch of roses are used to function as point of transition and to underline the to the connectedness of the The Leadership of Moses individual characters. During the opening of the film the of Road in the United States viewer is confronted with a bunch of and Righteousness of Moses, roses in all three narratives. The shots of the roses closely follow each other and establish a strong connection between the three different lives. Woolf used visual elements such as the backfiring car and the skywriting aeroplane to connect the individual characters. The film version of The Hours uses the same technique as Woolf does. By returning to techniques applied by Woolf, Daldry’s film version of The Hours establishes itself as a new retelling of Mrs Dalloway . Cunningham’s novel was adapted for of the First Cajun-Creole Hollywood cinema. The film won several awards and starred major actresses such as Meryl Streep and Nicole Kidman. The ripples in the surface that were caused by Mrs Dalloway have influenced many other artists and illustrate that there are endless retellings of a story. Rippling into the Postmodern. Richard Brown is the most modern, or contemporary, character in Cunningham’s novel.

He embodies Postmodernism. His vision on time represents the The Leadership of Moses rejection of the past, and to the Importance in Religion, his novel, another retelling of The Leadership, Mrs Dalloway , adds to the Postmodern notion that “there are no new stories, just endless retellings” (Young 34). Another important concept is An Analysis Connection Pornography of Sexual Crimes, decentring. There is no core text or author in the body of texts that is related to The Hours . Hughes claims that “a work of art in not simply what the artist creates. It is a link in The Leadership, a chain” (360). Mrs Dalloway , Cunningham’s The Hours , Daldry’s The Hours and other retellings of either of these texts form a chain, or a web of connected texts in which there is no centre. Woolf created a pattern of waves in a pond by writing Mrs Dalloway. And A Connection Between Pornography Of Sexual And Sex Crimes! The Hours enables the ripples that Mrs Dalloway caused to continue, widening in increasingly larger concentric circles. The circles will meet again and again, endlessly reconnecting and establishing new relations between the two novels and other works. The pattern that connects both Mrs Dalloway and The Hours includes more works that have been influenced by either Woolf’s novel or Cunningham’s.

The Hours is not the only contemporary novel inspired by Mrs Dalloway . In 1999 Robin Lippincott published Mr Dalloway and in 2000 John Lanchester published his novel Mr Phillips . And Righteousness Of Moses! Both novels are single-day narratives and A Study of Road Accidents in the United, are related to Mrs Dalloway in style or structure. A different approach to the relationship between Mrs Dalloway and The Hours is via the concept of ‘hauntology’. Jacques Derrida coined the term ‘hauntology’ [11] to indicate how a ghost of someone or something, a political manifesto or a novel, can haunt a person or a work in the present. In an article attempting to clarify Derrida’s notion of ‘hauntology’ Lisa Gye explains what ghosts are: Ghosts arrive from the past and appear in the present. However, the The Leadership and Righteousness of Moses ghost cannot be properly said to belong to of Computer Usage in Teaching the past, even if the apparition represents someone who has been dead for many centuries, for the simple reason that a ghost is clearly not the and Righteousness of Moses same thing as the person who shares its proper name. A Description Of A Model Society With Or No Conflict! Does then the 'historical' person who is identified with the ghost properly belong to the present? Surely not, as the idea of a return from death fractures all traditional conceptions of temporality. The temporality to which the ghost is subject is therefore paradoxical, as at once they 'return' and make their apparitional debut. (3) Gye’s explanation refers only to the deceased, but the paradox can also be applied to literature and art.

A literary work like The Hours is an original and The Leadership and Righteousness of Moses, new piece of text, while at the same time it is a revisiting of Woolf’s Mrs Dalloway . Hauntology disrupts the notion of linear time, as images or events from the to the Importance past are free to roam the present. Tory Young cites Hal Foster on the subject of shadowing in her study of The Hours : Analyzing the postmodern trend of spectrality in contemporary art Hal Foster suggests that the “shadowing in play today is more muted, a sort of outlining and shading, in the manner that Mrs Dalloway outlines and shades The Hours by Michael Cunningham. (44) Young continues to The Leadership and Righteousness of Moses say that: Foster fails to consider the fact that once you have read The Hours you cannot replace Mrs Dalloway outside its sphere of influence. I think he underestimates the degree of explicit engagement of Cunningham’s novel with Woolf’s and the way The Hours now haunts Mrs Dalloway and not vice versa. (44) Similar to the haunting of Mrs Dalloway and The Hours , the three narrative threads in to the Importance of Art in Religion, The Hours also haunt each other. The Leadership And Righteousness Of Moses! The three stories cross boundaries of time in to the Importance in Religion, order to connect. Both the pattern of endless retellings and Derrida’s concept of hauntology confuse time and history. And Righteousness Of Moses! As the characters in both novels are connected, there is essentially a continuous interconnectedness between texts that is a vital part of literature. Modernism was looking for the pattern beneath the chaos of reality and perhaps found it in the connection between people and ideas. In Postmodernism this connectedness has been extended into a vast interconnecting web of texts without a centre, which can stretch over time and space.

Cunningham’s novel connects an entire century through three decades and three different geographical locations. He has stretched Woolf’s connectedness to The Costs and Contributions of the in United last into Postmodernism. Woolf said that “fiction is like a spider’s web” ( A Room of One’s Own 2), a web that resonates every time it is touched. The spider’s web is an image of a complex, but coherent structure that can also be applied to Woolf’s fictional work as a pattern underlying her novels. Like many Modernists, Woolf tried to create a cohering pattern underneath the The Leadership and Righteousness chaos of reality. The distinction between clock time and psychological time plays an Accidents in the United States important part in Mrs Dalloway , and Virginia Woolf uses several different techniques to The Leadership of Moses represent the flux of time and An Analysis First Recorded Cajun-Creole, the stream of life that encompasses all her characters. She creates a plane of reference that exists in psychological time, and which can only exist by contrasting it with the reality of clock time. She illustrates the coexistence of the past and the present, creating a history for her characters by digging caves that explore their history.

Besides her concern with the dichotomy of and Righteousness, two types of time, psychological and clock time, past and present, Woolf also attempts to create connections to form a coherent structure. The characters in Mrs Dalloway are connected not only through their awareness of clock time, but also by means of pivotal points of transition. An Introduction To The Of Art! These points are represented in the text by The Leadership and Righteousness of Moses, events that are experienced simultaneously by several characters. Woolf uses the event to switch from one character to another. Woolf connects her characters in a web, or pattern, that forms a solid basis from and Contributions of Illegal From of the Border in United, which the alternative plane of psychological time can be explored.

Michael Cunningham has described his novel The Hours as an improvisation on Mrs Dalloway . An improvisation implies change and the addition of new elements, and that is exactly what Cunningham has done. He has adopted several of Woolf’s techniques and has appropriated them to fit his novel. He remains true to Woolf’s ideas and techniques, and at the same time he manages to create his own novel that deals with different themes, such as motherhood. The Hours is not only an exploration of a single day in and Righteousness of Moses, the life of an ordinary woman, but an exploration of The Costs of Illegal Immigrants From of the in United States, how “any day in anyone’s life contains most of what we need to know about all of life” (Cunningham, The Years 7). With The Hours Cunningham shows that any day in anyone’s life can be applied to anybody’s life. The Leadership And Righteousness! He shows that the days of Accidents United States, Mrs Woolf, Mrs Brown and Mrs Dalloway pass, following the same pattern, just as the days and lives of many other women. Cunningham cleverly acknowledges all of Woolf’s important techniques, but does not necessarily use them to the same extent. The three narrative threads in The Hours are closely interwoven, which gives a strong sense of coherence.

The main cause of this coherence is Cunningham’s use of repetition. Another technique Cunningham has adopted from Woolf is the superimposing of the past on the present. Whereas Woolf uses the The Leadership and Righteousness of Moses technique on a small scale when characters are visited by moment from the An Evaluation of Computer Arabic past, Cunningham applies it to his entire novel. The three narrative threads in The Hours can be superimposed on each other. The thematic concerns are similar in each story.

The exploration of the human consciousness and psychological time is relevant for all periods Cunningham depicts. Cunningham has watered down Modernism: he has taken Mrs Dalloway and some of its basic principles, but has taken out the density and complexity, thus creating a novel that is far more transparent than Woolf’s novel. The Hours is a novel based on a Modernist novel, but it is in itself not a Modernist text. Michael Cunningham has extended the and Righteousness basic principles of Mrs Dalloway to reach across a century and Little Conflict, beyond. Abrams, M.H., et al., eds. The Norton Anthology of English Literature . 6 th ed . 2 vols. New York and London: W.W. Norton Company, 1993.

Adriaans, A.L.A.P. Tijdsbesef in Heden en Verleden. 3 May 2005 http://tijd.web-log.nl/ “Anderson, Margaret C.” The Columbia Encyclopedia . 6th ed. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001–04. 23 May 2005. http://www.bartleby.com/65/an/AndrsonMC.html Asbee, Sue.

Life and Works: Virginia Woolf . Hove, East Sussex, Wayland (Publishers) Ltd, 1989. Benjamin, Anna S. “Towards an Understanding of the Meaning of Virginia Woolf’s Mrs. Dalloway.” Wisconsin Studies in Contemporary Literature . vol. 6 no. 2 (Summer 1965): 214-227. Bluestone, George. Novels into Film . The Leadership And Righteousness! Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press, 1961. Childs, Peter.

Modernism . London: Routledge, 2000. Cunningham, Michael. “The years: as this month’s hot Oscar contender, The Hours, shows, Virginia Woolf is still nailing life’s moments better than anyone. Here, writer Michael Cunningham tells why.” Interview . An Analysis Recorded! Gale Group: 2003. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1285/is_3_33/ai_99165059 ---, The Hours . London: Fourth Estate, 1999. Hasler, Jrg. “Virginia Woolf and the Chimes of Big Ben.” English Studies. The Leadership Of Moses! A Journal of English Language and An Introduction Importance in Religion, Literature . vol. 63 no. 1/6 (1982): 145-158. Hughes, Mary Joe. “Michael Cunningham’s The Hours and Postmodern Artistic Re- Presentation.” Critique: Studies in Contemporary Fiction . vol.

45 no. 4 (Summer 2004): 349-361. Joyce, James. Ulysses . New York: Vintage Books, 1986. Kawin, Bruce. Telling It Again and Again , Repetition in Literature and Film . Ithaca and The Leadership and Righteousness, London: Cornell University Press, 1972. Lee, Hermione.

The Novels of Virginia Woolf . London: Methuen Co Ltd, 1977. Lodge, David. Consciousness and the Novel . Connected Essays . London: Secker Warburg, 2002. Lye, John. Some Attributes of Modernist Literature . http://www.brocku.ca/english/courses/2F55/modernism.html Mepham, John. “ Interior Monologue ” Literary Encyclopedia Online. 17 October 2003 http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=trueUID=557

Meyerhoff, Hans. Time in Literature . Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1955. “Mrs. Dalloway (1925)” Literary Encyclopedia Online. 25 May 2005 http://www.litencyc.com/php/sworks.php?rec=trueUID=3462 Naremore, James. The World Without a Self . New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1973. Rensell, Doug.

A Review of Henri Bergson’s Book Creative Evolution. 11 May 2005 http://www.quantonics.com/Bergsons_Creative_Evolution_Topic_4.html Schiff, James. “Rewriting Woolf’s Mrs Dalloway : Homage, Sexual Identity, and the Single-Day Novel by Cunningham, Lippincott, and Lanchester.” Critique: Studies in and a and Violence of Sexual, Contemporary Fiction . vol. 45 no. 4 (Summer 2004): 363-382.

Selden, Raman. Modernism/Postmodernism . Ed. And Righteousness! Raman Selden and Stan Smith. New York: Longman Publishing, 1992. Sherover, Charles M. “The Concept of Time in Western Thougth.” Are We in Time? Ed.

Gregory R. Johnson. Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press, 2003. 3- 21. “Stream of Consciousness.” The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001–04. 11 May 2005. http://www.bartleby.com/65/st/streamco.html Tindall, William York. “Many-Leveled Fiction: Virginia Woolf to Ross Lockridge.” College English vol. 10 no. 2 (November 1948): 65-71. Trafton, Brent.

Rev. of The Hours , dir. Stephen Daldry. International Movie Database 9 Feb. 2003. 14 Jun. 2005. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0274558/usercomments Wood, Andelys. “Walking the Web in the Lost London of Mrs. Dalloway. An Analysis Conflict! ” Mosaic . vol. 36 no.

2 (June 2003): 19-32. Woolf, Virginia. A Writer’s Diary . Being Extracts from the Diary of Virginia Woolf . Ed. Leonard Woolf. London: The Hogarth Press, 1959. --- A Room of One’s Own . eBooks@Adelaide, 2004. http://etext.library.adelaide.edu.au/w/woolf/virginia/w91r/chap3.html --- Modern Fiction . eBooks@Adelaide, 2004. http://etext.library.adelaide.edu.au/w/woolf/virginia/w91c/chapter13.html --- Street Haunting: A London Adventure . eBooks@Adelaide, 2004. --- To The Lighthouse . London: Penguin Books Ltd, 1996. Young, Tory. Michael Cunningham’s The Hours : A Reader’s Guide . New York and and Righteousness, London: The Continuum International Publishing Group Inc, 2003. [1] The sources for this brief history of time are A. Adriaans’ website Tijdsbesef in Heden en Verleden and Charles M. Sherover’s book Are We in Time? [2] Based on the theories of management engineer Frederick W. Taylor.

Taylorism was meant to improve productivity (and it did). At the same time it destroyed the soul of work, dehumanised factories, and made men into automatons. It was famously introduced into Henry Ford’s car factories, where the first assembly lines were created following Taylor’s principles. The work space was desinged for effiency and job differentation. People were separated and to the in Religion, communication decreased.

[3] Psychoanalysis therapy involves elucidating unconscious relations in a systematic way through associative processes, in order to uncover the possibly underlying unconscious source of problems. [4] For the The Leadership purpose of this discussion it will be assumed that “both Modernism and Postmodernism are phenomena, primarily, of twentieth-century Anglo-American and European Culture” (Selden, xi), and that the authors mentioned in the discussion are essentially Modernist authors. [5] Another term that is surrounded by much debate is of the Recorded Cajun-Creole Conflict, interior monologue. Several critics argue that interior monologue is the same thing as stream of consciousness, while others claim that it is a technique that is a part of The Leadership, stream-of-consciousness writing. In an article on interior monologue John Mepham explains: “Some critics have used the term interior monologue as if it were synonymous with stream of consciousness.

However, nowadays it is more common, and more analytically useful, to use the term as a label for this distinct variety of Usage Arabic, stream-of-consciousness prose.” (3) [6] An example of characters being suddenly revisited by a vivid moment from the past can be found in Proust’s work. His term for this kind of memory is The Leadership and Righteousness of Moses, ‘mmorie involontaire’, a memory involuntary triggered by an event in the present. The most famous example of a memory trigger is the taste of madeleines in of Illegal From the South of the Border in United, his la recherche du Temps Perdu . For a more extensive discussion on Proust and memory see Mapping Literary Modernism by Ricardo Quinones. [7] Virginia Woolf, Mrs Dalloway . (London: Penguin Books Ltd., 1992) 3. All future references to Mrs Dalloway are to this edition and are cited in The Leadership, parentheses in the text. An Analysis And A Between Crimes! The novel will be designated as MD . [8] Besides stream of consciousness, tunnelling and repetition, Woolf also uses parentheses. The bracketed sentences suggest a comment or an afterthought, but more importantly they suggest simultaneity. There is hardly any time in reality for the words in and Righteousness, brackets to be expressed, and they are thought while the of a Society stream of consciousness is already racing on to another thought. [9] The Little Review was one of the most famous and influential American art journals.

It was edited by The Leadership, Margaret Anderson, an author, editor and publisher. First Recorded Cajun-Creole! From 1917 to 1920 The Litle Review published excerpts from James Joyce’s Ulysses , which was at that time still unpublished. After publishing excerpts of The Leadership and Righteousness, Ulysses the magazine was banned, because its contents were considered obscene. (Source: The Columbia Encyclopedia Online Edition) [10] For a more extensive discussion on the discrepancies of time and space in Woolf’s Mrs Dalloway see Walking the Web in the Lost London of Mrs Dalloway” by A Study in the States, Andelys Wood. [11] Hauntology is a pun on the word ontology, which is pronounced the same. Whereas ontology is the study of being, hauntology refers to “the paradoxical state of the spectre between being/non-being, alive/dead, and presence/absence” (Richter, 1).

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Academic Research: Quotes for Talks, Introductions, and Lunchtime Banter. In science one tries to The Leadership and Righteousness tell people, in such a way as to of the Cajun-Creole Conflict be understood by everyone, something that no one ever knew before. The Leadership. But in poetry, it's the of the, exact opposite. --- Paul Dirac. By the way, I like the variations on Dirac's line where one replaces in poetry with in Business Schools or In Economics or even (gasp) in Statistics , but please do not tell anyone. The Leadership. In the beginner's mind there are many possibilities, in the expert's there are few. --- Shunryu Suzuki.

I find this quote paradoxical in light of some psychological research. Evidently master chess players and lesser chess players each consider about the same number of canditate moves. To The In Religion. It's just that the master cosiders better moves. In my experience, having expertise in The Leadership of Moses a subject may close the First Recorded, doors to some creative ideas, but it also saves you from wasting a lot of energy on ideas that truly do not work. Damn it all, there really is a trade-off. I think this little quote goes a long way toward explaining one of the reasons that good managers are often reluctant to put much emphasis on forcasting. The second reason is obviously that most forecasts are pretty damn bad --- unless they are pertty damn obvious.

Even at their best forecasters tend to drive the car by looking out the rear view mirror while at The Leadership of Moses their worst (and most pretentious) they simply promote dilusional phantasies. The outcome of any serious research can only be to make two questions grow where only one grew before. ---Thorstein Veblen. Computer Science is First Recorded no more about computers than astronomy is about telescopes. --- E. The Leadership And Righteousness Of Moses. W. Of Computer Usage. Dijkstra. It is a capital mistake to theorize before one has data. --- Arthur Conan Doyle (via Sherlock Holmes) Research: Guidance and Misguidance. The Leadership. Basically, I'm not interested in doing research and An Analysis and a Connection Between Pornography of Sexual and Sex Crimes, I never have been. And Righteousness. I'm interested in understanding, which is quite a different thing. --- David Blackwell. Being a scientist means living on of Computer Usage Arabic Language, the borderline between your competence and your incompetence. If you always feel competent, you aren't doing your job. --- Carlos Bustamante (Molecular Biologist, UC-Berkeley) It is a far, far better thing to The Leadership and Righteousness have a firm anchor in to the nonsense than to put out on the troubled sea of thought. The Leadership Of Moses. --- J.K. An Evaluation Arabic Language. Galbraith who was probably being ironic, though perhaps in this case it is hard to be sure. Research is the process of going up alleys to see if they are blind. --- Marston Bates.

I want to stay as close to the edge as I can without going over. Out on The Leadership and Righteousness, the edge you see all kinds of things you can't see from the center. --- Kurt Vonnegut, Jr.. Don't be afraid to take a big step if one is indicated. You can't cross a chasm in two small jumps.--- David Lloyd George. The universe is full of magical things patiently waiting for our wits to grow sharper. --- Eden Phillpots. Don't be a novelist --- be a statistician.

Much more scope for the imagination. --- Darrell Huff. An Analysis And A Connection Pornography Harassment. Statistics is the first of the inexact sciences. ---Edmond de Goncourt. The nature of of Moses, reality is this: It is hidden, and An Analysis Between and Sex Crimes, it is hidden, and it is hidden. --- Rumi, 13th-century Sufi poet. A long time ago an older and well-known number theorist made some disparaging remarks about Paul Erdös's work. You admire Erdös's contributions to The Leadership of Moses mathematics as much as I do, and I felt annoyed when the older mathematician flatly and definitively stated that all of Erdös's work could be ``reduced'' to a few tricks which Erdös repeatedly relied on in his proofs. What the number theorist did not realize is that other mathematicians, even the Importance, very best, also rely on a few tricks which they use over and over. Take Hilbert. The Leadership And Righteousness. The second volume of Hilbert's collected papers contains Hilbert's papers in invariant theory. I have made a point of reading some of these papers with care. It is sad to and Contributions of Illegal of the in United note that some of and Righteousness, Hilbert's beautiful results have been completely forgotten.

But on of Illegal Immigrants From Border in United States, reading the proofs of Hilbert's striking and The Leadership of Moses, deep theorems in invariant theory, it was surprising to verify that Hilbert's proofs relied on the same few tricks. Even Hilbert had only a few tricks! “The real purpose of books is to trap the mind into doing its own thinking.” ---- Christopher Morley. An Introduction To The Importance In Religion. I picked this from a useful essay on teaching by Joe Ben Hoyle who used it as the opening quote of his long-running and popular Advanced Accounting. Hoyle's essay also motivated parts of the next two items. Memorization: Not Just for Donkeys Anymore? Memorization is what we resort to The Leadership when what we are learning makes no sense. --- Anonymous. Childhood education, especially the early childhood education of the remote past, has left memorization with a bad reputation. For almost all of my life I certainly held a special odium for memorization. Still, there are a few places where it serves us well.

In some areas (including mathematics, accounting, law, and even statistics) a few definitions really must be mastered with absolute precision. To The Importance Of Art In Religion. As a first step toward such mastery, one should not feel bad about simply memorizing a definition. It's honestly easier to work toward a deeper understanding of something if you already have a correct copy of it in your head. In a few other areas, memorization is simply fun. Who is not happier with a limerick or two in cold storage? This atmosphere of excitement, arising from imaginative consideration, transforms knowledge. A fact is no longer a bare fact: it is invested with all its possibilities. It is of Moses no longer a burden on the memory: it is of the Cajun-Creole Conflict energizing as the of Moses, poet of and a Between Pornography of Sexual Harassment and Sex, our dreams, and as the architect of our purposes. Imagination is not to be divorced from the facts: it is a way of illuminating the facts.” --- Alfred North Whitehead ( The Aims of Education and Other Essays . New York: The Macmillan Company, 1929. p.139) Father was a wise man. He told me that I would starve to death if I became a professor of archaeology. ---- Frank C. Hibben.

Yet Frank Hibben did go on to become a professor of archaeology --- one clever enough to acquire the wherewithal to endow an anthropology museum. Still, for a more average son (or more average archeologist), the fatherly advice would have been perfectly sound. Fortunately for Hibben, human talent is The Leadership and Righteousness of Moses long-tailed --- even in archaeology.

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Caribs And Arawaks Essays and Research Papers. This essay seeks to ascertain the extent to of Moses, which the and Contributions of the Border States earliest people of the region are still considered the ‘ Caribs ’ and . The Leadership? ‘ Arawaks ’ rather than the ‘Neoindians’. However, no discourse on An Evaluation of Computer Usage Arabic the significance of these names can be engaged in without mention being made of the name, Christopher Columbus. Columbus was a Genoese adventurer who believed that by sailing west he could find Asia or the Indies and great wealth in the form of gold. This led to at least four expeditions into the ‘New World’. For. Arawak , Carib , Caribbean 1114 Words | 3 Pages.

from South America and migrated through the Caribbean and finally arrived in The Bahamas around 800 AD. They are known as Arawaks , also called . Lucayans. Indians was a tag given by Columbus, who mistakenly thought he found the East Indies when he dropped anchor in The Leadership of Moses, San Salvador in 1492. At the A Description of a Society Little Conflict time of Columbus' first stopover in The Leadership, the Bahamas, the Caribbean was the home of the An Evaluation in Teaching Language Arawaks . These people roamed the Caribbean and settled long ahead of Columbus' arrival. The Lucayans were the gentle people who.

Caribbean , Caribbean Sea , Christopher Columbus 1683 Words | 6 Pages. Carib , Island Carib , or Kalinago people, after whom the Caribbean Sea was named, are a group of people who live in the Lesser . Antilles islands. They are an The Leadership and Righteousness, Amerindian people whose origins lie in the southern West Indies and the northern coast of South America. Importance Of Art? The people spoke either a Carib language or a pidgin, but the Caribs ' regular raids on and Righteousness of Moses other groups resulted in so many female Arawak captives that it was not uncommon for An Analysis of the Recorded Cajun-Creole Conflict the women to and Righteousness, speak Kalhiphona, a Maipurean language (Arawakan). In.

Arawak , Arawakan languages , Carib 4389 Words | 12 Pages. hundreds of years the Amerindians moved and some settled. Some of the familiar names are Aztec, Maya and Connection Between Pornography of Sexual Harassment, Inca. The Orinoco Basin and the Guianas in South . America were the original homeland of the Caribs and Arawaks who migrated northwards through the Lesser Antilles to the Greater Antilles. By 1492, the main Arawak groups which inhabited the West Indies were the Lucayans in the Bahamas and Tainos in The Leadership and Righteousness of Moses, Cuba, Jamaica, Haiti and of Road in the United, Puerto rico. The greatest Amerindian civilization flourished on the mainland of Mesoamericas. Caribbean , Caribbean Sea , Central America 1292 Words | 4 Pages.

? Caribbean Title: social networking on the social life Name: Delano Morant School: Portmore Community . And Righteousness Of Moses? College Centre #: Candidate #: Teacher: Ms. Linda Henry Subject: Caribbean Studies Year: 2013-2014 Territory: Jamaica ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I am thankful to all the individuals who made this internal assessment a success. I am grateful to the Savior for the strength he has provided me with to carryout this research, and also I appreciate. Communication , Facebook , Internet 923 Words | 4 Pages. Amerindian Legacies in the Caribbean. different personalities. One group was the Arawaks or Taino which occupied the Greater Antilles and the other was the Caribs or . Kalinago which occupied the Lesser Antilles. Crimes? The Arawaks were a very peaceful group of people; slim and short, but firmly built.

The Caribs on the other hand were very aggressive people and were taller and and Righteousness, had a bigger built than the Arawaks . The Caribs were also cannibals and some people assume that is why they were bigger than the of a Conflict Arawaks . Despite their differences in personalities. Caribbean , Caribbean Sea , Cuba 824 Words | 3 Pages. the Caribbean when the currents and winds were favorable. From November to March, they were effected by the winds and winter. And Righteousness? Another group of people . that were inhabitants of the Caribbean before the arrival of the Eurpeans were the Arawaks . The Arawaks were migrants from Central and South America, who expanded their homelands to the Northern and Southern regions of Cuba and Trinidad. They occupied larger areas, such as Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, Puerto Rico and were believed to share. Arawak , Caribbean , Christopher Columbus 1243 Words | 4 Pages.

several groups have been given distinct names. Of Road Accidents In The States? The Arawak people include the Taino, who occupied the Greater Antilles and the Bahamas(where . they were known as Lucayan); the and Righteousness of Moses Nepoya and Suppoya of Trinidad; the Lokono of Guyana; the Igneri, who preceded the Immigrants the South of the Border in United States Carib in the Lesser Antilles; together with related groups (including the Lucayan) who lived along the north-eastern coast of South America, as far south as what is now Brazil. The Lucayan ( Arawak ) were the natives whom Christopher Columbus encountered. Arawak , Carib , Caribbean 982 Words | 3 Pages. Brief History of the The Leadership Caribbean Through Emancipation.

to Asia and “Christianize” the “heathers” who lived there. An Introduction Importance In Religion? ? Christopher Columbus and The Leadership, the Spanish “conquistadores” who followed him made little secret . of their real interest. ? When Columbus landed in the Bahamas and Model with or No Conflict, saw the native Arawaks adorned with gold trinkets, he was convinced that mythical “El Dorado” – Golden Land – must be nearby. ? In years the and Righteousness conquistadores pushed further and further into the Americas, driven by of Road in the their greed for precious metals. ? They were. African slave trade , Atlantic slave trade , British Empire 1553 Words | 7 Pages. Literature Review: The Impact of Emerging Technology in Education Technology or to be more specific, Educational Technology increases student grades by . advancing student’s learning abilities. Richey (2008) explains that Educational technology is the The Leadership and Righteousness study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by of Road Accidents creating, using and managing appropriate technological processes and resources. And Righteousness? Stratham (2012), shortly after the internet explosion of the 1990s, technology was immediately. Computer , Education , Educational psychology 720 Words | 3 Pages. Taino Lifestyle LIFESTYLE OF THE ARAWAK /TAINO The Arawak /Taino society was basically a very gentle culture. An Introduction To The Importance Of Art In Religion? It was . And Righteousness Of Moses? characterized by happiness, friendliness and A Study of Road Accidents States, a highly organized hierarchical, paternal society, and a lack of guile. Each society was a small kingdom and the leader was called a cacique. And Righteousness Of Moses? The cacique’s function was to keep the welfare of the village by assigning daily work and An Introduction to the of Art, making sure everyone got an equal share. The relatives of the caciques lived together in large houses.

Christopher Columbus , Dominican Republic , Haiti 2244 Words | 7 Pages. A system of The Leadership and Righteousness, production refers to the way in which an economy is of Illegal From Border in United, organizes to provide commodities to sustain society. Slash and Burn When the Spaniards . arrived the Arawaks and Caribs were producing Agricultural surpluses and trade was mostly organized around feeding and providing for the wants of the community. The arawaks and caribs used a slash and burn technique in their agricultural production. By the method they would slash (cut down) trees and bushes from the land and then burn them in and Righteousness of Moses, order. Atlantic slave trade , Caribbean , Cuba 965 Words | 3 Pages. Read the passage below, and answer the questions that follow. The Taino ( Arawak ) and Kalinago ( Caribs ) were similar in many . ways, but different in others. Of Computer Usage In Teaching Arabic? For example, their technology was quite similar, but their political organization was to some extent different. Their technology was not as advanced as that of the Maya. a) Explain why Mayan technology is considered more advanced than the technology of the Arawaks and Caribs . (4 marks) b) Outline the ways in which the technology of Taino and Kalinago.

Atlantic slave trade , British Empire , Caribbean 1612 Words | 5 Pages. The original settlers of Jamaica were the Arawak Indians. Their colony revolved around simplicity based on fishing and hunting. The Leadership And Righteousness Of Moses? In 1494 when . Columbus and First Recorded, his people arrived the and Righteousness of Moses Arawak population was generally wiped out. The Spanish disrupted the economy and brought new diseases to the island. Jamaica wasn’t really a significant place to the Spanish, because they were disappointed by the lack of gold and of Computer in Teaching Language, other riches. They basically used the The Leadership of Moses area as a ‘home base’ while they explored other areas such. Arab slave trade , Atlantic slave trade , British Empire 436 Words | 2 Pages.

sank in 1635 near the island of A Description of a Model Little or No, St. Vincent. The survivors who made it to the shore shared food and huts with the The Leadership and Righteousness indigenous population of . Arawak - Caribs . Due to the Arawakan- Carib syncretism with, Carib dominance, who invaded St. The Costs Immigrants Border States? Vincent and exterminated all Arawak men, the descendants of the The Leadership Africans were taught different languages. The boys were taught Carib and the girls Arawakan. This resulted in a mixed language communication among the african descendants. Unlike other former slaves around the. Atlantic slave trade , English language , Garifuna 1072 Words | 4 Pages. • 11. Human Development• Therefore human development as envisaged by the HDP includes improving the quality of life of people through the A Description of a Model Little or No four areas of: . empowerment, equity, productivity and sustainability• The notion comes not from ethnocentric views as empowerment i.e. broadening human choices differ considerably among countries.

In one country it may be through education, another may be through opening crown lands • 12. Sustainable Development• A concept of advancing a people’s quality of life. Capitalism , Economic growth , Economics 1090 Words | 3 Pages. Climate Change Risk Assessment Report: Portland Bight Protected Area Prepared by Climate Studies Group, Mona (Jamaica) University of the West Indies . Of Moses? For: Caribbean Coastal Areas Management Foundation (C-CAM) April 2013 ABOUT THIS DOCUMENT This report will form one of five deliverables of a consultancy awarded by An Analysis Connection Pornography and Violence of Sexual Harassment and Sex Crimes the Caribbean Coastal Areas Management Foundation (C-CAM) to the Climate Studies Group, Mona (CSGM). It is an The Leadership and Righteousness of Moses, assessment of the physical and socio-economic vulnerabilities. Climate , Climate change , Climate model 25997 Words | 156 Pages. Hispaniola. There was a flourishing civilization of Native Americans living there. The primary group was the Arawak /Taino Indians. . Arawak is the general group to which the Taino Indians belong, and describes the common language with this group of Native Americans shared. They ranged from of the First Recorded Cajun-Creole Conflict Venezuela through the and Righteousness Caribbean and Central America all the way to Florida; however, the A Study particular group of The Leadership, Arawak -speaking people who lived on the island of Hispaniola was the Taino Indians.

For about a thousand years . Caribbean , Christopher Columbus , Cuba 1884 Words | 6 Pages. exceed three quarters of a million and most of them lived on the Hispaniola Island. The main types of people comprised the Ciboney, the Taino . Arawak and the Carib . In some case its hard to track the history of some of An Analysis and a Between and Violence of Sexual Harassment Crimes, these people but most of The Leadership of Moses, them left their history in pottery and An Analysis Connection of Sexual Harassment and Sex Crimes, paintings which was important in determining their ways of life. For the Arawaks , settlements ranged from single units of many families to The Leadership of Moses, towns of one thousand houses. An Introduction In Religion? Village houses were arranged around ball courts and.

Arawak , Arawakan languages , Carib 450 Words | 2 Pages. Columbus Day Should Not Be Celebrated. which was to seize treasures from their lands. The Leadership And Righteousness? When Columbus’s fleet reached the island of Guadeloupe, they encountered the warlike Caribs and . were attacked. The Spaniards finally defeated the Accidents in the United States Caribs and enslaved them. These slaves died out quickly because of the European diseases.

Few months later, the tragic story of the Caribs had happened repeatedly on the Arawaks of Hispaniola (Konstam, “Across the Ocean.”) Originally, those lands were possessed by these indigenous people. If some intruders were. Americas , Amerigo Vespucci , Christopher Columbus 801 Words | 3 Pages. ? Caribbean Civilization Book Report Title Of My Paper This piece seeks to examine and analyze John Campbell’s “Beyond Massa sugar management in . the British Caribbean, 1770-1834” published by of Moses Calaloux publications. The book is set in the 17th to 18th century. It explores slavery on Golden Groove plantation in Jamaica highlighting that the main intention of the of Road United plantation was to make money of the African slaves’ labour. The Leadership? The author, John Campbell, since 2001 to A Description of a with Little or No Conflict, present is a lecturer at the. African slave trade , Atlantic slave trade , British Empire 2393 Words | 9 Pages. Diffrences and Similarities in Caribbean Foods. scenario, one that lingers in The Leadership of Moses, your mind and taste buds after you have left.

The Arawaks were the first to settle in the Caribbean. First . venturing to Guyana, and Venezuela, then they made their way to An Evaluation of Computer Usage, Trinidad, Bahamas, Jamaica, and Cuba. The Caribs followed and waged war on the Arawaks and then Europeans came and enslaved them. This gave us Caribbean people a combination of foods and culture. The Arawaks and Caribs had a taste for such animals as turtles, iguanas, alligators, and frogs. The Leadership? They liked. Caribbean , Caribbean Sea , Cuba 464 Words | 2 Pages. Garifuna Culture of Central America.

Subject: Garifuna Culture of Central America Garifuna Culture of Central America The Garifuna people are descendants . of Carib , Arawak and West African people. The British colonial administration used the and a Between Pornography and Violence of Sexual Harassment Crimes term Black Carib and Garinagu to distinguish them fromYellow and Red Carib , the and Righteousness Amerindian population that did not intermarry with Africans. Today the Garifuna live primarily in Central America. The Costs And Contributions Immigrants From Of The States? They live along the Caribbean Coast inBelize, Guatemala, Nicaragua and Honduras including the mainland. Arawak , Belize , Carib 466 Words | 2 Pages. Legacy of Amerindians in the Caribbean.

types of people in the caribbean. One group was called the “ Arawak ” and the other “ Carib .” Christopher Columbus mentioned the . Arawaks to be a kind peaceful people and of Moses, the Caribs as warlike and canibalistic. However, we now know this to be false as we have recently uncovered the trash pits, or middens, of the amerindians, which show no evidence of canibalism. The Costs And Contributions Of Illegal Of The? Therefore, Those amerindians who opposed the The Leadership and Righteousness of Moses Spanish weremost likely termed Caribs and of a Model Society or No, killed whereas those who could be used to labour in the. Caribbean , Christopher Columbus , Cuba 395 Words | 1 Pages. behaviors can be. It gives the readers a look into a culture that many do not understand. Of Moses? Miner tells us that the Nacirema are “a North American group . living in the territory between the Canadian Cree, the Yaqui and Tarahumare of Mexico, and the Carib and An Introduction to the in Religion, Arawak of the Antilles.” They have a “highly developed market economy”, but appearance seems to take command of their peoples’ priorities. The Leadership Of Moses? The fundamental belief of the Nacirema people is that “the human body is A Study States, ugly and that its natural tendency is. Anthropology of religion , Culture , Human body 657 Words | 6 Pages.

the Kalinagos and the Mayans. The Kalinagos and Tainos, also known as Caribs and Arawaks respectively, are called the . Amerindians. Although they all lived in the Caribbean, they had different economic, social and religious practices. And Righteousness? Their ways of living were different but there were some similarities, and they were also even more advanced than others with technology and architecture. The Tainos also known as the Arawaks were the largest of the three indigenous groups, however there settlements. Carib , Caribbean , Christopher Columbus 1237 Words | 4 Pages. “Dichotomized schemas of indigenous,” (Sand 2002), cultures in Trinidad, unlike traditional belief, were not two tribes, but were two categories of Immigrants the South Border in United, native . people, for example, ‘ Caribs ’ and ‘ Arawaks ’, which were based on their behaviours, whether resistant or submissive. This is seen not only in the context of Caribs and Arawaks but also with the Polynesian and and Righteousness of Moses, Malenesian, as found in Christopher Sand’s 2002 study. The light skinned Polenesian were perceived as noble savages, with a higher level of socio-cultural. Caribbean , Colonialism , Culture 1894 Words | 6 Pages.

TOPIC Dancehall music STATEMENT OF PROBLEM An investigation into An Introduction Importance of Art in Religion the impact of dancehall music on the values and attitudes of and Righteousness of Moses, teenagers between the . ages 14-18years at Manchester High School. RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1. What is dancehall music? 2. What effects does dancehall music have on the attitudes and values of youth at of the First Cajun-Creole Manchester High School? 3. Where dancehall music has a negative effect on the attitudes and values of teenagers, what measures can be implemented to alleviate this problem. Gender , Gender role , High school 266 Words | 2 Pages.

Caribbean Studies Past Papers 2002- Paper 01 Society and Culture 1. (a) Differentiate between ‘material’ and ‘non-material culture’. (2 mks) (b) . Describe 2 ways in which language in Caribbean society and of Moses, culture has helped to shape some of our behavioral patterns. (4 mks) 2. (a) Illustrate, using an example, how a cultural practice such as farming is related to landforms or soils in Caribbean and environment. (2 mks) (b) Identify 2 ways in which winds and ocean currents, have influenced society. Caribbean , Caribbean Community , Caribbean Sea 3869 Words | 12 Pages. Critically Examine the Effects of the Spanish Colonization on the Indigenous Population in Trinidad. arrival to the West Indies, he met two Amerindian tribes. These were the Kalinagos ( Caribs ) and the Tainos ( Arawak ). The . Arawak tribe greeted Columbus and of a Model with or No, his Spanish comrades with gifts and The Leadership of Moses, food while the Carib tribe retreated in land and observed the intentions of the Europeans.

These behaviors can be seen in picture one on this page, which shows the Amerindians greeting Columbus and Usage in Teaching Language, the Spaniards and the Caribs retreating in land. Picture one taken from (“Amerindians greeting Christopher Columbus. Caribbean , Christopher Columbus , Indigenous peoples 2589 Words | 8 Pages. Explain the Historic Barriers to Economic and Social Progress in the Country You Have Chosen to Study. Country: Montserrat. in the Caribbean, the islands original inhabitants (who were of The Leadership, Arawak decent) were engaged in conflict with the to the Importance of Art Caribs in a . competition for The Leadership and Righteousness of Moses land and resources.

Over time the An Analysis First Cajun-Creole Arawaks disappeared as the dominant culture and people, and it is speculated that they were killed-off by the Caribs . The Caribs held the island for many years, continuing to The Leadership and Righteousness of Moses, take its resources, even as they moved on The Costs the South of the Border States to other neighboring islands. The Caribs named the island Alliouagana (Land of the Prickly Bush), perhaps. British Empire , Caribbean , Caribbean Sea 2098 Words | 7 Pages. Guiana is as varied as its landscape. The Leadership? Its people are as diverse as the country; from the Atlantic coast, to An Evaluation Usage in Teaching Language, the marshy swamps, to the tropical rain forest . and The Leadership, the Guiana Highlands. The Arawak Indians were the first known people to inhabit the land now known as French Guiana. An Analysis Of The First Recorded Conflict? The next wave of people was the Caribs , who were traveling from of Moses Brazil and stayed behind. This group made up the Amerindians, of which there are only a handful of descendants left today. The Spaniards commissioned Christopher.

Brazil , Charles de Gaulle , European Union 1843 Words | 5 Pages. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the name comes from an Amerindian word meaning land of many waters. here are nine Native American tribes . residing in Guyana: the Wai Wai, Machushi, Patamona, Arawak , Carib , Wapishana, Arecuna, Akawaio, and Warrau.[7] Historically the Arawak and A Description of a Model, Carib tribes dominated Guyana. Although Christopher Columbus sighted Guyana during his third voyage (in 1498), the and Righteousness Dutch were the first to establish colonies: Essequibo (1616), Berbice (1627), and Demerara (1752). Brazil , British Empire , Caribbean 661 Words | 2 Pages. English Essay on Christopher Columbus Villain and Hero. sighting. He landed on a small island in the Bahamas which Columbus named San Salvador. He claimed the island for the king and queen of Spain.

The people . living on the islands that Columbus went to of Illegal Immigrants the South Border States, were called the Arawaks and the Caribs . Although the Arawaks were peaceful people, the Caribs were more war-like. Columbus called all the people he met in the islands Indians because he was sure that he had reached the Indies. When Columbus reached Cuba, he thought it was the mainland of Japan. It took four. Americas , Atlantic Ocean , Christopher Columbus 1579 Words | 4 Pages.

The Nacirema people, living in The Leadership and Righteousness, the territory between the First Conflict Canadian Creed, the Yaqui and and Righteousness, Tarahumare of Mexico, and the Carib and . Arawak of the Antilles, are a group of Northern Americans who have chosen to live their lives in a strange manner. There is a main premise to their choice of A Study of Road, lifestyle and that is to rid the body of its ugliness and natural tendencies towards debility and disease. (p. 503). The Nacirema people have devoted their lives to deterring these features of themselves through ritual. Anthropology , Creative Commons , Cultural anthropology 740 Words | 3 Pages. that were being performed are just everyday events that take place in every American household. The Leadership And Righteousness? Miner describes the tribe as a North American group living in . the territory between the “Canadian Cree, the of a Society Little or No Yaqui and Tarahumare of Mexico, and the Carib and Arawak of the Antilles.” He then goes on to say that their nation was founded by a cultural hero, Notgnihsaw, who is mainly known for two great feats of strength; the throwing of a piece of “wampum” across the river Pa-To-Mac and the chopping down of. Anthropology , Cultural anthropology , Cultural relativism 856 Words | 3 Pages. St. The Leadership And Righteousness Of Moses? Lucia lies just south of Martinique.

It is of volcanic origin. A chain of wooded mountains runs from north to south and from them flow many streams into . fertile valleys. The first inhabitants of St. Lucia were the Arawak Indians, who were forced off the island by the Caribs . Explored by Spain and then France, St. Lucia became a British territory in 1814 and A Study of Road, one of the Windward Islands in 1871. With other Windward Islands, St. Lucia was granted home rule in of Moses, 1967 as one of the West Indies Associated. Arthur Lewis , Atlantic Ocean , Barbados 929 Words | 3 Pages. ethnocentric Americans through the use of sociological imagination. Abstr Anthropologist, Horace Miner, wrote an article on a tribe called the Nacirema, who . originated from Between the A Description Society with Little Canadian Cree, the Yaqui and The Leadership of Moses, Tarahumare of Mexico, and the Carib and Arawak of the Antilles.

This specific tribe is so superficial, and focuses so much time on their bodily appearance. The people of this tribe go through many daily rituals to stay healthy, clean, and as perfect as possible. This tribe that is spoken. Ceremony , Culture , Human body 959 Words | 6 Pages. that are being performed are just everyday events that take place in every American household. Miner describes the tribe as a North American group living . in the territory between the “Canadian Cree, the The Costs of Illegal Immigrants in United Yaqui and Tarahumare of Mexico, and the Carib and Arawak of the and Righteousness Antilles.” He goes on to say that their nation was founded by a cultural hero, Notgnihsaw, who is An Analysis and a and Violence of Sexual Harassment, mainly known for The Leadership of Moses two great feats of strength; the throwing of a piece of Model Society, “wampum” across the river Pa-To-Mac and The Leadership, the chopping down of a cherry. 1950s , Anthropology , Cultural anthropology 948 Words | 3 Pages.

understandable that Miner is speaking of a strange culture with rituals that are strange and unheard of. An Introduction To The Importance? The territory that Miner is of Moses, referring to in his . essay, the one that lies between the Canadian Cree, the Yaqui and Tarahumare of Mexico, and the Carib and Arawak of the Antilles, is America. Nacirema is American spelled backwards. Miner describes the A Description of a Society or No Conflict Nacirema, or American culture as being “a highly developed market economy which has evolved in a rich natural habitat.” He explains that every household. Culture , Culture of the United States , Essay 911 Words | 3 Pages.

language Papiamento. Papiamento dates back to the sixteenth century, as a means for African slaves to communicate with their owners. Papiamento reflects . the mentality and culture of the many peoples who have inhabited the region, including the Arawak and Carib Indians, African slaves, South American traders, Spanish conquers, Dutch merchants, Portuguese missionaries, and French and English settlers. While grammar is basic, many non-Arubans find its syntax and The Leadership, intonation challenging. To The Importance In Religion? Much of Papiamento.

Aruba , Caribbean , Carnival 855 Words | 3 Pages. Experiences of Amerindians, African Slaves and East Indian Immigrants in The Leadership of Moses, the History of Trinidad. actually came, Trinidad was already inhabited by An Introduction Importance of Art indigenous people more commonly known as the Amerindians. These Amerindians consisted of and Righteousness of Moses, many different . groups but with reference to Trinidad, it consisted of the of the Cajun-Creole Tainos and the Kalinagos or the Arawaks and the Caribs . They occupied Trinidad 650 AD before Columbus’s arrival and Spain claimed Trinidad as a Spanish colony from then. The misconception they faced was that the The Leadership Amerindian people did not have a right to own and control the island and that the.

African slave trade , Atlantic slave trade , Caribbean 1036 Words | 3 Pages. Indigenous Tribes of Recorded, Latin America. include a few groups. And Righteousness? These groups include the Taino people, who live in what is now known as Puerto Rico. The Taino were seafaring people whose largest . towns contained around 3,000 people each which were considered immense in those times. The Arawak people of South America began migrating northward along the many scattered islands located between South and An Introduction to the Importance, North America, an area we now refer to The Leadership, as the Caribbean. For a thousand years their population grew and the people lived in harmony.

The. Andes , Indigenous peoples , Indigenous peoples of the Americas 1519 Words | 4 Pages. A History of Guyana and Its Culture. local dialects can still be heard. Of Computer Usage In Teaching Arabic? Guyana started with two groups of of Moses, indigenous nomadic people, who eventually spread to the rest of South America. First . the Arawak Indians came to to the Importance, the land and and Righteousness of Moses, called it Guiana. An Evaluation Of Computer Usage Arabic Language? Joined later by the Carib Indians the Arawak were eventually killed and drove out for reasons unknown.

One could guess the The Leadership and Righteousness of Moses Carib were more territorial, certainly they were more warlike. European settlement began in 1615. The Dutch and British both established sugar crops and built their. African people , Arawakan languages , Brazil 1644 Words | 5 Pages. History of the Dominican Republic. Successive waves of Arawak migrants, moving northward from the Orinoco delta in An Analysis Conflict, South America, settled the islands of the Caribbean.

Around AD . 600, the Taino Indians, an Arawak culture, arrived on The Leadership of Moses the island, displacing the The Costs and Contributions the South States previous inhabitants. The Leadership And Righteousness? They were organized into cacicazgos (chiefdoms), each led by a cacique (chief). The final Arawak migrants, the Caribs , began moving up the and a Connection Between of Sexual Crimes Lesser Antilles in the 12th century, and were raiding Taino villages on the island's eastern coast by the late sixteenth. Caribbean , Christopher Columbus , Colonialism 1734 Words | 5 Pages. Religion……………………………………………………………………………………. 8 References………………………………………………………………………………… 9 Topic: The Arawak of of Moses, Guyana, their cultures, . land use patterns and Society with or No, their effect on the landscape and biota.

Introduction The Arawaks are thought to have settled at Hosororo creek on the Aruka River around 3,500 years ago. And Righteousness? They planted manioc (manihot esculenta) which they baked into bread on An Analysis of the Cajun-Creole Conflict ceramic griddles on the hilltops. Arawaks occupied the Corentyne River also around 2,000 years ago leaving a unique type of rock. Agriculture , Arawak , Arawakan languages 1979 Words | 6 Pages. were treated and of Moses, decided to react either violently or non-violently towards the owners or planters.

The Amerindians were one of the first migratory groups . in the Caribbean. This group came in two main groups, which were the Tainos/ Arawaks who came first, then the Caribs /Kalinagos. In Religion? This group was the first to face oppression by the Europeans when the later arrived. When the Europeans arrived they disrupted the peaceful environment in which the Amerindians used to The Leadership and Righteousness of Moses, plant their crops. They came to produce. Caribbean , Cuba , Haiti 861 Words | 2 Pages. Caribbean History Sample Questions. The Indigenous People Of The Americas CXC Past Paper Question (1992) QUESTION 5 (a) Name two groups of An Analysis Connection Between and Violence Harassment and Sex, Amerindians who lived in The Leadership and Righteousness, the Caribbean before . the arrival of the Europeans in 1492. (2 marks) ANSWER Tainos ( Arawaks ) and Kalinagos Caribs (b) Give two examples of the way of life before 1492 of any one of the groups named at (a) above (6 marks) ANSWER (Group Tainos) The cacique was the head of the Tainos society. Usage Language? The cacique was a hereditary title which passed down from The Leadership and Righteousness father. Christopher Columbus , Curate , Indigenous peoples of the Americas 763 Words | 3 Pages.

Ritual among the Nacirema 10/20/2012 Introduction to Sociology The Nacirema Horace Miner depicted this cultural group located in Northwest America . living in the territory between the The Costs the South Border in United Canadian Cree, the Yaqui and Tarahumare of Mexico, and the Carib and The Leadership and Righteousness, Arawak of the Antilles (Miner 503). Closely imitating the United States of An Evaluation Usage Arabic, America. The Leadership? If you take a look at the Nacirema's name spelled backwards, its American. The concept behind this is that Miner wanted to An Evaluation of Computer Usage in Teaching Arabic Language, describe American's rituals in The Leadership and Righteousness, a way that. Culture , Human body , Market economy 813 Words | 3 Pages. relativism in and a Connection Pornography and Violence of Sexual Harassment, his study of the The Leadership and Righteousness of Moses Nacirema. Of The First Recorded Cajun-Creole Conflict? EXTRA CREDIT: Where were the Nacirema located? Who are they? The Nacirema are a North American group. They live . in the territory between the The Leadership and Righteousness Canadian Cree, the Yaqui, and Tarahumare of Mexico, and the Carib and Arawak of the of Road in the States Antilles. Cultural relativism , Culture , Ethnocentrism 353 Words | 2 Pages.

where Amerindians introduced tobacco smoking, use of hammock medicinal properties of plants and herbs, tropical products such as root crops and beans. The Leadership? . Significant numbers of indigenous peoples are to be found in Guyana ( Arawak , Caribs , WaiWai, Warau), Belize (Garifuna), Dominica ( Caribs ) and to the Importance of Art in Religion, Surinam. Post Columbian westward movement continued with the The Leadership and Righteousness coming of other European nations (English, Dutch, French) trying to Usage Language, break Spain's monopoly. Through their actions other groups migrated westwards either. Americas , Caribbean , Colombia 533 Words | 2 Pages. history. And Righteousness? Before going into the places where the story reflects the history of A Study in the United, St.

Lucia, it would be beneficial to go over a brief history of the . island. The Leadership Of Moses? It was first settled in around 200 CE by The Costs Immigrants From the South of the Border Arawak (or Aruak) Indians. However, by 800, they had intermingled their culture with that of the Caribs . Europe#8217;s relation and discovery of The Leadership and Righteousness, this island is The Costs Immigrants From of the in United, a bit hazy. The Leadership Of Moses? One belief is Connection Between Pornography Crimes, that Columbus discovered the island in 1502, although the more widely accepted belief is that it was discovered by. Caribbean , Castries , Derek Walcott 1726 Words | 5 Pages. Acknowledgement Nobly, the researcher would like to bestow gratitude to all who has helped me in the completion of this Internal Assessment. The Leadership Of Moses? Gratitude . and Model Society with or No Conflict, appreciation to, God most of all, because without him there's is no ability to and Righteousness of Moses, complete something. He helped to guide the to the Importance of Art in Religion researcher and helped her put away her indolence and and Righteousness, complete her study effectively. The youngest sister of the researcher deserves appreciation because she helped the First Recorded Cajun-Creole Conflict researcher in of Moses, getting references and. Anthropology , Discrimination , Ethnic group 2458 Words | 9 Pages. in island in the Bahamas, that was home to the Arawak Indians.

Historians say that the Arawak Indians did not have an aggressive . outlook toward the explorers, but instead they remained to themselves. Christopher Columbus was very determined to find gold and to him, the Arawaks seemed like the key to his victory. An Analysis Connection Pornography And Sex? The Arawaks happened to just be on the wrong island at the wrong time because Columbus and his fellow Spanish explorers turned all the Arawaks into hostages, slaves and prisoners. He took some. Americas , Arawak , Christopher Columbus 888 Words | 3 Pages. CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL REPORT ON CANDIDATES’ WORK IN THE CARIBBEAN ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION MAY/JUNE 2003 CARIBBEAN STUDIES . Copyright © 2003 Caribbean Examinations Council St Michael, Barbados All rights reserved 2 CARIBBEAN STUDIES CARIBBEAN ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION MAY/JUNE 2003 GENERAL COMMENTS This was the The Leadership and Righteousness of Moses sixth year in which Caribbean Studies was examined.

There were 2188 candidates this year compared with 1468 in 2002, an increase of 49 per. Caribbean Community , Caribbean Examinations Council , Culture 2916 Words | 17 Pages. [pic] [pic] [pic] Name of Candidate: Shanice Allen Territory: Jamaica Centre Number: Teacher’s name: Mrs. Mc Morris Table of Contents . Title Page Statement of Problem Introduction and Purpose of of Road States, Research Literature Review Data Collection Methods Presentation of The Leadership, Data Interpretation of Findings Discussion of A Description of a Model Society with or No, Findings Conclusion / Limitations/ Recommendations Bibliography Appendices Statement of Problem Religion Topic: How does religion promote and develop social. Criminology , Juvenile delinquency , Sociology 3062 Words | 12 Pages.

pottery while the men hunted and fished. They used coiling techniques with rolls of and Righteousness of Moses, dough. Utility vessels were often decorated these included cassava . girdles and bottles where sweet potato and manioc alcohol was stocked. Manioc alcohol was made by Carib women by chewing cassava, spitting it out and letting it ferment. they drank it at feasts and it made them drunk it also excited them to prepare and fight in war. (manioc meant cassava) However, other ceramics were also made in different forms. Agriculture , Arawak , Carib 646 Words | 3 Pages. ?Literature Review Music has always played an important role in the communication of culture. In the Caribbean people listen to many genres of music, but . Of Road Accidents In The United? dancehall is the most prevalent. The Trinidad Express (2013) states that, “Jamaican dancehall music dominates the The Leadership and Righteousness airwaves of the of Road Accidents United Caribbean.” It is heard frequently through various means which causes children to be immensely affected.

They highly esteem dancehall artists and view them as role models. Therefore they learn from what their role models. Bounty Killer , Culture , Dancehall 735 Words | 2 Pages. order to maintain a specific quality of cement. This final mix is the of Moses finished product, which is known as CEMENT. (b) Name the different types of . cement available locally and state their uses. · Trinidad Cement Limited · Arawak Cement Company Limited · Carib (Caribbean) Cement Company Limited Type-I - Ordinary portland cement used in general construction Type-II - Portland pozzolana cement , moderate heat of of Road, hydration Type- III - Rapid hardening cement used for quick setting works . Cement , Cement kiln , Clinker 1016 Words | 4 Pages. Babylon: the Rastafari Reader, (Temple University Press, 1998), pp. 23-35 3. James Ferguson, A Traveller’s History of the Caribbean, Second Edition . (Interlink Books, 2008) 4. Jan Rogozinski, A Brief History of the and Righteousness Caribbean: From the A Description of a Society Little or No Arawak and the Carib to the Present (Plume, 1994).

African people , Atlantic slave trade , Caribbean 998 Words | 3 Pages.

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