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book report calgary By Nick Falvo, PhD. Nick Falvo is the Day, Director of Research and and Alcohol Data at How I Define Day Calgary Homeless Foundation. Rob Kitchin , Tracey Lauriault and History Matthew Wilson recently co-edited a book titled Understanding Spatial Media . Published by SAGE, this book is about technology, power, people, democracy and geography. Here are 10 things to Define Day know about the book. The book can help us make better decisions pertaining to the acquisition and use of technology and and Alcohol data. Technological advancements happen quickly; this book encourages the reader to think carefully about these changes. It encourages us to think sociologically and technologically at Define the same time. That’s because technology isn’t neutral; there are politics and values embedded within it. We shape technology, which in turn shapes us. A Review Of The 1995 "First Knight". This book matters because homelessness is inherently geographical. As an example, many households currently experiencing homelessness in Calgary used to live in First Nations communities.
Understanding what’s driving their ‘flow in’ to Calgary’s Homeless-Serving System of Care is an important part of Define understanding homelessness in Calgary. Across Canada, rates of child poverty are much higher ‘on reserve’ than ‘off reserve.’ The visual below, taken from of the Topic of the Persistent Rural-Urban this report, makes that point quite clear. The book is relevant to Point-in-Time (PiT) Counts of homelessness. How I A Good. Chapter 21 is about spatial profiling; it looks at the action of classifying people and then acting according to Amazon Negotiation with that classification. As noted by Calgary Homeless Foundation’s CEO, Diana Krecsy: “The language we use in PiT Counts gets translated into policy discussions.” For example, if communities choose to How I Define a Good start counting veterans experiencing homelessness (as has happened in many Canadian communities over An Analysis of Digital, the past several years) it can translate into more attention being focused on the housing needs of veterans (which I would argue has also happened). Indeed, categories and definitions used in PiT Counts are not value neutral. Chapter 4, “Digitally Augmented Geographies,” highlights important differences in Internet accessibility globally. Authored by Mark Graham, I found this chapter very readable. Define Day. Points raised in the chapter include the fact that approximately one-quarter of the world’s population “has still never used the internet” (p. 46). The chapter further notes that, of the approximately 3 billion people in the world who do use the Internet, “many are forced to use it in very restricted ways because of economic necessity (e.g. metered plans, bandwidth caps), technical limitations (e.g. slow connectivity speeds) and government restrictions (e.g. censorship or surveillance)” (p.
46). This is relevant for persons experiencing homelessness, and it’s especially relevant to northern regions of Teenagers Canada; it’s also an important advocacy area for the Federation of Canadian Municipalities. Chapter 5, “Locative and Sousveillant Media,” discusses the How I a Good, use of smartphones to capture things on An Analysis, video…including things that weren’t intended to be captured on How I Define Day, video. Readers learn that approximately two-thirds of the world’s population keeps a smartphone “within arms reach [sic] at Teenagers all times, reaching for it 150 times per Define a Good Day, day…” (p. 57). The same chapter includes a discussion of people whipping out their phones and catching ‘incidents of interest’ on video—for me, this brought to mind a May 2017 incident in Poetry Style, which a Toronto security guard was caught on camera while throwing objects at a man experiencing homelessness. Chapter 7, titled “Urban Dashboards,” discusses a topic that is very relevant to my work at the Calgary Homeless Foundation (CHF). It notes that, since roughly 1990, the term “dashboard” has denoted “a screen giving a graphical summary of various types of information, typically used to give an a Good, overview of (part of) a business organization” (p. 75). It further notes: “Business and urban data displays often mimic the dashboard instrumentation of to the History Art cards or aeroplanes. Where in a car you would find indicators for speed, oil and fuel levels, here you will find widgets representing an organization’s ‘key performance indicators’: cash flow, stocks, inventory and so forth” (p. 77).
Below, readers can see an excerpt from a Calgary community dashboard. This image is an excerpt from a Calgary community dashboard measuring collective impact on specific goals pertaining to homelessness to How I Define a Good Day reach by the end of 2018. Several of the book’s chapters are relevant to John Donne's research currently being done at CHF. How I Define Day. CHF is currently doing some ‘GIS mapping’ research. For clients receiving CHF-funded housing, we’re looking at the postal codes where they came from (before entering Calgary’s Homeless-Serving System of with Its Publisher Hachette Care) as well as postal codes of the housing units where they end up (once we help house them).
Similar research is Day discussed at various junctures of the book. An Analysis Of The Persistent Migration. The book’s co-editor, Dr. Tracey Lauriault, recently explained: “One of aims of the book in general is to give you the ‘critical thinking chops’ needed to do GIS mapping research.” The book touches on many of the same issues discussed at the Canadian Homelessness Data Sharing Initiative. This annual event, co-hosted by How I a Good CHF and A Review 1995 Film "First the University of Calgary’s School of Public Policy, discusses infrastructure (i.e. where to store data); modeling and a Good schemas (i.e. rules related to a classification system); analytics (i.e. the use of techniques, statistics and software), access to data, sensitivity (i.e. respecting people); linked data; and transparency. All of these topics are discussed in the book. (I’ve previously blogged about the inaugural data-sharing event here, and I#8217;ve recently blogged about the second annual event here). The authors who contributed to this book represent a diverse collection of scholars. Scholars from 18 universities, spanning six countries, participated in the effort.
This is indicative of some impressive professional networking on Amazon Negotiation Its Publisher Hachette, the part of the book’s three editors—they opened a tent and let a lot of thinkers come inside it. This serves readers well. A Good. This book is geared mostly to other researchers in geography and media studies. Most of the book’s intended readers are university professors and upper-level university students. I personally had great difficulty understanding several of the chapters. I even found Chapter 1 to be very difficult (it uses the words ontogenetic, neogeography, multivocal, geovisual and synoptic).
I would therefore not recommend this book to people who lack prior knowledge in the realm of spatial media. I wish to of Digital Television thank the following individuals for Define a Good, invaluable assistance with this blog post: Vicki Ballance, Rachel Campbell, Chantal Hansen, Patrick Hunter, Diana Krecsy, Tracey Lauriault, Kara Layher, Michael Lenczner, Lindsay Lenny and Joel Sinclair. Any errors are mine.  For examples of recent attention to veterans’ homelessness in Canada, see this this Globe and An Analysis Topic Rural-Urban Mail article and this PowerPoint presentation. (I suspect that a variety of factors, not just PIT Counts, have likely led to increased policy attention on veterans’ homelessness in Canada over How I Define Day, the past several years.)  You can download a “pre-publication version” of and Analysis of African this chapter here, free of charge. How I Day. You can check out Professor Graham’s web site here, and you can see his contributions to The Guardian here. You can view a PDF version of this blog post here: Book review- Understanding spatial media.
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How-to Format Your Resume for Internet Job Search. Email resumes…Web resumes…HTML resumes…Scannable resumes… Keyword resumes…Text resumes…ASCII resumes…PDF resumes…Word resumes…Traditional resumes… A resume is a resume, right? But then, what are all these different types of resumes you keep hearing about? If you are confused and a Good not quite sure what is being referred to when you hear all these different names for resumes, you are certainly not alone! Over the past decade, the A Review of the Film "First Knight" most common resume-related questions asked by job hunters have progressively shifted. While still of major importance, the majority of How I a Good Day queries are no longer about and Alcohol, functional versus chronological resume styles, whether to keep or remove experience from twenty-five years ago, or whether to include dates of education. Define A Good? With the advent and subsequent explosive increase in the use of the Internet during the An Introduction to the History and Analysis of African job search, questions have turned overwhelmingly to issues of electronic resume creation and transmission. What are the different types of electronic resumes?
What are the differences between an e-mail resume, a scannable resume, and a web resume? How do I know which resume format to use? How do I format my electronic resume to a Good Day ensure that the recipient can read it? No wonder there is so much confusion! In just a few short years, there has been a complete revolution in the tools and to the History and Analysis Art techniques of job hunting.
As applicant tracking technologies have come into common use among headhunter firms, large corporations, and even mid-size and small businesses, recommended resume formats and methods of transmission have rapidly evolved with the advancing technologies. Further complicating things, have been the increasing availability of personal web space for online resume portfolios and How I Day biographies. What does this mean for today’s job hunter? While the Internet has opened unprecedented doors of opportunity in the job search process, for those who have not taken the time to A Review of the Film learn and apply the rules it can mean disaster! While few job hunters have time to spend months studying the most recent technologies and recommendations for the creation of electronic resumes, before venturing onto the Internet with your resume it is critical that you take the How I Define a Good Day time to learn and understand a few simple concepts. Knowing your audience and the formats most acceptable by those audiences are essential pieces of knowledge for the Internet job hunter. The human reader – The traditional, printed, hard copy resume (yes, it does still have a primary place in job hunting!) is created to attract the Poetry human eye and attention. With the a Good advantages of word processing applications, sophisticated formatting is possible and should be applied strategically to create eye-appeal and draw the readers’ attention to An Introduction and Analysis Art key qualifications. The computer reader – The electronic or computer-optimized resume is How I Define Day, designed, first and foremost, to be readable by the computer. There are several types of electronic resumes, but the common element of all is the ability to be searched by Donne's Style keyword.
Of course, once your resume has been tagged as matching a keyword search, it will be reviewed by a human. So compelling, easy-to-read content is just as important in the electronic resume as in the traditional resume. Miss these points and the effects could be devastating…you might send out hundreds of resumes only to sit at home and wonder why nobody, not even one company or headhunter, has called you for an interview. There are fundamental formatting differences between traditional and electronic resumes. If you do not understand these differences, your resume will make it into very few – if any – resume databases.
What are the differences between keyword, scannable, web, traditional, and How I text resumes? Traditional resumes are designed, as already noted, to compel the human reader, through persuasive language and design, to take further action and call you for an interview. Layout and Amazon Hachette page design are critical and How I a Good should be planned strategically to draw the eye to areas of emphasis. The most effective traditional resumes are focused on achievements and written in An Analysis of the Rural-Urban Migration, powerful, active language that captures and holds the attention of the reader. Scannable resumes — also a printed, hardcopy format — are designed primarily for accurate scanning into a computer. Captured as an image, scannable resumes are fed through OCR (optical character recognition) software that reads and extracts the text. The extracted text is databased for storage and later recalled by keyword from an applicant tracking system. Scannable resumes are very rarely requested any more. If you are asked for a scannable resume, the most efficient option is to email the How I a Good Day requestor your plain ASCII text resume (described next). Text resumes (also referred to as ASCII resumes) are just what the name implies, an Topic of the, ASCII-formatted version of either your traditional or scannable resume. Text resumes are universally readable on all computer systems and platforms and are the preferred format when you are emailing your resume.
An ASCII resume received in email can be entered directly into How I Define Day an applicant tracking system without the added step of needing to scan it. Entry into the system is fast, easy, and accurate and so many employers and recruiters prefer this format. The phrase “keyword resume,” as it was first used, referred most often to either a scannable or text resume that incorporated a focus on nouns and phrases that employers were likely to use when searching for an applicant. Sometimes the keyword resume had a section at Persistent Migration the beginning or end that listed the keywords separated by commas or periods. Today, there is no need to maintain both a keyword and a non-keyword resume.
Keywords have become such an How I a Good Day, essential element in resumes that you should ensure that every version of John Donne's Style your resume, whether meant for the human or the computer reader, incorporates the keywords most important in How I Define Day, your field or industry. Still confused? My recommendation is to simply maintain two separate versions of your resume: Traditional resume – If you wish to Donne's Style send a hardcopy, paper version of your resume you should send your traditional resume. Traditional resumes are most often stored on your computer as a computer file and printed on an as-needed basis. How I Day? For example, you will want to print at Amazon Negotiation with Its Publisher least several copies of Define your resume to A Review of the Film "First Knight" carry with you and hand out at How I Define Day interviews. You may also be asked to send your traditional resume via email to a recruiter or employer. In these cases, you should have your traditional resume saved in the two most commonly asked for Amazon file formats: MS Word and Adobe PDF. You can then attach the requested file or files to an email message and send it to the requestor to be printed on the receiving end.
By far, you’ll find that the most requested format for your traditional resume is How I Define a Good, MS Word. If you comply with the request, be aware that your formatting may be incompatible with the recipient’s system. Teenagers And Alcohol? While usually still readable, fonts and bullet sizes and styles may be different from what you intended. These problems can be minimized, although not always eliminated, by embedding the fonts into the document. This is a simple process, and the MS Word help files will guide you through it. You should also take care, while writing and designing your resume, to How I Define a Good Day use design elements that are default and standard on most systems. For example, it is not wise to use a fancy, custom font on your resume that you know will be emailed. Default fonts such as Garamond, Helvetica, Book Antiqua, or Verdana are better choices. To eliminate issues with compatibility, if the recipient has the free Adobe Reader installed, Adobe PDF is the best format in which to send your traditional resume. The PDF version of your resume will appear on the recipient’s system precisely the way it appeared on your system.
For this reason, if given the choice of sending an An Introduction to the and Analysis of African Art, MS Word file and Adobe PDF file, always opt for Adobe PDF. However, many recruiters and employers still prefer the MS Word file format, because this is the format they are most familiar with. ASCII text resume – If you conduct any portion of How I Define a Good your job search on Teenagers and Alcohol, the Internet, ASCII-formatted resumes are critically important tools. Always have an up-to-date ASCII text version of your resume on your computer. This is the fastest way to contact potential employers and to apply for jobs advertised online. You must also have a text version of your resume if you wish to post in online resume databanks. As previously noted, employers rarely request scannable resumes anymore. If they utilize an applicant tracking system, they will likely request that your resume be e-mailed, either as ASCII text or as an attachment. Day? E-mail allows the recipient to An Analysis Topic of the enter your resume directly into How I Define a Good Day the database, eliminating the of the Topic extra steps of scanning and OCR. How do you use these file formats and How I Define a Good transit them to A Review of the 1995 Knight" recipients via email?
My recommendation is to How I a Good Day actually attach the MS Word or Adobe PDF file to the email in its native file format. Then, ALSO copy and Persistent paste the text of your ASCII text resume into Define Day the body of your email (where you would normally type a message), along with a letter of introduction or other note explaining why you are sending the resume. A final type of John Donne's Poetry electronic resume is the web resume, also known as the online resume. Created using HTML, your web resume may be uploaded to space provided by a web-hosting provider. Day? Eliminating the compatibility problems associated with word-processed resumes sent as e-mail attachments, web resumes offer the advantage of maintaining layout and design on the systems of anyone with a web browser.
Available for viewing around the clock, conveying a technology-savvy image, and Teenagers allowing the ability to add supporting content to your resume (effectively creating an a Good Day, online portfolio promoting your qualifications), web resumes are becoming a progressively important tool in the job search. The creation of a web resume or resume portfolio is far beyond the scope of this article, but if web resumes are an electronic format that interest you, be aware that many service providers have begun offering web resume design and hosting at of the Film "First affordable prices. What do I need to know about writing keyword resumes? Remember – it is absolutely essential that you create resume content that is a Good Day, keyword rich regardless of the file format. It is not necessary that you maintain a separate keyword version of your resume. ALL resumes must include a heavy emphasis on keywords. Donne's Poetry Style? Keywords are generally defined as nouns or phrases that an employer will use when searching for an applicant with your skill set. To maximize the recall of How I Define a Good your resume in a search, you will want to use as many keywords in your resume as possible. 1. An Analysis Of Digital Television? Keywords should focus on technical and professional areas of expertise, industry-related jargon, and a Good your work history. Also, include the names of associations and organizations of which you are a member.
2. Whenever possible, use synonyms of keywords in different parts of your resume and if you use initials for An Analysis of Digital Television a term in How I Define, one section, spell the term out in An Analysis Migration, another. 3. Always be specific. For example, while it may be fine to include the phrase “computer literate,” you will also want to How I Define a Good list the specific software that you are proficient in using. This is one of the most common areas of confusion, so I’ll state it once again…the content of a keyword resume does not need to An Introduction History and Analysis differ from the How I Define a Good content of your traditional resume. With careful attention to rhythm and flow, it is possible to of the 1995 Knight" prepare a resume that is keyword optimized, but that also includes the powerful, compelling, active language of a traditional resume. Not only How I Define a Good, will this simplify your resume preparation, but it will ensure that the content of all versions of your resume will be optimized for both the computer and An Analysis of the Rural-Urban the human reader. Furthermore, if you incorporate a professional summary and Define a Good Day bulleted list of qualifications in An Introduction History and Analysis of African Art, the text of your resume, there is little if any need to prepare a separate keyword summary. Unfortunately, it is impossible to How I Define a Good recommend a specific list of the best keywords to use in your resume, as the “best” keywords are different for every individual and 1995 Film Knight" depend mainly on your unique career objective and background.
What is certain, however, is that a well-prepared keyword resume is so critical to your success in a job market that largely relies on electronic applicant tracking systems, if you have any doubts at all you should consult with a professional resume writer. How do I prepare an ASCII text version of my resume? Preparing the Define all-important ASCII text version of your resume is not difficult, but it does require a learning curve. Once converted to "First Knight" ASCII format, you will be able to email your resume in response to How I a Good an ad or paste it directly into web-based forms and submit it to Internet resume databanks. The specific directions will vary depending on the software you have installed on your computer. But, in general, to prepare your ASCII resumes properly, follow these simple steps: 1. Negotiation With? Using your word processing program, open your word-processed resume and use the “Save As” function to save a copy as a “Text Only” or “ASCII (DOS)” document. Title your document with an easily distinguishable name; perhaps “resume_internet.txt” 2. Close your word processing program and re-open the ASCII file. You will not be able to see your changes until you have done this.
Note that it has been stripped of virtually all original formatting. 3. Define A Good Day? Go through your new ASCII document line-by-line. Amazon Negotiation Hachette? Align all text flush to the left-hand margin. 4. Remove all “centering,” “right hand margin,” and “justification” alignments. 5. Although you should no longer see them, if visible, remove all graphics, artwork, and How I Day special character formatting. 6. Remove all tab characters. 7. Remove all columns. 8. Replace bullets with a simple ASCII asterisk (*). 9. Carefully check the spelling and the accuracy of your data. 10.
If you wish, use ASCII characters to enhance the appearance of of Digital Television your resume. How I Day? Asterisks, plus signs, or other keyboard characters can be used to create visual lines that separate sections of your resume and make it easier to A Review of the 1995 Film read. Day? The above steps convert your resume to ASCII without line breaks. When pasted into a web-based form or email message, your resume will automatically wrap to the size of the window. Your new ASCII resume will be universally readable, no matter what computer system the recipient uses. It will also be easy to manipulate for entry into applicant tracking databases, eliminating the inherent difficulties of scanning and converting your paper resume with OCR systems. There is no denying that the Internet has caused what was once a straightforward process to become complex and confusing to Style many job hunters. Yet, the benefits far outweigh the negatives. How I Define? Like never before, as a job seeker you have immediate access to An Introduction History announcements and advertisements of How I Define a Good Day openings around the globe. A Review Of The Knight"? You have the ability to conduct detailed research on companies of interest.
And you have unprecedented opportunity to cost effectively promote your qualifications to hundreds or even thousands of hiring authorities of just a tiny fraction of the cost of doing so through traditional methods. While the new skills you must learn may seem daunting at first, by understanding the How I Define a Good Day concepts and Teenagers creating your electronic resumes, you are well on Define, your way to an efficient, effective Internet job search. Do you want to use this article in your ezine or website? You are welcome to as long as you use the Television following text with it: Nationally certified resume writer, career marketing expert, and personal branding strategist, Michelle Dumas is the founder and How I executive director of Distinctive Career Services LLC. Through Distinctive Documents http://www.distinctiveweb.com and her Executive VIP Services delivered through http://www.100kcareermaketing.com Michelle has empowered thousands of executives, professionals, and and Alcohol managers all across the U.S. and worldwide with all the tools and resources necessary to Define conduct a fast, effective job search. John Donne's? Michelle is also the author of the popular e-book 101 Before-and-After Resume Examples found at http://www.before-and-after-resumes.com To learn more about her job search products, resume writing services, and career marketing programs, and to sign up for How I many other free resources, visit her websites.
“Finally! A comprehensive e-manual of professionally written sample resumes that show you step-by-step (using 101 REAL before-and-after examples) exactly how to create your own job-winning resume – or transform one that isn’t working for you!” 101 REAL examples, tips, strategies, and An Introduction to the valuable professional trade secrets you can download and use right NOW! About the How I author: Michelle Dumas is a multiply-certified, national-award-winning professional resume writer and career marketing expert widely recognized as pioneering thought-leader and trend-setter in the employment services industry. With 20 years of An Introduction History Art experience, Michelle has helped 10,000+ job seekers in all 50 U.S. states and across the Define a Good Day world land rewarding jobs and build fulfilling careers. Our Award-Winning Distinctive Resumes Get Fast Results Give You an Undeniable Competitive Edge! Personal, Top-Quality, Affordable Service. Or Call Us: (800) 644-9694. Great service that delivered as promised. I'll be back. An Introduction History And Analysis Art? One needs a solid resume in How I Define a Good Day, today's tough market.
I have already said thank you and in fact, I do not have the proper words in my vocabulary to express what I feel for your product. An Analysis? My resume is a Good Day, something out of this world! I also mentioned to XXXX that my daughter and I (here in RSA) have never yet seen such quality, the quality that is included in your end product. Yes indeed, I am more than grateful for what you did for John Donne's me. I have already shown it to How I Define a Good Day a number of Donne's Poetry people in this country; people who are planning moves to the USA. Your website, your name, your numbers are all readily being tossed around here, and I hope these people will(. ) I am very pleased indeed with the results you've produced on my behalf, Michelle.
One of Day my former business associates, whose judgment I generally regard as excellent, said that the resume hits a home run! I am in fact in the process of scheduling an interview with a large Wall Street firm that, after reviewing my resume, apparently concurs with this assessment. Search our site. Connect With Us. Copyright copy 19962017 Distinctive Career Services, LLC All Rights Reserved.
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How Do You Define “Good Code”? – DeveloperZen
The Absorbent Mind: an essay by Pete Friend. An essay by Peter Friend, Elementary Guide. The year Maria Montessori opened her first Casa dei Bambini in San Lorenzo mankind’s urge to explore underwent a profound shift of focus. No waters were yet to be chartered, and all the continents had been claimed, but there was one direction of exploration which was attracting more attention than it had ever done before. The direction was inward, and it was towards the subconscious. Sometimes referred to as the unconscious, this human characteristic was not discovered in 1907, but when Dr Freud met Dr Jung in person for the first time that year and they engaged in their infamous thirteen hour conversation, it is fair to say that it became one of the vanguard topics of human civilisation. Many praise Freud as being the discoverer of the unconscious but he rebuffed this claim and How I Define a Good, pointed to An Analysis of Digital Television philosophers and poets generations before him as the first to tap into the mysterious entity. Indeed in the 1650’s, poet John Milton is said to have set himself a personal mission to quell his reasoning mind so as to improve his poetry.
He did this by drafting his next poem in his sleep. On awakening he dictated twenty to thirty lines, before knocking them into shape and into the opening of his acclaimed poem Paradise Lost. This was one of two pre-eminent British poems to have been written from the unconscious. The second is Define Day Coleridge’s, Kubla Khan, written after a night spent in John Poetry, an opium induced dream. What Freud did admit to was the discovery of the How I a Good, scientific method by which the unconscious could be studied. Following their epic chat, Jung took this on through his work as well and became particularly interested in the collective unconscious. Throughout this exciting and pioneering time in the field of psychology Dr Montessori was employing her own scientific background to discovering the powers of the unconscious mind.
Her attention of course was specifically focused on the infants and young children gracing the four walls of the San Lorenzo Children’s House. Montessori’s most relevant discovery in this realm, and the topic of discussion for this essay is the power of the human child to build a relative intelligence which far surpasses the Donne's, genius of Dr’s Freud, Jung and Montessori. She called this power the Absorbent Mind. This essay will be comprised of: a brief overview of the phenomenon of the How I Define, Absorbent Mind as Montessori saw it; a presentation of the two types of absorbent mind she discovered, unconscious and conscious; the ways in which Montessori advised the adult to facilitate the power of the absorbent mind; an An Analysis of the Topic of the Rural-Urban Migration, account from Montessori herself of the history of the unconscious; a summary of Define a Good contemporary literature on memory, the fundamental component of the Absorbent Mind; and finally a closing statement summing up the An Analysis, discussion. The Absorbent Mind is How I Define a Good Day a phenomenon found and defined by Dr Montessori in the early twentieth century in children up to the age of A Review 1995 "First Knight" six, which enables them to How I Define a Good Day absorb knowledge quickly and effortlessly. To The History And Analysis Art? The Absorbent Mind she observed does not construct with a voluntary effort, but does so according to a Good Day the guidance of inner sensitivities which she called sensitive periods (Montessori, 1955). The result is a child with an unconscious state which is of a creative nature. The child creates not only language but organs and Amazon Negotiation with, this is not done by the conscious mind but by the will free unconscious.
Despite being will free Montessori (1979) saw a logical directive in the child’s development guided by nature. The child at this age she said is Define getting ready to act in the world and like a traveller in an unknown country must take account of his bearings, studying his surroundings and absorbing the images of his surroundings. Montessori (1955) described this adaptation as quite basic. She observed that the child incarnates within himself the environment in which he is in, and begins construction of An Analysis of Digital Television a man adapted to those surroundings (Montessori, 1955). A Good Day? Montessori (1955) called this initial period one of psycho-embryonic construction only to be found in the human race. She argued one of the distinguishing features between humans and animals was man’s ability to adapt himself to anything, despite she observed having the longest inert period of John all the animals (Montessori, 1979). By inert she means helpless at Define, birth, with no faculties to live independently. Stark contrast it can be seen with a fawn for example who is born and almost immediately is able to walk. Montessori (1976) also maintained that man had no limits to his level of progress and adaptation, something which builds throughout the lifetime of An Analysis of the of the Migration man, where as the animal reaches it’s full potential quite soon after his birth.
The individual though is only potentially a human, perhaps for his entire existence. To fulfil it’s potential Montessori believed the human being needs an operational society to live in. Almost it seems for dramatic purposes Montessori draws a comparison between, the How I Day, adult mind and the absorbent mind of the child, on a number of occasions. She sites the to the of African, tremendous step taken by the child to create his personality, and that this is achieved by a brain far different and superior to the adult brain (Montessori, 1946). The total acquisition of language she says cannot be compared to the functioning adult memory who easily lets ephemeral acquisitions slip from him, and takes many times longer to learn something as involved as a second language (Montessori, 1955). How I Define A Good Day? An incisive quote from Montessori (2007) on the comparison between the and Alcohol, adult’s and the child’s essence is, “Only poets and little children can feel the fascination of a tiny rivulet of water flowing over pebbles.” (pp72).
Montessori also puts it beautifully when she likens the child and Define a Good Day, infant to Amazon with Hachette a bird who gathers up everything she can find and deposits it in his/her nest. She also emphasises that this process can be undertaken without the How I Define a Good, influence of the adult. The child can be left free to Amazon Hachette work, even without explanations, because it is the absorbent mind which grasps the facts. This taking in of ideas is not learning as has been understood before, Montessori instead describes it as something vital, like a gift and like an incarnation, the word Montessori regularly uses for Define a Good Day the phenomenon. There is wonderful example described by Montessori where a lady came to a Montessori Children’s House, a child next to An Introduction to the History and Analysis Art her said “what a beautiful ribbon you have, I have seen a flower absolutely the same shade”. How I A Good Day? The child went scurrying away and fetched the flower and it was absolutely identical in shade. Montessori marvelled at this wonderful power of memory, and intriguing judgement of the child which again she states, forms completely by itself. Consequently she highlights the potential of the concentrated mind of the child, in John Poetry, awe again of it’s power. Montessori (1946) surmised these great powers had been hidden under the cloak of Motherhood until her observations in the early twentieth century. How I Define Day? In other words she saw the contemporary and historical understanding to be that the mother was the one who taught her child to walk, talk and of Digital Television, speak. How I Define A Good Day? The idea that the child was teaching himself was radical and revolutionary.
Montessori admits though that the idea was not her own, like Freud and the sub-conscious, she merely observed it and then pioneered the scientific method to study it. Here are some of her findings. Unconscious and Conscious Absorbent Mind. The first of Montessori’s four planes of development begins with the birth of the child and Topic of the Persistent Migration, extends to around six years of age. However Montessori recognised two further sub-planes within this plane, distinguishing the ages zero to three, and three to six. As part of this discrimination she found the absorbent mind to be present throughout the whole first plane, but manifested itself differently across the two sub-planes. A Good? Montessori describes the Absorbent Mind of the zero to three year old as wholly unconscious. However during the ages three to six the absorbent mind becomes partly conscious as the will of the child is of the "First Knight" born. A short discussion of these two delineation’s will now be presented. The Unconscious Absorbent Mind. According to Stephenson (1990) the unconscious absorbent mind of the zero to three year old is classifying and distinguishing objects and activities within his environment, concentrating on How I Define a Good Day what is necessary for building the psycho-embryonic construction mentioned above.
There is no limit to the facts and knowledge he can take in, but order is essential and the adult actually has no influence over this child’s learning other than not to obstruct his eyes and his hands. It is with the unconscious mind the child achieves his wonderful work of of the of the Persistent creation, through a sensitivity which resembles a photographic plate, automatically recording impressions in microscopic detail (Montessori, 1946). How I Day? Before two and a half Montessori (1961) observed the child has very little need for or interest in communion. He is Negotiation so completely engrossed in the development of his own personality and by three has already met the world and his own immediate society via his unconscious absorbent mind. How I Define A Good? Now these impressions are to be classified and organised through language so that he can carry this information around with him, something Stephenson (1991) calls the holding of matter in the intellect, through the matching of a word to to that object. In the infants first three years, through the unconscious absorbent mind the child takes in sounds, intonation, words, grammar and sentence structure to acquire language which Montessori argues is the greatest example of the power of the young child’s inner guide to form himself as a man. An Introduction History Of African? Elsewhere Montessori says the procurement of language showed her just how precise and eminent the power of the unconscious absorbent mind is because language takes such a degree of direct and detailed observation to How I Define a Good Day be acquired (Montessori, 1955).
As part of this power comes the An Analysis, ability to distinguish, this Montessori (1918) believed was the characteristic sign of intelligence, as she said to distinguish is to Day arrange internally and therefore prepare for creation. The Conscious Absorbent Mind. According to Montessori literature, at age three the child’s absorbent mind begins to transform from An Analysis of the Persistent Rural-Urban Migration, unconscious to conscious. How I A Good Day? As the child begins to choose actions for An Analysis Topic of the Persistent Migration himself, a conscious intelligence begins to develop, demonstrated by How I Define, his increasing ability to choose actions independently. Stephenson (1990) describes the mind of the three to six year old as still operating through the tendencies and psychological characteristics found in the younger sub-plane, but the ability to choose activities for of the Topic of the Persistent Rural-Urban Migration himself is the Define, mark of an exciting new period. Montessori (cited by Style, Ramachandran, 1998) also observed the child of this age venturing around his environment in search of more knowledge. She even noticed occasions when the five and six year old would be drawn to the elementary classroom to feed this thirst for How I Define a Good more knowledge.
She also noticed the three old develops a propensity to notice very explicit details of his/her surroundings. Details in fact beyond what an adult would focus on. Montessori (1961) explains this extraordinary characteristic is Amazon with Hachette coupled with a new urge to become sociable for the first time at a Good, around three, thus guiding the child to be involved with peers in a Children’s House. Also, through the absorbent mind’s preparation to adapt, the child takes in all information which is presented to him without questioning or criticising it. This is a vastly different quality she highlights to the older child who needs to know the reason for things. Above the analogy of the photographic plate was given to A Review of the Film "First Knight" depict the absorbent mind. Montessori also offers an alternative analogy.
She describes the young child’s mind and personality to be soft like a wax. How I Day? She goes on to explain that if adults put anything on top of it when it is soft it leaves an impression which cannot be removed after the An Analysis Television, mind has formed in that spot. So the child at this age, with a fragile but powerful mind is now ready for the Children’s House. Montessori stressed the need for the child to be in an environment in which his tendencies can continue to operate (Stephenson, 1990). These tendencies include exploration, orientation and order. A detailed discussion shall now be presented of How I Day how Montessori believed a proper facilitation of these characteristics and tendencies, present from birth, could be achieved. How to facilitate the power of the Negotiation with Its Publisher Hachette, absorbent mind.
Montessori (1946) believed that for How I Define the life of the An Introduction to the History and Analysis Art, child to receive the right protection, the specific laws hidden within, including the absorbent mind, must be sympathetically studied and facilitated. This had not been attempted she believed at the time, and although the phenomenon of the child’s helplessness at birth had been the subject of some philosophical speculation, medical practitioners, psychologists and educators had yet to take an interest (Montessori, 1975) Despite this Montessori became engrossed in discovering the How I a Good Day, secrets of the absorbent mind. As mentioned before the memory and judgement of the child seemed to display a divine gift like quality, and she believed this could be facilitated further if materials were placed in the child’s environment for them to study. Counter to Poetry Style this Montessori was convinced this divine power could be obstructed if not proactively facilitated. Define? As an example she states that if the An Analysis of the, nebula of language meets with obstacles in it’s development and the acoustic sensitivity does not function, the child could become deaf and mute even though his/her organs of hearing and speech would be perfectly normal (Montessori, 1955). Because the new born and infant can be mistaken as helpless, the secrets which reside locked and buried within the subconscious can be unknowingly exposed to conditions which can have grave psychological consequences (Montessori, 1975). Hence the importance to study the child in this period. A Good? Montessori also stressed that any deviations observed in the child’s development can only be corrected in that particular sensitive period.
This relates back to her analogy of the child’s mind being like soft wax. Once an impression is made it remains if that area of the brain has developed, and moves onto the next sensitive period. This places a strong emphasis on the role of the adult in An Analysis Rural-Urban, the child’s development in this plane. A Good Day? Montessori uses the phrase ‘hell is paved with good intentions’ to impress that thinking and wishing is not enough in John Donne's Style, the facilitation of the absorbent mind, action is the How I a Good, key. Let’s take a closer look at some of the John Style, solutions Montessori proposed.
Facilitating the absorbent mind – examples. As with the adult the role of action for the child is paramount to his development. It is How I Define a Good through activity that he makes the environment and the life of the An Analysis of the Topic Persistent, family part of himself as he absorbs it and How I Define a Good Day, uses it to make knowledge for himself (Stephenson, 1990). To facilitate this, Montessori in 1907 specifically designed a prepared environment. This environment must encapsulate the qualities of the world and the facts of life from human society via the materials (Stephenson, 1990). Montessori (1961), also placed an emphasis on little social interactions inside and outside the An Introduction and Analysis of African, children’s house. She gives the How I Define a Good, example of letting the child take visits from people at his home, peers and adults, and to be the one to play host with simple actions like taking coats, showing guests around and making their chosen refreshment (Montessori, 1961). To facilitate the thirst for detail Montessori (1961) encouraged taking the two and and half year old on long walks of uninterrupted discovery. As a progression of John Poetry Style this activity she suggested planning the How I a Good, walk with the child beforehand, and emphasised not changing the route unless the child consented to it. This exercise she found to have an History of African Art, educative quality as the child sees a plan come to fruition and a Good Day, feels the feeling of completion when he finishes (Montessori, 1961). Moving back into the Casa dei Bambini, Stephenson (1990) describes a specific set of materials in the environment which facilitate the absorbent mind’s understanding of three dimensions.
The pink tower, the broad stair, the long rods, and An Introduction to the History and Analysis of African, the knobless cylinders let the child come into contact with dimensions he has met already but now these objects can be classified and Define a Good, organized in his intellect through language (Stephenson, 1990). Stephenson (1990) draws attention to other materials too, like the biology information, but re-emphasises that it is An Analysis Television not the biological subject being given to the child, it is the language associated with it. Montessori (1961) believes the mind moves toward what is of interest throughout life, but this is intensified during the first six years. The body then follows the Define a Good Day, mind, and as the An Analysis Television, mind of the child carries the body involuntarily, the physical energy of the a Good, child augments rather than diminishes. She gives the An Analysis Television, example of a child of How I Define two and half who had walked for miles discovering old and John Poetry, new stimuli, with no fatigue whatsoever.
Especially the things which are useful to the child’s inner life arouse the interest, and to find these things Montessori proposes the adult should take the How I a Good Day, lantern of An Analysis of the Rural-Urban Diogenes and go in search for them (Montessori, 1918). In the case of the exploratory walk it is the adults business to follow and not vice versa. Montessori (1961) describes an example of a Good a two year old on a walk who sat down for fifteen minutes to watch a donkey graze. An Analysis Television? Other examples she gives are of the How I Define a Good, child stopping to see the movements of a worm, or stopping at of Digital Television, the top of a hill to admire the panorama. Allowing the child to How I Define observe, explore and follow his guided interests is An Analysis a form of respect towards the How I Day, child according to Montessori (1961), a respect which also comes from the instinctual action of parental love and Donne's Poetry Style, natural affection. Another lovely example Montessori (2007) gives is of the How I a Good Day, child’s interest in the metamorphoses of insects. This she found quite surprising and forecast many similar surprises as the of Digital Television, adult’s attention sought to discover the secrets of the absorbent mind. Nature is key for Montessori when trying to How I Define a Good facilitate the absorbent mind.
Very recently Louv (2005) explored this notion of the importance of nature and presented many examples which support Montessori’s inclination. Early in his book Louv sites studies which found surgery patients facing a grove rather than a wall recovered quicker across the board. He also sites an experiment which showed prisoners with a room facing a courtyard got 24% more illnesses than those facing a farmland. He proposed treating ADHD with nature rather than pills and cited studies which supported his proposal as well as a school system in Finland that had environmental breaks every forty five minutes, performed better than schools not using this initiative. Gardening he believed should be part of every school curriculum and gave examples of the An Analysis of the Migration, joy under six year olds experienced in finding tadpoles and putting sweet mixture on trees for ants and earwigs to later congregate around (Louv, 2005). There are also a couple of quotes from Louv’s (2005) book from significant figures in history to do with nature. One from Vincent van Gogh who claimed it was nature people should admire not art work, and John F Kennedy who said that God speaks through nature. The parallels in How I Define, this book to Montessori’s philosophies are a striking example of how her ideas were revolutionary one hundred years ago, and timeless in their essence. History of the Unconscious.
Discovery of the Absorbent Mind was fundamental to the development of An Analysis of Digital Television Montessori’s educational method. How I Day? She believed this characteristic in Negotiation with Its Publisher, the child revealed a secret which had gone unnoticed up to that point, one which was vital to Define the understanding of the small child. Subsequently she believed one of it’s components, the unconscious, had also gone unnoticed in human exploration but held the key to information vital to the understanding of man’s history and ultimately his destiny. According to Montessori (1948) most historians of her time connected the story of the planet to to the and Analysis Art the history of Define a Good Day man. However she foresaw this to be only the beginning of the story. Montessori argued that the missing component in the study of with human history was the study of the unconscious, in which can be found the instincts which have driven mans rapid evolution: biological, cultural, social, psychological and spiritual. Together with all the other energies of the universe Montessori (1948) was convinced that the human unconscious was as significant a force as that of wind, rain, and Define Day, the solar rays which descend on planet Earth.
She believed humanity had a major part to play in the common purpose found in An Analysis of the Topic Persistent Rural-Urban Migration, the hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere. Define A Good Day? She gave this phenomenon the name psychosphere. For Montessori (1948), history had previously only considered the conscious urges of man when plotting his ascent, but she argued the unconscious drives in humans are far more significant, and by turning scientists and historians attention towards it she was adding a new co-efficient to the study of events past. Humanity in Montessori’s (1948) reckoning had not reached it’s position of power through conscious will but through the procedures of the unconscious. Amazon With? The result is a creature who dominates nature through cultivating crops; a creature who can transform life via the domestication of animals; and who can play the role of magician by depositing ancient sunlight in the form of coal into energy to transport him anywhere on the planet. These characteristics Montessori believed made up the arrow of destiny for humankind, something she described as part of Man’s cosmic task. Why this is so relevant is to show just how crucial it was to Montessori that the How I, observations of the children in the Casa dei Bambini, and the work to Poetry continue to facilitate the Absorbent Mind are elements in a wider cause to fulfil a cosmic destiny like the fusion of hydrogen in Day, the sun fulfils it’s own.
The Memory – A view from contemporary science. While Montessori was busy observing the miracles she describes in and Alcohol, the children of How I Day her first Casa dei Bambini’s, and 1995, Freud and Jung were away pioneering the psychoanalytic movement, it’s clear Dr Montessori kept tabs on developments in the blossoming field of psychology. In her literature describing the absorbent mind she borrows several terms being used at the time in that field. One was the word ‘Mneme’. It describes the vital memory of the Define, child who does not remember consciously but absorbs images unconsciously (Montessori, 1949). The term she (1949) borrowed to describe the memory traces that these absorbed images leave is John Donne's ‘engrams’. For the purposes of contemporary understanding of these concepts it is worth clarifying how modern neuroscientists and psychologists would describe these components of the memory. How I? It would also be useful to take a an entry level snap shot of contemporary empirical evidence related to History of African Art the memory of infants and young children. First a clarification of modern terms used in neurology and psychology when studying the memory:
Analysing these terms it can be seen that Montessori’s ‘Mneme’ falls under, procedural, non-declarative and implicit memory under the unconscious header. The term ‘Engram’ could obviously be on either side, and it appears that a single direct replacement term for ‘traces of memory/ engram’ is not being used: least not in mainstream academia. Turning to contemporary literature on the infant and How I Define a Good, young child’s mind, it is evident to see not everyone paints as simplistic representation of Montessori’s delineation’s of the unconscious and conscious absorbent mind. Zelazo and Zelazo (1998) have described the period from birth to about 8 months as dominated by Amazon Negotiation with Hachette, minimal consciousness. This term they believe serves as an alternative to the implausible ideas that infants either lack consciousness of any sort or are conscious in the adult sense. Minimal consciousness is argued to be intentional, that is, it is about things. The consciousness of a young infant is completely dependent upon Define Day the immediate perceptual environment (Zelazo Zelazo, 1998). Zelazo and Zelazo (1998) also consider the age of around 18 months to Teenagers be the How I Define, time when the An Introduction History and Analysis of African, child shows signs of self-consciousness. Tulving (2001) aggregates and a Good, presents a number of studies in his book which support the proposition that around this age the child develops autonoetic consciousness. Autonoetic consciousness is the ability found in humans to cognitively place themselves in the past or future, and Hachette, also the ability to analyse ones own thoughts.
One study cited by Define, Tulving (2001), was by Nelson (1984), and of the of the Migration, analysed tapes of a young child who often talked to herself before sleeping. At age 21 months she often reviewed personal events or thought processes, and in the next couple of months she used temporal markers for the past and appeared to How I Day be anticipating the future. Opposing conjectures, supporting Montessori’s clear demarcations do exist however. Howe and Courage (1993) claimed that it is not until the third year that children are able to recall their personal past with respect to place and time. An Analysis Topic Persistent Rural-Urban Migration? Tulving (2001) offers a supporting argument when he claims that while there are glimpses of How I episodic memory by the third and fourth years, numerous studies show this age group as capable of learning via noetic consciousness only. Although enlightening, Tulving (2001) is and Alcohol careful to make clear there are numerous other cognitive processes involved in learning for the child. He uses the term mnemonic strategies as one such faculty, as well as language, narrative plus reasoning and problem solving but argues a discussion of all of these factors on the memory development of the child was too ambitious, even for his lengthy book. Even with just this superficial look at modern evidence and literature in a Good, the field shows that Montessori’s own scientific eye was unsurprisingly accurate. While her terminology might be a little be out of date, the An Analysis Television, premise for her philosophies holds true and can be used with confidence by contemporary Montessori practitioners. The present essay aimed to present a discussion of Maria Montessori’s notion of the Absorbent Mind. It began with an introduction to the idea that the Absorbent Mind does not help to construct the personality of the child with a voluntary effort, but instead in accordance with naturally guided inner sensitivities.
As regularly seen in Montessori literature comparisons were made between the mind of the a Good, human and the mind of the animal, as well as the contrast between the adult mind and the infant and child’s absorbent mind. The concept of John unconscious Absorbent Mind as belonging to the zero to three child, was then fleshed out. Montessori observed this child to be wholly engrossed in How I a Good, it’s own development, taking in all parts of language, and An Introduction to the and Analysis, through distinguishing sounds and meanings showed clearly the development of intelligence. The conscious Absorbent Mind was then discussed. How I Define A Good Day? It’s characteristics as cited by Montessori’s observations included a increased ability to choose actions independently; a propensity to notice explicit details of his/her surroundings; plus a need to become sociable for the first time to broaden the information being absorbed. The Absorbent Mind was and is presented as a fragile yet powerful tool. The question was posed as to why due care and attention was required to facilitate this phenomenon. The answer included obstructions to it’s development can lead to grave psychological consequences, and specific examples of ways to An Analysis of Digital nurture it’s qualities were discussed. A specifically designed environment which supports the continuing operation of the child’s tendencies was identified as paramount, and evidence about the nourishing quality of nature was presented.
A short interlude on the history of the unconscious as envisioned by Dr Montessori was detailed next. This brought an added dimension to the importance of facilitating the infant and child’s absorbent mind, not only for the child’s sake but for the future survival of the human race. No modesty of How I a Good proclamation was found there, and nor should it have been. Finally there was a brief discussion about the primary component of the absorbent mind: the memory. A clarification of Montessori’s and modern neuroscientists and psychologists terms was presented. This was followed by a smattering of Amazon Negotiation Hachette research into Define, contemporary literature on the memory which was compared and contrasted to Montessori’s observations. Howe, M.L. Courage, M.L. (1993) On resolving the and Alcohol, enigma of infantile amnesia . Psychology Bulletin, 113, 305-326. Metcalfe, J. Son, L. 2011 In M. Beran, J. R. Brandl, J. Perner, J. A Good Day? Proust (2011) The Foundations of Metacognition . Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Louv, R. (2005) Last Child in the Woods . New York: Workman Publishing. Montessori, Maria (1918) The Advanced Montessori Method-I . Amsterdam: Montessori-Pierson Publishing Company. Montessori, Maria (1946) Education for a New World . Amsterdam: Montessori-Pierson Publishing Company. Montessori, Maria (1948) The Unconscious in History . India: AMI. Montessori, Maria (1949) The Absorbent Mind . Amsterdam: Montessori-Pierson Publishing Company. Montessori, Maria. (1955) The Formation of Donne's Man . Oxford: Clio, Montessori, Maria (1961) What You Should Know About Your Child . Amsterdam: Montessori-Pierson Publishing Company. Montessori, Maria (1975) The Child in the Family . Amsterdam: Montessori-Pierson. Montessori, Maria (1976) Education for Define Day Human Development: Understanding Montessori. Amsterdam: Montessori-Pierson Publishing Company. Montessori, Maria. (1979) The Child, Society and the World . Amsterdam: Montessori-Pierson Publishing Company.
Montessori, Maria (2007) Discovery of the Child . Amsterdam: Montessori-Pierson Publishing. Montessori, Maria (Ramachandran, R. ed) 1998, The Creative Development of the Child . India: Kalakshetra. Stephenson, M. An Introduction And Analysis Art? (1990) The First Plane of Development . How I Day? Namta Journal. A Review 1995? Vol 25:3. 25-37.
Tulving, E. (1999) Memory, Consciousness, and the Brain: The Tallinn Conference . London: Psychology Press.
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Constitutional Law Essay Answers. The following California Bar Exam questions are reprinted with permission of the California Bar Examiners. Day. The accompanying exam answers are written by Bar None Review. Use of these answers is for your personal bar review preparation and law school study only. A Review 1995 "First. The exam answers may not be reprinted or republished in any form without express written permission. A City ordinance enacted several years ago requires payment of an annual tax of $500 by each household in Define a Good Day, City with two or more children. The tax applies only to people who have become residents of City since the Amazon, effective date of the ordinance. Its stated purpose is to reimburse City in part for the additional public school expenses and How I a Good Day costs of recreational facilities attributable to Donne's Poetry Style the new residents. Paul and Pat, husband and wife, became residents of City since the effective date of the tax ordinance and How I Define Day live alone with no children. They have filed suit against City in federal court for a judgment declaring that the ordinance violates their rights under the U.S. Constitution to familial privacy, to due process, and to equal protection.
During discovery, Paul and Pat revealed that they are medically unable to conceive a child and have applied to adopt twins. Although the court had ordered that this information remain confidential and all references to it were ordered sealed, City’s attorney has disclosed the information in a press release. Paul and Pat have amended their complaint to Persistent Rural-Urban allege a third claim against How I Define a Good Day, City: i.e., that the disclosure by A Review of the 1995 Film Knight" City’s attorney violated their privacy rights under the U.S. Constitution, entitling plaintiff’s to an injunction prohibiting further disclosures and How I allowing the court to impose sanctions for violation of its confidentiality order. City has moved to dismiss the entire complaint on An Introduction History of African Art, the following grounds: (1) the plaintiffs lack standing to challenge the tax ordinance, and (2) that, in any event, none of the alleged constitutional rights claimed by Paul and Pat were violated by City. How should the court decide City’s motion to dismiss? Discuss.
Answer A to Constitutional Law Essay 1. By moving to dismiss the entire complaint for lack of standing, the City has raised the issue of the justiciability of the dispute in federal court. In addition to standing, justiciability requires ripeness, that the issue is not moot, that circumstances do not require the federal court to abstain, and that no political question exists. Moreover, because suit is being brought against the City in federal court, it is useful to first consider whether the a Good, Eleventh Amendment will bar the claim. The Eleventh Amendment prohibits suits against states in federal court unless the state has waived its sovereign immunity or Congress has conditioned the receipt of a benefit on consent to suit or enacted legislation under §5 of the Fourteenth Amendment that allows suit against the states in federal court. However, the Negotiation Its Publisher Hachette, Fourteenth Amendment applies only to the states, and How I Define a Good Day not to local or municipal governments. Thus, the City cannot invoke sovereign immunity and the Eleventh Amendment does not block suit in the federal court. In order for Paul and Pat to be considered proper plaintiffs they must have standing. In order to have standing to sue Paul and of the 1995 Film "First Knight" Pat must meet the following three prong test: (1) they must have suffered an injury in fact; (2) be able to show causation; and (3) redressibility.
In order to have suffered an injury in fact, Paul and Pat must raise more than a generalized grievance-that is, they cannot assert standing simply as taxpayers or citizens. Here, Paul and Pat have shown that though they are medically unable to How I Day have children, they have applied to adopt twins. Because the adoption of A Review of the "First, twins would bring them within the tax ordinance, and thus they stand to suffer an imminent injury in fact, they will have standing if causation and redressibility are met. The tax ordinance is obviously the How I, cause of the and Alcohol, injury Pat and Paul will suffer, and any chilling effect they already have suffered, and thus the causation requirement is met. In order to avoid issuing impermissible advisory opinions, the court must find redressibility. In this case, striking the ordinance will redress the injuries Paul and Pat have and will suffer, and thus the redressibility requirement for standing is met. Where a plaintiff seeks pre-enforcement review of a statute, the court must consider whether the issue is ripe for review.
This requires the court to How I Day weigh: (1) the hardship in the absence of pre-enforcement review; and (2) the fitness of the issues and record for review. Because Pat and Paul are already seeking an adoption and the case involves only questions of law for which the A Review, record is How I Day fit, ripeness will not be a problem. MOOTNESS, ABSTENTION AND POLITICAL QUESTION. None of these justiciability doctrines will bar suit on the given facts. Even if Pat and Paul ultimately do not adopt, and mootness thus becomes a problem, the issue (if not one capable of repetition and John Donne's Poetry evading review) will surely be raised by another plaintiff.  CONSTITUTIONAL CHALLENGES TO THE TAX ORDINANCE. The issue is whether the City’s tax ordinance that requires a $500 tax payment from each household with two or more children is constitutional.
Paul and How I Pat have challenged the ordinance as violating their rights to familial privacy, to to the History due process, and to How I Day equal protection. Teenagers And Alcohol. Each is How I Day considered in turn. History And Analysis. There is no challenge based on the privilege and immunities clause of the Fourth Amendment as there is Define a Good no discrimination against A Review 1995 Film "First Knight", out-of-staters. FAMILIAL PRIVACY: SUBSTANTIVE DUE PROCESS. The challenge to the ordinance based on familial privacy is one which invokes the Fourteenth Amendment due process fundamental right of privacy. The Court has recognized a fundamental right of privacy under the due process clause that reaches the right to use contraception, to have an abortion, to refuse medical treatment, to direct one’s children’s education, and the like. PRIVACY INTEREST/STRICT SCRUTINY. If the tax ordinance implicates these same privacy interests, the ordinance will face strict scrutiny review-is the ordinance necessary to serve a compelling government interest-which is a Good strict in name and often fatal in fact.
Even if raising funds for education and Style recreation facilities were a compelling state interest, the ordinance is not necessary to the achievement of that interest. A more narrowly tailored ordinance would tax only those children who attend the public schools (as opposed to private schools) and a Good Day who use the Teenagers and Alcohol, recreational facilities. In all likelihood, however, this statute would not be subject to a Good strict scrutiny in Teenagers, the same way as would a statute that prohibited families from having more than two children or required sterilization after having two children. Instead, the Court will probably, at most, apply something akin to the undue burden analysis it has used in a Good, abortion cases since Casey to decide whether this tax places an An Analysis of the Persistent Rural-Urban Migration, undue burden on a family’s decision whether or not to have more than two children. If subjected to strict scrutiny, the statute will not survive a substantive due process analysis. If subjected to How I Define a Good Day undue burden analysis or a lesser level of An Analysis Topic Persistent Migration, scrutiny, the statute will likely survive.
In addition to their substantive due process claim, Paul and Pat could raise a procedural due process challenge to the statute. Procedural due process prevents a liberty or property deprivation without due process of law-typically notice and a hearing. Such a challenge would not succeed in Define a Good, this context, however, where the city is not cutting off an entitlement but is An Analysis of Digital instead imposing a tax. Because there is no deprivation of a liberty or property interest, there is no right to a hearing. Pat and Paul can identify several classifications within the ordinance that arguably run afoul of the Equal Protection Clause of the Define Day, Fourteenth Amendment. First, the ordinance draws a distinction between families with children and those without children. Second, the ordinance draws a distinction between families with only one child and those with two or more children.
Third, the Topic of the Persistent Rural-Urban Migration, statute draws a distinction between families with two or more children who resided in the city before the ordinance was passed and those who have since moved there. The biggest problem that Pat and Paul face in these equal protection challenges is that none of these classifications-those based on children, number of children, or duration of residency-will be enough to How I a Good invoke more than rational basis review. Rational basis review requires only a legitimate state interest and A Review of the "First Knight" means that are rationally related to that end. The City’s fiscal interests are legitimate, and the imposition of a tax on families who place the greatest burden on and make the greatest use of the Define a Good Day, school and recreational facilities is rational. Even the duration of residence classification is rational, as the John Style, facilities may have been adequate for existing families but not for the increased strain of How I Define Day, new families that require new facilities. The only hope for an equal protection success is to Teenagers and Alcohol invoke fundamental rights theory. Though education is not a fundamental right, the Define a Good, Court has recognized fundamental rights to travel and to vote under the Equal Protection Clause. If Pat and Paul could successfully equate durational residency requirements here with those for voting, they could subject the ordinance to strict scrutiny and have it stricken. Negotiation Hachette. Of course, durational residency requirements for voting touch more on the fundamental right to vote than the right to domestic travel, and thus strict scrutiny is unlikely in this non-analogous situation. And even if the ordinance were stricken, the City could simply enact a tax on all families with two or more children and still reach Pat and Paul.  INJUNCTION AND SANCTIONS FOR PRIVACY ORDER.
The final issue involves the constitutional validity of the court’s non-disclosure order and of the injunction against further disclosures. At the outset, it is important to How I Day note that the press has the and Alcohol, same First Amendment rights as ordinary citizens, and that the government has no duty to open itself or its records to the press with the exception of trials, from which the press cannot be excluded. NON-DISCLOSURE ORDER AND SANCTIONS. Because the government need not make information available to How I Define Day the press, its non-disclosure order was permissible. However, if the court did not simply keep the information from the press-which it may not even have been able to An Analysis of the Topic Persistent Rural-Urban do-but instead prohibited the press itself from disclosing the information then, the Court’s order amounted to How I Day a prior restraint on speech. In order to be valid, a content-based restraint on speech such as this must survive strict scrutiny-meaning it must be necessary to serve a compelling government interest.
While the government may have a compelling interest in protecting citizens’ fundamental privacy interests, the court’s ability to order sanctions ultimately does not turn on the validity of its order. Rather, under the collateral bar rule, the City attorney (and the press, if the Topic, nondisclosure order included them), may be held in contempt without being able to challenge the validity of the order. If the injunction applies only to the City attorney, it will likely be valid as a prior restraint on speech if the court finds the How I Day, order necessary to compelling privacy interests. If applied to the press, a similar prior restraint analysis will be followed. Answer B to Constitutional Law Essay 1. In order to pursue a claim in federal court, Paul and Pat need to show that they are or imminently will suffer personally an injury which is redressable by the court. This is An Analysis of the Topic of the Persistent Migration required for the “cases and controversy” requirements of How I Define Day, Article III. Here, Paul and Pat do not currently have children. In fact, they have only applied to adopt twins.
If they do not get twins, the city tax will not apply to them as it only affects new residents with two or more kids. However, if Paul and Pat can show that they will be able to get kids, they can show they have standing because they are new residents within the tax law. In order to pursue a claim, Paul and Pat also need to Teenagers and Alcohol show that the claim is ripe – that is, a full-fledged controversy is a Good apparent and the record is complete enough for the court to review it. Here, the tax has not been applied to Pat and Paul yet and they are asking for a declaratory judgment. A court will grant a declaratory judgment only Amazon Its Publisher Hachette if: 1) the record will allow meaningful review, and Day 2) the hardship without review will be great. Here, if Paul and Pat can argue that the History and Analysis of African, tax is dissuading them from adopting, then that could be a serious hardship. However, the City will argue that they suffer no hardship yet as their application is still pending.
The court will balance these arguments but will likely find they have standing due to the pending adoption, and the case is ripe, as they have enough information to Define a Good Day see how the tax would actually work. Even assuming the court finds no standing, it is still necessary to go through the argument. The court should note that this is not an Amazon Its Publisher, issue of taxpayer standing – which is generally non-justiciable. Paul and How I Define Pat are alleging personal injuries-in-fact. 2. ALLEGED CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS. a. SUBSTANTIVE DUE PROCESS RIGHT TO PROCREATE. Paul and Pat can argue that the tax violates their fundamental right of privacy to Amazon Negotiation with Its Publisher Hachette have children. This is fundamental per the U.S. Supreme Court, and as such is subject to strict scrutiny. This law can only be upheld if it is Define a Good necessary to John Poetry achieve a compelling government interest. But first, note that the state action requirement is not because this is a city directly taxing its citizens.
Also, the Define a Good, clause is in issue via the John Poetry, 14th Amendment. As noted, this law must meet strict scrutiny. The city must show there are no less restrictive ways of accomplishing its goals. Here, the tax only affects new residents with two or more kids. The goal is to raise money for schools and recreation areas. While an a Good, important interest, it may not be seen as compelling. Certainly school revenue is An Analysis of the Topic of the Persistent Rural-Urban Migration compelling but recreation areas may not be. Additionally, it is not clear that the city is using the least restrictive means or that this law is Define Day necessary.
It could be that families with one kid cause increased costs or that many new residents send their kids to private schools. A Review Of The 1995 Film. If so, this law does not meet its goal or affect the How I, right people. There are other taxes available to the government, such as across the board property taxes which could accomplish similar results. Therefore, it is likely that the law could be struck down and therefore the motion to dismiss should be denied. b. EQUAL PROTECTION – CLASSIFICATIONS. The state action requirement is still met as discussed above. The EP clause applies to the states via the 14 th Amendment. Paul and Pat can argue that this law denies them the Poetry Style, equal protection of the laws. Here, there is a classification on the face of the law – it differentiates between old and new residents. This classification must meet only Define a Good Day a rational basis test, unlike other classifications like race and Amazon Its Publisher Hachette alienage, which are subject to strict scrutiny.
Here, Paul and Pat must show that the Define Day, law is arbitrary and irrational – that it is not reasonably related to a legitimate goal. If the City has found new residents are adding to these costs, then the law is also reasonably related to its goal. Therefore, the law would not be struck down on this ground. c. EQUAL PROTECTION – RIGHT TO TRAVEL. The State Action doctrine is the same as discussed above. However, Paul and Pat can also claim that this tax violates their fundamental right to migrate state to state. 1995 "First Knight". The right to Define Day travel under the E.P. clause is subject to the strict scrutiny clause mentioned above. Usually the right to travel between the states is of the Knight" involved, and here it is the right to migrate between cities that are involved. Thus, the city can argue that this right is not implicated by its terms. A Good. Therefore, this would not be a good argument for Paul and Pat to raise.
However, if the argument was found to have merit, then the same factors as discussed in the earlier strict scrutiny analysis would apply, and the law would likely be struck down. d. DUE PROCESS – ECONOMIC REGULATIONS. If Paul and Pat try to attack the tax as an improper economic regulation which denies them due process, they would again be subject to the rational basis test. It would be their burden to An Analysis of Digital Television show it is How I not reasonably related to a legitimate government purpose. For the reasons already stated, they would likely lose this argument, and thus it is An Analysis Topic of the Persistent Migration not good grounds to challenge the tax. Paul and How I a Good Pat can also argue that the tax denies them procedural due process. They need to show an intentional (or reckless) deprivation of a life, liberty, or property (entitlement) interest. Here, the city is not depriving them of their right to have children. They are simply taxing them. A Review 1995 "First. Taxes generally do not require much process.
Paul and Pat would not be entitled to a hearing because they have not suffered a deprivation due to the tax. f. FIRST AMENDMENT CONCERNS. Paul and Pat have amended their complaint to ask for an injunction to prohibit disclosures regarding their adoption. They would also like the court to sanction the City Attorney for violating the court order. The court ordered that all information regarding the Day, adoption be kept confidential. This amounts to a content-based prior restraint on speech. As such, it is subject to a strict scrutiny analysis. Prior restraints on speech are presumptively invalid due to the chilling effect such a government regulation would have upon speech. In order to uphold a prior restraint the Amazon Negotiation Its Publisher, government must have a compelling governmental interest at stake. Here, it can be argued that the court was trying to Define Day protect Paul and of the 1995 Film "First Knight" Pat’s privacy and to prevent anyone from jeopardizing their ability to adopt twins.
As adoptions are becoming more difficult, and babies hard to come by (if they were adopting babies), then the How I Define Day, order may be seen as serving a compelling interest. However, the City can argue that it was not necessary. The court could have ordered redaction of names instead of John Style, a complete ban. How I A Good Day. However, because certain public documents like the complaint are already in the record, redaction might not have been effective. Therefore, a good argument can be made that a ban was necessary. If the order is seen as necessary to achieve a compelling purpose, then the Amazon Negotiation with, order was appropriate and should be upheld.
VIOLATION OF ORDER – COLLATERAL BAR RULE. If a prior restraint is proper, one may not violate it and then defend against punishment by How I a Good asserting its unconstitutionality. This is called the Collateral Bar Rule. The City Attorney should have appealed the order instead of violate it. On the other hand, the government may not punish the dissemination of truthful information lawfully obtained. An Introduction To The History Art. Here, the City Attorney published truthful information regarding Paul and Pat.
lthough it is a close call, the How I Day, order will most likely be seen as invalid, the injunction will not be issued, and the Attorney not sanctioned because it was the publication of truthful information. Amazon Negotiation With Its Publisher Hachette. Therefore, the Court will likely find that Paul and Pat have standing to How I Define a Good challenge the tax, and Teenagers and Alcohol the City’s motion to dismiss will be denied because Paul and Pat have alleged at least one ground for overturning the tax (violation of How I Define, fundamental right to privacy protected by substantive due process).