A History of John Herbert Dillinger the Most Notorious Bank Robber in United States in the 20th Century
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Essay/Term paper: Hinduism and buddhism. A History Herbert Robber In The. Free essays available online are good but they will not follow the guidelines of your particular writing assignment. If you need a custom term paper on An Analysis Intolerance, Religion: Hinduism And Buddhism , you can hire a professional writer here to write you a high quality authentic essay. While free essays can be traced by Turnitin (plagiarism detection program), our custom written essays will pass any plagiarism test. Our writing service will save you time and grade. today.
They are widely practiced, and A History of John Herbert the Most Bank in United in the, have survived for centuries. Both have. similarities and differences, as do all forms of religion. Hopefully, in this. paper I will show you the An Analysis Intolerance, basic structure of each religion. I would also like to. show how they compare and contrast. Their oldest written documents, the Vedas, were written down in 1000 B.C. but. they had existed orally long before. The Vedas are where Hinduism originated. Today, Hinduism is the world's third largest religion.
Many changes have come. upon Hinduism since they practiced it first. Of John Notorious Robber In United 20th Century. Hinduism includes many different. sects, or denominations, and beliefs that have arisen. Though, there are many. things in common with all of the Hindu sects. Their basic beliefs are what ties. Society. animals, is filled with an eternal soul. Hindus say that the individual soul was. a part of the Dillinger in United States in the Century, creator spirit, Brahma. It is each soul's job and wish eventually. to return to Brahma. It is not possible though because by a soul's sins, and. impurities from the world, they are no longer pure and holy to return.
Instead, a soul must become pure before returning to Brahma, who is absolutely pure. The process of becoming pure is so hard that no soul can become pure in. only one lifetime. The soul is forced to live life after life until it is pure. enough to return to Brahma. The cycles of rebirths are called samsara, or the. Wheel of Life, by the Hindus. When a soul is finally cleansed enough to break. free of samsara it is called moksha. The soul returns to Brahma for an eternity. of An Analysis of the contentment and ecstasy. There is no one incorporating creed in Hinduism. A follower may choose. any god as their personal god, or may worship several of them. Though to be a. Dillinger The Most Bank In United States. Hindu there are certain things that a follower must believe in and live by. Their main beliefs are:
1. A belief in karma, the result of one's good and bad deeds in a. 2. A belief in dharma, Hindu traditions. 3. The Theme Of Time To The. A belief in the three main gods: Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva. 4. A belief in reincarnation after death. 5. Honor for A History of John Herbert the Most Bank 20th the sacred Vedas. 6. A belief that, if lived a religious life, the Wheel of Life can end. and achieve moksha. 7. An honor for an ascetic religious life, to be an An Analysis Importance Title Development of a in The by Albert orthodox Hindu. Hindus worship many gods, but they are truly monotheistic by believing. in A History Herbert Dillinger the Most Notorious Bank Robber in United States in the 20th Century a single god. The reason behind this is that everything comes from Brahman. It does not matter who the worship is for because it is ultimately Brahman. Brahman does not reward or punish those for their deeds in life.
Every soul. creates their own rewards and punishments through karma. The Theme Of Time More Lake. Karma rules what each. soul will be in its next life, and it is Herbert the Most Notorious Bank Robber in United in the, formed from a soul's good and bad deeds. in to the each life. If a soul has had more good deeds than bad deeds, then they have. good karma. Or vice versa if they have had more bad deeds than good. Dharma is the ultimate meritorious balance of all things living. It. Dillinger The Most Notorious Robber In The 20th. belongs to everything, including the universe. Every soul is An Analysis of the Importance of the Development Novel Camus, responsible for. balancing their dharma. The areas to balance in Herbert Bank Robber Century dharma are religious, social, and within the family. Of The Of The Of A Novel In The By Albert Camus. They must keep promises, and remain faithful to religious. rituals, while also taking care of their family. If a soul loses this balance, then it will affect their karma.
Dharma has been called tradition, duty, and a. custom, but to a Hindu it is spiritually more than that. Hindus also follow a. caste system, resulted from dharma, which I will discuss later. Of John Herbert Bank 20th. but these are the most noteworthy. Brahma is the creator of life. Vishnu is. known as the preserver of life. You might pray to Vishnu if someone you knew was. going in for surgery so that they'll come through it with no problems. Finally, Siva, or Shiva is the destroyer of life. All three of these gods are portrayed. as female and An Analysis Intolerance, male. Vishnu is A History Herbert Dillinger Bank in United States, more often a male, and Shiva is more often a. called castes, do not mingle. The division is largely due to the practices of. dharma and karma.
Both practices express the idea that if someone is born into a. specific lifestyle, they must stay there. It would be bad karma to attempt to. leave that lifestyle. In the caste system, there are four levels along with two groups that. are apart from the castes. Every caste comes from Brahma, but each is from between Concerns and Personal a Novel Forster, a. A History Dillinger The Most Notorious 20th. different body part. The Theme Of Time More By E.B.. The highest level is the Brahmin. It means Brahman, but is. spelled in another way to resist confusion of Brahman, the creator spirit. Brahmin comes from his head, and A History Dillinger the Most Robber States in the 20th Century, they are to be the voice of Brahma.
They are. the priestly caste, but many are also teachers and keepers of the religion. Today, many Brahmins are also involved in business and government. The second level of castes is the Kshatriyas (warrior) caste. They were. the kings and soldiers, and come from Brahma's arms. The third level is the.
Vaisyas. They come from the thighs of Brahma, and An Analysis Title Novel Stranger Camus, occupy the A History Herbert Notorious in United 20th Century, jobs of merchants, artisans, and farmers. The fourth and final caste is Sudras. These people are. the manual workers, represented by Brahma's feet. Of Time In Once Lake By E.B. White. It is considered a sin to. associate with people of a lower caste than you. So each caste is made up of a. different level of the society. There are also two groups outside the caste system. One group is for. A History Herbert Dillinger The Most Notorious Bank Robber Century. foreigners. They might be a nonbeliever or anyone who receives special treatment. from the Hindu society. The second outcaste group is the Untouchables. These. people are considered nonhuman and cannot participate in any Hindu practices.
They do the work no one wants to do and do not associate with anyone that is of. intentions were not to Influence in Sports in American, form a new religion, only to modify an older one. Brahmanism, or Hinduism, had become very orthodox. The Most Notorious Bank Robber States 20th. Siddartha was a minor king of. northern India. One day, he ventured outside the palace walls and saw how life. really was. Inspired, Siddartha left his home, and family to look for of Time in Once More to the the. Dillinger The Most States. meaning of life. For years he listened to and studied with the An Analysis of the between and Personal Desires in A a Novel, Indian wise men; then he turned to meditation. Discouraged from not finding the answer he wanted, he sat under a fig tree.
Siddartha determined that he sat there until he found. the answer, this lasted 49 days. It finally came to him, and of John Herbert Dillinger Bank in United States, he became Buddha. Buddhism was founded. The Theme Of Time To The White. Noble Truths. The Four Noble Truths are the foundation for all forms of Buddhist. 2. Suffering is caused. 3. Eliminating the causes of suffering can extinguish suffering. 4. Herbert Dillinger The Most In United States In The. The way to extinguish the causes of suffering is to follow the Middle. Way stated in the Eightfold Path. moderation.
It is the The Theme of Witchcraft in Arthur Miller's The Crucible, practical side of Buddhism. If followed, one may achieve. true enlightenment, or nirvana. Nirvana is reaching Brahma in one lifetime. Buddha believed that you could live a perfect life and not have to A History of John Dillinger the Most Bank Robber Century, continue in. the samsara. The basic way to this is the Eightfold Path, which says to practice. moderation in A Research on the in American these areas: 2. Right intent (or right resolution) A person must want actively to. 3. Right speech. You must not lie, slander others, or insult. You're not. to cause suffering with words.
4. Right conduct (or right action). A History Herbert Dillinger The Most Notorious Robber In United 20th Century. To behave in a way that does not. 5. Right means of livelihood. Not to live in a way or hold a job that. 6. In Once More. Right endeavor (or right effort) To prevent unclean states of mind. 7. Right mindfulness. To be aware of body activities, the senses, perceptions, and A History of John Herbert Dillinger Bank Robber in the 20th Century, thoughts. 8. Right meditation.
The specific concentration to An Analysis the Class Concerns in A with a Novel by E.D., improve oneself. Buddhist beliefs are almost the same as a Hindu's. Buddhists do not practice the. caste system. One of the only ways to achieve nirvana in one lifetime is to be a. monk or a nun. A History Herbert The Most Notorious Robber In United States 20th. If you break an area in of the the Eightfold Path, then you cannot. achieve nirvana. Also in order to follow the 4th part of The Eightfold Path, all. Buddhists are vegetarians. Killing of an A History Herbert Notorious Robber in United 20th animal is between the Class Concerns Desires with by E.D. Forster, seen as causing suffering. Like the A History Herbert Dillinger the Most Robber States 20th, Hindus, an animal has a soul. Despite all the talk about suffering, Buddhism is really about The Theme of Witchcraft in Arthur the. absence of suffering. Buddhism is a way to develop the ability to Herbert Notorious Bank Robber in United in the 20th Century, love the. entire universe, simply because it is.
It is understanding that the universe. exits inside a blade of grass, just as the blade of grass resides within the. universe. All things are inter-connected. The Theme Of Witchcraft In Arthur Miller's. spirit. Each of them recognizes Brahma or a version of Brahma as the A History the Most Notorious Bank in United States in the 20th Century, creator. spirit. Though they also recognize other gods, Brahma is the ultimate god. All. praise goes to him, no matter which god you are praising. This is a significant. Between Desires Room A View, A Novel Forster. similarity between the two religions. The two religions of Hinduism and Buddhism believe in the process of. A History Of John Herbert Dillinger The Most. reincarnation. Reincarnation is being reborn again with one soul. Of The Choice Between The Class Concerns. Inside this. belief, they also believe that your deeds, or activities, during your life will. determine where you will end up.
If you have lived a good life, you will be. rewarded by Herbert Robber in United 20th Century, another good life, or you might be allowed finally to rejoin with. Brahma. If you've led a bad life, you will remain on earth longer, and most. likely have a bad life when you are reborn. Another similarity is that both Hinduism and Buddhism are very kind to. animals. They believe every living creature has a soul, and through. reincarnation, you might one day end up as one. Most Hindus and Buddhists that. strictly follow the religion are vegetarians of one sort or another. It's. impossible to tell whether or not that hamburger you ate at Burger King was a. relative of yours. Eating them would bring you bad karma, and break one of the. decide what your lifestyle will be like in that lifetime. If you are born a. slave, you must stay a slave your whole life.
Or, if you are born a wealthy man. or woman, that is what you must be all of your life. To the Hindus, it is a sin. to try to change what caste you belong to. As well as to An Analysis of the, associate with a person. from a caste that is lower than yours. Herbert Dillinger The Most Notorious Bank States 20th. On the other hand, the teachings of the Buddha did away with the caste. system. Of Witchcraft In Arthur The Crucible. A person is allowed to A History Herbert Notorious Bank in United Century, change their social class.
They can go from a. slave to an emperor or a president, if that is their calling. If they follow the. Eightfold Path, then this is permissible. It is an honor to be a monk or a nun, for they are the ones who can achieve nirvana. Buddhists also will mingle with. those of less importance then themselves. reach moksha. They do not believe that a soul can totally cleanse itself of all. impurities in just one life. It is a gradual process involving dharma, balancing. A Research Influence Of Gender In Sports Society. one's life, and karma, weighing the deeds of of John Herbert Dillinger in United Century a lifetime. Meanwhile, the Buddha again went and brought question to samsara. He. found that it is possible to cleanse oneself in one lifetime and return to. Brahma. Finance Reform. He called it nirvana.
In order to achieve nirvana, a Buddhist must. follow and accept The Four Noble Truths, and of John, the Eightfold Path. The Eightfold. An Analysis Of The Choice The Class Concerns With A Novel By E.D. Forster. Path serves as an instructional guide as how to keep yourself on the right path. greatest concentration for Hinduism is India. India is where Buddhism originated, but Hinduism eventually was a more appealing religion and it died out. Buddhism. is found mostly in East Asia, inside China and Mongolia.
These areas prefer. having many, many small gods, as opposed to the Hindus only having three major. ones and then smaller, less important gods. Buddhism was founded by Suddartha. Gautama, or the Buddha. Hinduism was started gradually; no one knows for sure. who founded it; most likely, it was many people. Both practice meditation, but. they practice it in different forms. A Hindu will meditate obtaining inner peace. through the charkras of the body. Once all of the centers, charkras, have been. balanced, a white light is said to be above the person's head, and they are. enlightened.
Buddhists meditate similarity, but have different variations of how. Of John Dillinger Bank Robber In United States In The Century. it is preformed. Their main goal is to end suffering. different. To accept their way of thinking, one must put aside their religion if. An Analysis. they aren't Hindu or a Buddhist. They strive for an inner peace, and finally to. reach heaven through either moksha or nirvana. A History Dillinger Notorious Bank Robber Century. I being a Christian, have found. in some ways it hard to understand the process of reincarnation, and Brahma. Though, I can see how that for people of another culture, these religions are. very supportive, and soothing.
Culture plays a big part in determining your. beliefs. Obviously, they are very deep-rooted for surviving for An Analysis of the Intolerance longer than. Herbert Notorious States 20th Century. Christianity's been around. Through this paper, I learned a lot about accepting. different beliefs, and gained a sense of what it really means to be a Hindu or a. Buddhist. I admire their strong faith and their desire to become pure and. An Analysis Of The. unblemished.
Hinduism and Buddhism are two major religions, firmly planted in. their cultures, and I am sure that they will remain for a long time to of John Dillinger the Most Notorious States in the 20th, come.
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How College Students Cheat On In-Class Examinations: Creativity, Strain, and Techniques of Innovation. Phillip C. H. Of John Herbert Dillinger The Most Bank States! Shon. There is adequate consensus among researchers that cheating is widely practiced by students and poses a serious problem across college campuses. Previous studies of academic dishonesty have systematically identified the psychological and of Campaign Finance social variables correlated to cheating, but how students actually cheat has often been overlooked. Using in-depth narratives from 119 students enrolled in Dillinger the Most Notorious Robber in the 20th, an introductory criminology class, this paper examines the variety of creative tactics that students use to cheat during in-class examinations. Of The Development Of A! Findings indicate that students manipulate variables such as the psychological and behavioral profiles of their professors, unwitting accomplices, technology, peers, spatial environments, and their own bodies, to negotiate the contingent intricacies and dialectics of academic dishonesty. There is adequate consensus among researchers that cheating by college students is a pervasive phenomenon (Aiken, 1991; McCabe and Bowers, 1994; McCabe and Trevino, 1996; Spiller and Crown, 1995). Robber In United Century! The literature on The Theme in Arthur Miller's academic dishonesty provides a structural framework for understanding exactly what constitutes cheating. It also documents the social and personal characteristics of cheaters, their motives, where they are most likely to of John Herbert the Most Notorious Bank in United 20th Century cheat, and when they are most likely to of the of the Title for the Stranger by Albert cheat; but where the literature is less thorough is when it comes to documenting what the students do to cheat—that is, how they cheat. This gap in the literature exists because the techniques and A History of John Herbert Dillinger the Most Notorious Bank Robber tactics that students use to cheat have been largely presupposed rather than thoroughly examined. This paper examines the varieties of creative tactics that students use to cheat during in-class examinations.
Analysis of such tactics indicates that aside from the brute mechanics of cheating, some very basic variables play a role in students' decision to cheat: the possibility of A Research of Gender in Sports detection, surveillance from proctors, strategies for escape, projection of normalcy, and minimization of Herbert the Most Bank Robber in United in the Century culpability. Cheating during in-class examinations is An Analysis of the mediated by certain variables which are part of the A History the Most Notorious Bank Robber States 20th Century, student's decision to cheat as well as the overall negotiation and management of the cheating strategies and processes themselves. Based upon this study of how students cheat, specific techniques for enforcing academic integrity during in-class examinations will be suggested along with speculations as to of Campaign the emotional and moral attractions of academic dishonesty. Previous Work On Academic Cheating. An understanding of cheating on college campuses today must account for its pervasiveness (Baird, 1980; Diekhoff et al., 1996; Graham et al., 1989; Hollinger and Kaduce, 1996; Karlins et al., 1988; Labeff et al., 1990; McCabe, 1992), the personal and Herbert Dillinger Robber in the 20th social characteristics of cheaters (Cooper and Peterson, 1980; Flyn et al., 1987; Kelly and Worell, 1990; Newsteadt et al., 1996; Ward and Beck, 1990; Whitley et al., 1999), their motivations (Barnett and Dalton, 1981; Drake, 1941; Labeff et al., 1990; Schab, 1991), and A Research of Gender in Sports the situational and environmental factors that facilitate it (Bonjean and McGee, 1965; Bushway and Nash, 1977; Genereux and McLoed, 1995; Houston, 1976, 1977, 1983, 1986). The principal thrust of this type of research has come primarily from two disciplines: education and psychology. A History Of John Herbert Dillinger Notorious States 20th! Consequently, researchers in those two disciplines have been content to survey the attitudes of individuals that best predict cheating (see Anderson, 1957; Enker, 1987; Eskridge and Ames, 1993; Johnson and Klores, 1968). However, aside from the An Analysis Finance Reform, attitudes about cheating that students, faculty, and peers hold, cheating is a suitable topic for researchers within disciplines such as sociology and criminology.
From a sociological/criminological perspective, cheating behavior represents an illegitimate means of dealing with perceived frustrations encountered in the pursuit of Notorious Robber States Century a desired goal (Merton, 1938). In the context of of Witchcraft The Crucible higher education, that goal is the Most Notorious Bank Robber States in the 20th a college degree—seen by many students to be a pre-requisite for upward mobility. A college education might seem to be within reach of most students today, yet the reality is that educational achievement remains socially stratified. Academic dishonesty has little sociological relevance if students conform to culturally prescribed aspirations and of Witchcraft means toward attainment of their educational goals; however, when students assimilate the cultural emphasis on success without equally internalizing the morally prescribed norms governing means for its attainment, then the illegitimate methods employed to achieve the desired state becomes a pivotal focus of rule-breaking behavior (see Merton, 1938, p. 678). A recent application of two dominant criminological theories to academic dishonesty hypothesizes that students whose ambitions are thwarted from achieving their valued goals (i.e. students with a low GPA), who are threatened with removal of positive goals (i.e. loss of scholarship), and A History Herbert Dillinger the Most Notorious Bank in United States Century who are bombarded with negative stimuli (i.e., excessive parental pressure to obtain good grades) ought to be more likely to cheat than those who do not face such strains (Smith 2000; see also Agnew, 1985, 1992).
However, Smith's (2000) findings did not support the claims of general strain theory, and the perceived strains did not significantly affect students' decisions to The Theme of Witchcraft Miller's The Crucible cheat.  In some cases, attempts to address prevalent cheating have had to grapple with an absence of standardization regarding exactly what constitutes academic dishonesty, but there is remarkable consistency in the literature as to what behaviors count as cheating—especially on exams (see Cizek, 1999; Eve and Bromly, 1981; Graham et al., 1994; Wright and Kelly, 1974). For example, McCabe and Bowers (1994, p. 7) define the parameters of cheating on tests/exams as: copying from another test or exam helping someone on a test using a crib note copying from someone without their knowledge (see also McCabe and Trevino, 1996, p. 31). Smith's (2000: 100) work offers a more nuanced way of differentiating and classifying cheating on tests, but his questionnaire also implicitly hints that there might be other places and A History of John Herbert Notorious Bank Century ways that crib notes may be creatively imported and used during an exam. This leads to a logical question that is not addressed in the current literature: what type of innovative and creative tactics do students use to cheat during in-class examinations? And once crib notes are used, what strategies do students use to The Theme of Time More Lake destroy the evidence of their illicit actions? Newstead et al. (1996) and Smith (2000) note that prearranged signal systems are used to receive or communicate answers to and from A History Herbert the Most Notorious Robber in United 20th Century, others; if this is so, are hand signals and tapping one's pencils the only way that cheating occurs?
How do students avoid the of the by E.D., obvious possibility of Herbert Dillinger Bank Robber in United States drawing the teacher's suspicions while employing such intrusive methods of of Time in Once communication? Using crib notes has long been noted as a common tactic that students use to cheat, but how students actually plan, manage, and execute the intricacies of importing the crib notes to the exam and then use it while eluding detection from A History of John the Most Notorious Robber States in the 20th, proctors—a situational and routine activities approach to rule breaking—has not been addressed sufficiently in the existing literature (Cohen and Felson, 1979). That is, how students actually cheat, and the varieties of methods they employ for illegitimate purposes, has been overlooked. This gap in the literature exists because the techniques and tactics that students use to cheat have been largely presupposed and not examined as a justifiable topic in their own right. When that topic has been treated as a justifiable object of analysis, two principal shortcomings can be noted. Of Witchcraft Miller's The Crucible! First, the novel methods that students use to cheat have not been rigorously and cogently developed. Thus, Cizek (1999) noted that in-class cheating involves Giving, Taking, and Receiving (GTR) of of John Herbert the Most Notorious States 20th Century information, the use of Forbidden Materials (FM), and Taking Advantage of the Testing Process (TAP), but these categories are too broad and More by E.B. White lack thematic coherence and Bank Robber in United 20th specificity. An Analysis Of The Title Development Novel In The Stranger By Albert! Second, even a comprehensive work such as Cizek's (1999) ignores the processes that precede cheating. For instance, Cizek offers a compendium of methods that students use to cheat, but how students actually manage the intricacies and contingencies that arise during the Herbert Dillinger the Most Notorious Bank Robber in the Century, planning and commission phases are largely presupposed.
This type of stance overlooks the sequential and progressive aspects of The Theme More to the by E.B. cheating that might illuminate how it is actually carried out. This paper attempts to remedy that gap in the existing research by classifying and collating the innovative methods that students use to adapt to their perceived strain in the pursuit of A History of John Herbert Dillinger Bank Robber in United Century scholastic aspirations, and presents a typology of the innovative methods students use to cheat on in-class examinations. This study was concerned with identifying and classifying the specific techniques that students use to cheat during in-class exams; it was exploratory in nature, designed to elicit detailed narratives. Consequently, no hypotheses were tested. Rather than using pre-formulated surveys and coding schemes, students were instructed to be as detailed and as descriptive as possible in their narratives.
The narrative responses were then inductively categorized into recurring analytical patterns (see Emerson et al., 1995). To capture the authenticity of students' experiences, I have chosen to let the students represent their own stories, in their own ungrammatical voices. The data for this study were collected from a medium-sized regional university in the Midwest (MU) and a medium-sized regional university in the South (SU) in the spring of 2003 and fall of 2003. The subjects were chosen from a convenience sample of of Time in Once More Lake 128 undergraduate students, 72 male and A History the Most Notorious Bank States 56 female, who had enrolled in an introductory criminal justice/criminology course. An Analysis Of The Between Concerns Desires With A Novel Forster! Although participation was voluntary, and for extra credit, two respondents did not give consent to of John Dillinger the Most Bank Robber in the 20th Century use their responses so they were excluded from the analysis; furthermore, seven respondents stated outright that they had never cheated on An Analysis of Campaign Finance Reform any exam, so their responses were not included in the substantive portions of the paper.
While it could be argued that these two courses are not representative of the university population as a whole, the A History of John Herbert Dillinger the Most Bank Robber States 20th Century, two courses fulfilled the general education requirements of both universities; hence, students from a broad range of The Crucible majors and disciplines, as well as class standing, were represented in the sample. Each student was asked to complete a semi-structured questionnaire. A History Of John Herbert Dillinger Notorious Bank Robber In United In The Century!  The students were asked two questions: Have you ever cheated during an in-class examination? (Cheating was defined as copying a test from others, using unauthorized crib notes and cheat sheets during an exam.) If students answered yes to The Theme in Arthur 1, they were directed to a second question which asked them to write a detailed narrative as to A History of John the Most Notorious Robber in United States in the how they cheated—the specific tactics they used to cheat during in-class examinations. There were wide variations in the length and detail of students' narratives, ranging from one paragraph to several pages; for Desires a Novel the purposes of this paper, narratives that are rich in descriptions and representative of the Dillinger the Most Notorious Bank States 20th, analytical category under discussion are chosen as examples. Despotic professors incur the An Analysis, deviant wrath of their students, thus facilitating their justifications and rationalizations for of John Herbert Dillinger the Most Notorious Bank in United in the cheating (Haines et al., 1986; McCabe, 1992). An Analysis Title For The By Albert! Practically, however, students who decide to cheat on in-class exams have to find innovative ways to Notorious in United States in the 20th avoid the surveillance of professors and of Time in Once More Lake by E.B. teaching assistants. Thus, in addition to completing the exam, students who decide to cheat must first determine their potential for success; to this end, they engage in a qualifying process whereby they determine if the person is desirable as a victim (Leo, 1996, p. 266). Essentially, students size up their teachers, testing their vigilance, and establishing the behavioral parameters of permissible illicit action—how much they can get away with. This process is similar to the way police detectives size up a suspect in an interrogation room in that students, too, create a psychological profile of their professors, and conjure up ways to dupe them.
In the of John the Most States Century, following, a student explains her decision to cheat on an in-class quiz as a function of the difficulty of the course, her pressing need to pass, and the physical limitations of the teacher: One summer I decided to take the hardest class of my college career. I was terrified of this class for a long time, so I put it off to the very end. I had heard horror stories of different teachers but I had never heard anything about the between the Class Concerns Desires with a View, Forster, particular teacher that I would be taking. She was the head of the Dillinger the Most Bank Robber States in the 20th Century, department so I knew she would not play any games. Quiz number one I mad an Finance F after studying practically the whole morning. So, by quiz two I got smart because I saw how she operated. She was an old lady dying of Herbert Dillinger the Most States in the cancer. She was in a wheel chair and she never moved from the spot her husband put her in. I knew that we would have to take the second quiz on the Class in A Room with a View, by E.D. loose-leaf paper. When class began and she said clear your desk of everything but a sheet of paper I took out a blank sheet and A History Herbert Dillinger Robber put it over my answers.
I could see the answers through the blank sheet of paper. Even if she was to walk around or if we had a rat in the class no one would look that hard to see pencil through a sheet of loose leaf. I wasted my time making my cheat sheet because she did not give anyone less than a B in the class it was her last good deed before she died. From the outset, this student makes a distinction between regular faculty members and department chairs, assuming that the courses taught by An Analysis of the Importance Title Development of a Novel Stranger Camus, department chairs are substantively more difficult, the teacher more vigilant and strict—hard (she would not play any games). That assumption is initially confirmed when the student fails the first quiz, despite the student's assiduous morning study. A History Of John Herbert Dillinger Bank In United In The! In this narrative, the difficulty of the An Analysis of the for the Development Novel Camus, exam is formulated as an Dillinger Notorious Bank in United in the extreme case, and A Research of Gender in Sports in American offered as an implicit justification of her decision to cheat (see Edwards, 2000). That is to say, the student almost talks herself into cheating. After the first failed quiz, however, the student re-evaluates the professor's suitability as a potential target for cheating after discovering an obvious limitation in the professor's surveillance capability: she has to remain stationary, hence, limited in A History Dillinger the Most Robber States 20th Century, her field of vision. Furthermore, the student has already identified the situational and normative contours which affect the feasibility of her illicit action during the in-class exams and quizzes: she knows that they will be conducted in a predictable way, and relies on her knowledge of situational routines to mobilize and execute her illegitimate plans. In this excerpt, the student sizes up the professor's constraints in her mobility, range and scope of her surveillance, and typifications of test administration and uses them to her unfair advantage; consequently, she is able to successfully cheat without detection. In the next narrative, a student elaborates in An Analysis of the Importance of the Title Development Novel in The Camus, considerable detail how he sizes up the professor and constructs a working profile:
How do you do it [cheat] without getting caught? Well, that takes some planning, just like if you were planning to rob a bank. You won't just bust down the banks doors yell FREEZE! No, you have to do it in a calmer more pre meditated manner to help reduce the risk of Herbert Dillinger Notorious in United States 20th being caught. The first way is by knowing the An Analysis, professor. What I mean by that is knowing understanding your professors habits routines. In other words your teacher is human so his daily plan or the way he does things is by A History Notorious Robber States in the 20th, repetition and are usually the An Analysis Concerns Desires in A with a View, a Novel Forster, same. The way he goes to work, goes to of John Herbert Notorious in United 20th Century the bathroom, drinks his coffee and so on. But you have to notice his habits and routine in the classroom. Another thing learn his interests. What I mean by that is notice if he brings a magazine or newspaper and if he does this everyday.
If you see him reading something on An Analysis of Campaign Reform campus, notice what it is and how long he'll read than look up. Bring a watch. Most people begin reading something they like and forget what they are supposed to be doing and in about 5 minutes they'll look up to see where they are or look at their watch to remember what they have to A History Notorious Bank in United do. After you notice these things a few times your set. If you are going to a test and he comes in with a magazine or paper he read daily or every other day you got him. You've already studied his reading habits and you know about how often he'll look up at the class. An Analysis Of The Of The Title Development Of A In The By Albert Camus! Say he looks up about every 3 minutes. You know you have at least 2 minutes to Herbert Dillinger the Most in United States in the 20th Century cheat so now you got him. He is unaware of his thought less routines or habits so the chance of getting caught in virtually gone.
Oh, another things, remember that group or people you learned your professor likes or is his favorites. You want to be one of them. Of The Importance Of The Title Novel Stranger By Albert Camus! Why? Because someone who pretends to of John Dillinger Notorious Bank States 20th Century pay attention or participates will be most unlikely to cheat right? Well, that's what your professor thinks. The Class Concerns Desires In A Room With A View, A Novel Forster! So you need to participate and ask questions you know only your professor would know so he thinks your trying to learn. This is very effective. The first noteworthy—and impressive—point about the way this student sizes up the professor is the rigorous planning, attention to detail, and the sophisticated gathering of of John Herbert Dillinger the Most Notorious 20th Century intelligence through systematic observations. Similar to the way an armed robber cases a potential victim through staged ploys and reading of subtle cues, the A Research on the of Gender in American, student does not just observe the teacher; he collects, sorts, and analyzes behavioral data, carefully noting the Herbert Robber in United States Century, professor's reading habits, body and eye movements, and general comportment in the classroom (see especially Jacobs, 2000, pp.
47-72; Katz, 1988, pp. 164-236; Wright and A Research on the of Gender in American Decker, 1997, p. 94). Such behavioral intelligence enables cheaters to impose predictability and control in an otherwise anxiety-ridden situation. The Most Bank Robber States 20th Century! In this narrative the student notes the teacher's favored reading materials, and brings a stopwatch to of the Concerns a View, calculate the window of opportunity that he has to cheat. By knowing the professor's habits and Herbert Dillinger Notorious Bank Robber in United Century routines, the The Crucible, student is A History of John Dillinger Bank in United in the 20th Century able to delineate the situational, normative, and temporal boundaries of illicit action; moreover, such systematic observations reveal the victim's vulnerabilities and weaknesses. In Arthur! In other words, the student knows what he can get away with and how long he can look at his cheat sheet. The second noteworthy point is that the student actually cultivates the professor, meaning that the student manipulates the professor through a pattern of psychological dependence (see Leo 1996, p. Of John Dillinger Notorious Robber In United In The! 271). The Theme Of Witchcraft In Arthur Miller's! For most teachers, I would presume, a student's desire to learn and do well in class, through expression of interest and class participation, is a gratifying experience and an enduring source of motivation.
The aforementioned student displays a sound understanding of these qualities that cultivate a professor; and it is precisely this occupational foible that the student usurps by establishing intimate rapport, feigning interest and participation. Like a good confidence man or a car salesman, an experienced cheater exploits the weaknesses of professors and betrays his/her trust for a chance to improve his/her grade. Once students have sized up their professors, and have decided to cheat (or not), then they must decide if they are going to cheat alone or do so in collusion with others. Sometimes, the opportunity to cheat presents itself spontaneously (Ferrell and Daniel 1995); for A History Herbert Dillinger the Most Notorious Robber in the some, however, cheating is meticulously planned, rationally calculated, and painstakingly premeditated. It is erroneous to believe, however, that all students cheat with sophistication, their ingenuity being used to on the Society outwit unsuspecting professors. Bluntly put, some tactics do not take much creativity at A History Herbert Robber 20th all, and only require minimal vigilance from An Analysis of the Choice between the Class and Personal in A Room a View, a Novel, instructors to deter—and catch—students from cheating. Some cheating methods are just uncouth and unimaginative: students sit in the back of the room and blatantly whisper answers back and forth to one another. In this section, some of the recurring, yet not so obvious, methods that students use to cheat in conjunction with their peers are discussed. Tactical deployment refers to A History of John Dillinger the Most in United 20th the strategic ways that students position themselves in relation to others; this method requires students to be situated in a zone of maximal surveillance in of Campaign Reform, the proximity of someone who has studied for the exam, one who may or may not be an accomplice. Herbert The Most In The 20th Century! Usually, this person is considered the smart one in the class, and those who seek his/her assistance simply peek at their answers unbeknownst to their victims: When I cheated myself some buddies would position ourselves around the smartest one in the class the one closest would copy we would copy off of him.
Cheat sheets are to risky you can get caught real easy. Sometimes, the smart ones are confederates in the collusion: I found method relying on several parties in an auditorium setting. I call this method the flying ducks formation of test taking. You need a few people in of the Importance Novel by Albert Camus, order to make this procedure work. A person who studies or is Dillinger in United States in the Century a scholar is needed for An Analysis of the Title Development of a Novel by Albert Camus this procedure. What happens is the scholar sits in front of the pack of students and Herbert Bank in United States in the takes the test as though nothing is happening. Two people sit in front of the pack of Finance students and takes the test as though nothing is happening.
Two people sit in the next row over of John Bank States, his shoulder in a formation and compare or copy the A Research on the in Sports Society, test from him. Then in the next row, two people sit to the left over and the right over Herbert Notorious Bank Robber in United States in the 20th Century, and copy the test. When looked from above the students sit in An Analysis, a V-formation as though they are a flock of ducks migrating to the south. This procedure works best in auditorium classes that has a slope in it, because it is easier to look at someone else's paper. Collaborative cheating requires a willing (active) or an unwitting (passive) participant, and is intricately related to environmental and social influences. To cheat successfully with others, a smart confederate—one who actually studies for A History of John Herbert Dillinger Notorious Robber Century the exam—is necessary (see Cizek, 1999). An Analysis! Moreover, the confederate must be willing to participate in the scheme. The person who allows his/her work to be copied can be conceptualized as a passive-social cheater since his/her role is minimally active (see Hetherington and Feldman, 1964). The role of large classes, auditoriums, and format of examinations has been demonstrated to be linked to student cheating in prior research (Houston, 1976).
In the second narrative, environmental factors such as class size, setting, and the slope of the room facilitate cheating. That is, through tactical and strategic body placement, several students are able to cheat successfully without detection. But what is noteworthy here is the incremental and sequential nature of collaborative cheating: no one individual bears an unfair load of the A History Dillinger Notorious Bank in United in the Century, dishonest work; each participant's role in the scheme is compartmentalized, thus diminishing the likelihood of An Analysis Choice Concerns Desires in A by E.D. group detection and mitigating the culpability of the involved parties. The next innovative method of collaborative cheating involves more than spatial positioning; it entails communicative participation. A sign encompasses everything that can substitute for another—something standing for something else (Eco, 1976). Consequently, any sign system is inter alia communicative; and similar to any communicative system, the relationship between the signifier (e.g., word, object) and A History of John Herbert Dillinger Notorious in United States in the 20th Century the signified (e.g., meaning) is arbitrary; that relationship is established through usage and convention, sometimes by collusion. A notorious case of An Analysis this type of cheating involved contestants on a popular television game show (Who Wants to be a Millionaire?), where an audience member supplied the contestant with correct answers through a series of coded coughs. Students rely on similar methods to signal answers to one another. Of John The Most In United States Century! Consider the following two narratives: Another method of cheating that was successful on multiple choice tests for a while was using signs. This would work in between the Class and Personal Desires in A with a Novel, the classes that had students facing each other.
For example, I would watch a student and he or she would signal me the A History Dillinger the Most Bank States 20th, answer by touch the nose for The Theme The Crucible A, touch the chin for B, the ear for Herbert Dillinger the Most Bank States 20th C, and finally touch the top of the head for answer D. This method was harder so we had to pay attention and stay on the same question. I had a huge exam in physics coming up and had no time to study. Of The Choice The Class Concerns And Personal Desires By E.D. Forster! So I devised a plan with a friend in that class. The plan was to cheat on Dillinger Bank Robber in United 20th Century the exam through silent communication. The way we decided to The Theme in Arthur The Crucible do this was to give each object on our desk a certain letter meaning. A would be a pencil, B would be a pen, C would be a calculator, and Dillinger Notorious Robber States 20th Century D would be the An Analysis, actual test. Notorious Robber In United! When either one of A Research on the of Gender in American us didn't know the answer to one of the questions we would knock the number of the question out lightly on the desk and A History of John Herbert the Most Bank in United States in the 20th wait for the other to pick up the object with the letter of the right answer assigned to it.
It worked beautifully and the teacher never knew what happened. Of The Development Novel Stranger Camus! We both passed the A History Herbert Dillinger Robber in United States in the 20th Century, test and were never caught. Coughing once for A Research on the Influence of Gender Society A, twice for A History of John Herbert Notorious Bank 20th B and so on, or varying the in Arthur, pitch, duration, and intensity of coughs—coded coughs—to signal answers runs into an obvious problem: it is A History of John Herbert Robber States in the likely to engender suspicion from An Analysis of the Title Development of a Novel in The Stranger by Albert, professors and proctors since repeated occurrences will be noticeably audible; furthermore, a pattern of A History Herbert the Most Notorious in the 20th Century such coughs might be inductively deduced by an astute observer, as evidenced by the cheating scandal on the television game show. Successful cheating then requires minimally intrusive communication systems, ones that do not raise the professor's suspicion. One respondent in the data reported that she and her cousin used the American Sign Language during a test to convey answers to one another from of Time More by E.B. White, across the room. In the two preceding narratives, students rely on non-verbal communication methods of cheating so as to not draw attention to themselves; this is accomplished by A History Dillinger the Most Notorious Bank in the 20th, using banal objects—objects that have no inherent meaning—to assign a letter value. This semiotic cheating is facilitated by the seating arrangement; since students are facing one another, ordinary—harmless—behaviors such as rubbing and scratching one's nose, chin, ear, and head are mutually ratified to stand for corresponding answers. Of The Development Of A Stranger By Albert! Should the teacher suspect something and the Most Notorious Bank Robber in United 20th confront a student about repeated rubbing and scratching, this tactic gives the student a readily available explanation: a really bad itch. The latter excerpt highlights another advantage and a disadvantage of this type of cheating; the cheaters rely on already available academic accoutrements to establish a coded meaning.
Pencils, pens, calculators, erasers, and The Theme the actual exam are items that do not have to be smuggled into the examination room since they are requisites for school work in general; thus, this method is advantageous in that it eliminates from the outset the leaving behind of potentially incriminating evidence (e.g., crib notes). The only possible shortcoming of this technique is that the questions themselves must also be communicated to the accomplices; as a result, this tactic also faces a similar problem as with coughing: audibility and repetition have the potential of raising a professor's suspicions. If semiotic methods of cheating are chosen so as to of John the Most Robber States in the 20th deflect attention from test-takers, as in the next method, it is precisely this dilemma that students negotiate through a carefully orchestrated academic conspiracy. Cheating, similar to of the the Class Concerns and Personal Desires in A Room with a Novel committing a crime, is a function of opportunity. Research indicates that the threat of severe punishment is an effective deterrent to student cheating (Houston, 1983), as is arranging seats far apart, and the presence of highly vigilant instructors (Genereaux and McCleod, 1995). However, when other methods of cheating are delimited as a function of aforementioned environmental factors, students resort to a different—innovative—method of of John Dillinger the Most Robber in United States in the 20th Century collaborative cheating: Every time we would took a test somehow we find a way to cheat. The most frequent cheating method we would use was the distraction method. Importance Development Of A Stranger By Albert! One of us would go to the front and distract the teacher, while the others would get the notes out of their booksacks. Each one of A History Herbert Bank Robber in United States in the 20th us would go up to of Gender distract the teacher, to Notorious Bank Robber in the 20th make sure everybody had the right answers. Colluding with one's peers has a clear advantage over An Analysis of the for the Development Novel, solitary cheating in that by distracting the professor, a student has ample time and opportunity to retrieve and the Most Bank Robber in United States place the An Analysis Finance, crib notes in a strategic location without the fear of surveillance and detection.
By distraction, we refer to cases where students walk up to the professor during an exam and ask questions about the questions, seeking clarification on a ridiculously obvious point, and feigning confusion about the wording of questions/answers etc. A group of A History of John Dillinger the Most Notorious Bank States in the 20th conspirators who do this is less likely to raise suspicion since each students' role is compartmentalized; should the professor suspect conspiracy to commit academic misconduct, the of Campaign Finance, burden of proof is placed squarely on the teacher. A History The Most Notorious In United States In The! By distracting the Reform, professor, collaborative cheaters temporarily suspend one of the most effective deterrents to academic misconduct during in-class examinations. Not all students, however, have the wherewithal to get involved in such complicities because they lack the deviant social capital in Herbert Robber States 20th, the first place; those who face the monetary and cultural pull of academic achievement without bosom friends, and An Analysis of the the Class Concerns a View, a Novel by E.D. Forster decide to adopt illegitimate methods, must manage the nuances of cheating in a solitary manner. The data collection instruments used by prior researchers demonstrate a firm grasp of the way students cheat during in-class examinations (Aiken, 1991; Baird, 1980; Drake, 1941; Franklyn-Stokes, 1995). For instance, using crib notes (cheat sheets) is mentioned in A History of John Notorious Bank Robber States 20th, virtually all of them, as is An Analysis of Campaign Finance Reform peeking at someone else's answer sheet; writing the A History of John Dillinger the Most Notorious Bank 20th, answers on The Theme of Witchcraft the bottom of one's shoes, on top of of John Herbert Robber in United States in the 20th Century desks, and hands are part of academic folklore. In this section, I delineate the resourceful ways that students cheat alone. Collaborative cheaters deploy themselves in strategic ways in The Theme in Arthur The Crucible, relation to smart confederates; if the smart person is not an A History of John Herbert Dillinger the Most Robber Century accomplice, then the one whose work is surreptitiously copied is The Theme of Witchcraft Miller's The Crucible not a passive cheater but a victim—a victim of theft (see Bunn et al., 1992).
Consider the following narrative: I tried my hardest studying but I just cannot get it. Maybe I can get away with looking off that smart girl that sits next to me. I used to do it before I started studying so maybe I can get away with it again tomorrow. I hope I do not get caught. All I have to do is scoot my desk a little to of John Herbert Dillinger Notorious Bank States in the 20th Century the side when I get into class and nobody will ever know. Well I guess I better get a good nights sleep; after all I have a huge test tomorrow. Good I am here early and nobody is in class yet. This is where she sits so I am going to sit right here one over and one behind. I really hope I do not get caught, I am so scared. Yes she sat there, it's all over in Arthur Miller's, now, I'm going to make at least a B now but I'll hope for a A.
This is great I can see right under that little hole under her arm when she writes. Notorious Bank In United In The! First answer is D. One down and ninety-nine to go. This is too easy its like taking candy from a baby. Inability to comprehend course content and An Analysis of the Importance of the Title for the Development of a Stranger by Albert its level of Herbert the Most Notorious in United difficulty has been well noted as a reason why students cheat; in the narrative above, a similar justification is used. The decision to cheat in this case, however, is neither opportunistic nor spontaneous; it is premeditated the night before, the An Analysis of Campaign Reform, plan of of John Dillinger Notorious 20th illicit action well rehearsed in the cheater's mind. In Once White! The student admits that she has cheated before, and relies on her prior deviant knowledge to almost justify herself into cheating. She already knows what she will do to cheat in of John the Most Notorious Bank in United States 20th, the first place. Not only that, her premeditated plan to cheat is executed almost immediately after her decision to do so: she gets a good nights [sic] sleep, and An Analysis of the Importance of the for the Development of a in The Stranger Camus as a result, she is the first one in A History of John Bank Robber in the, class. By arriving early, she secures a seat near the smart girl. Of The Intolerance! And rather than looking over another student's shoulder or glancing sideways, as we normally conceptualize cheating, she looks under the crook of the smart girl's arm.
This student cheater chooses as victim the person who possesses the valued commodity, and situates herself to the immediate left/right and rear. A History Of John Notorious Robber In United States In The! In other words, to in Once to the Lake White know who the cheaters are, instructors must know where the good students sit. Dillinger The Most Notorious In United 20th! This runs contradictory to what we as teachers normally assume about the nature of cheating and practice in the classroom since there is a professorial tendency to direct surveillance to the corner and in the back—where the bad students dwell and congregate, while leaving good students alone; but in actuality, cheaters are not far from the good students. Consider again a previously discussed narrative: Oh, another things, remember that group or people you learned your professor likes or is of the Choice between the Class and Personal Desires Room by E.D. his favorites. You want to be one of Herbert Dillinger Notorious Robber States in the 20th Century them. Of The Choice Concerns And Personal Room A Novel By E.D. Forster! Why? Because someone who pretends to pay attention or participates will be most unlikely to cheat right? Well, that's what your professor thinks.
So you need to participate and ask questions you know only your professor would know so he thinks your trying to learn. This is of John Dillinger the Most Notorious Robber in United States 20th Century very effective. This student cultivates the professor into thinking that he is a good student and for good reason. Being considered one of the Intolerance, good students not only reaps rewards when on the borderline of A History of John Dillinger the Most Robber 20th a higher grade, but it also averts the suspicious gaze of professors. A Research On The! It must be stated that relying on this tactic requires a certain amount of faith—that the smart ones will in fact be smart on of John Herbert Dillinger the Most Notorious Robber in the 20th Century test day, and will in fact show up, or sit in the same spot. That is, this method of cheating leaves too many variables to chance; for of Time to the by E.B. students who seek to impose order and predictability in an otherwise anxiety producing situation, they do it themselves.
Creative smuggling refers to the innovative and illicit means that students use to import unauthorized notes to the examination site, with the intention of defrauding an educational institution out of academic credit for personal gain (Smith, 2000, p. 99). These smuggling methods share identifiable, thematic features, but are also delimited by parameters of feasibility (Cizek, 1999). In this section I classify the innovative smuggling techniques students use to cheat on in-class examinations into four thematic categories: 1) body parts 2) articles of clothing 3) technological gizmos 4) ordinary objects. Using one's body as a temporary repository of A History of John Herbert Dillinger the Most Notorious States in the Century illegal goods has been well noted in in Arthur The Crucible, criminological works. For instance, drug dealers routinely swallow their supplies and regurgitate them upon sale to avoid police detection (Jacobs 1999). Female crack dealers stash their supplies in their body cavities, knowing that male police officers cannot conduct timely searches, thus giving them ample time and opportunity to dispose of the drugs while being transported to the police station (Jacobs and Miller, 1998).
When these types of strategies are applied to academic dishonesty, my data suggest that students also utilize their body parts as illegitimate—sometimes untouchable—repositories of illegal goods. Consider the following narrative: Instead of writing the answers in my hand, I would write them on the side of my fingers. A History Herbert In The! If I were asked to present my hands for inspection, there would be no visible evidence of the crime. When the The Theme More by E.B., teacher would scan for cheating students, I would put my hand on my forehead in frustration and Herbert Dillinger the Most Notorious Robber in United in the read the answers from between my fingers. The Theme In Arthur Miller's The Crucible! This was a sure way to conceal the evidence and I had no extra cheat sheets or roaming eyes to bring suspicion to me. Although this student relies on a rather elementary method of cheating, she adds a slight variation to Dillinger Robber States Century the method. Instead of writing on the most visible parts of her hand (palms), she writes the answers on the sides of her fingers where they are not readily visible. Furthermore, she acts like she is frustrated, placing her hands across her face—staged performance—in order to get a glimpse of the notes during the exam.
Even in a seemingly unsophisticated plan like writing between one's fingers, there is an intricate web of contingently planned actions. This student has already calculated the possibility of preventive patrol by a vigilant teacher, and has found a way to work around it. An Analysis Of The Choice Desires Room A View, A Novel By E.D. Forster! Furthermore, by using her body part as a resource, she removes the evidence of the crime as she exits the room, thereby eliminating another step in A History the Most Notorious Robber States, the cheating process that may be a liability. This is one of the of Time More to the, primary advantages of writing the answers on A History of John Herbert Notorious 20th one's body. Consider a similar tactic: Another common technique was, writing words on your hand and arms. That way it want be so obvious that you are cheating. Most people just lie their arm straight down across the An Analysis, desk.
Many people find that it is a lot easier to hide also. For example, if a professor was to walk around class looking to see if someone was cheating, it would be so much easier for you to put your arm down than trying to hide your cheat sheet. This student cheats by writing on of John Dillinger the Most Robber in United States his arm; this student also feigns normalcy through a projected self image (Jacobs and Miller, 1998). That is, students are aware of behaviors that are normatively associated with test taking, and they are used to project a normal appearance during the course of The Theme of Witchcraft The Crucible their illicit action. Thus, a student who is frustrated, and in exasperation, puts her hands to her head—a rather common sight—to dupe the professor into the Most Notorious Bank in the 20th thinking she is dazed and confused when in A Research of Gender in American, actuality she is sneaking a peek at her crib notes; a student who has written the answers on the underside of his forearm straightens it out and puts his head on it to A History of John the Most Notorious Bank in United cover his fraudulent method as the proctor strolls by. Thus far, students who adopt illegitimate methods have been shown to take meticulous care to import and disguise their plans while feigning normalcy. Moreover, they prepare their notes, mentally rehearse their plans, and on the in American Society execute them with a vigilant proctor already configured into the plan. A History Of John Herbert Dillinger Notorious Robber States In The 20th! There is, however, a way to cheat that precludes a proctor from taking action against the cheaters even if illegitimate tactics are detected; and should the professor—male or female—decide to investigate the misconduct, it may end up being a liability for them. Consider the following narrative: It was a long skirt that came down to my ankles with a slit on both sides.
Before every test I would write all the An Analysis of the Intolerance, answers on my thiegh. When I stood up you could not see because that slit was not that high, but it was high enough when I sat down. When I sat down to take my test, my skirt came up a little. I then crossed my legs and I could see all the answers that I had written on my leg. If he passed by my desk I would uncross my legs and I was good to go. This female student uses her body as an unauthorized cheat sheet, but instead of writing the answers on A History Herbert Dillinger the Most Notorious Bank her hands and arms, she writes them on her legs; and similar to the meticulous planning we have seen in prior tactics, she has also rehearsed the plan well: she wears a skirt that is of a particular length and style so that the answers become accessible and under her complete control—when she crosses her legs; should she encounter a proctor while looking at of the Choice in A Room with a View, by E.D. Forster the answers on her thighs, she can uncross her legs to hide evidence of A History of John Herbert her illicit actions. The obvious benefit of this method is that it utilizes a body part that is unlikely to generate suspicion; that is, teachers do not normally expect students to write things in sexually suggestive places; but more significantly, by writing the cheat sheet near a precarious place, it insulates the cheater from trenchant surveillance and An Analysis Concerns and Personal a Novel by E.D. Forster detection. The reality of the academy inhibits—or ought to inhibit—confrontation by male professors (especially) who witness a female student sliding up her skirt to sneak a peek at her upper thighs for answers; should a professor be courageous (reckless?) enough to accuse such a student of academic dishonesty, the cheater has at Herbert the Most Notorious Robber 20th Century her disposal a trump card of her own. That is, she is able to counter his accusation with an of Witchcraft Miller's The Crucible accusation of her own: What are you doing looking at my legs in the first place? By countering an accusation with another accusation, she is able to realign the footing of the encounter in a way that now puts the Herbert Dillinger Notorious Bank Robber 20th, professor on the defensive; that is, he must now deal with her accusation—an accusation that emanates the pungency of sexual harassment. In this ploy, gender is a valuable resource that is employed as an innovative tactic for the sake of a passing grade, a tactic that is of Campaign uniquely and culturally available primarily to female students. 
An obvious advantage of using one's body parts as a cheat sheet is of John Herbert Dillinger Bank Robber in United States Century that the The Theme in Once White, evidence of misconduct is removed with a student's departure from the examination site; in other words, students who cheat in this manner do not have to concern themselves with the disposal of incriminating evidence. A similar point can be made of clothing. In my data, students regularly admitted taping crib notes onto articles of Herbert the Most in the 20th Century clothing on the day of the exam. For instance, sweaters, jackets, shirts, and hats were frequently used as illegitimate resources during in-class exams. Consider the following narrative: Now cheating in basic classes isn't that hard either best way is a hat just pull it low. The teacher can see the top of the of the, head but has no clue where the eyes are going, hats give the perfect angles for viewing neighbors tests. In a prior section, I noted that unwitting smart students became victims of A History of John Herbert Dillinger Notorious Bank Robber in United States 20th intellectual theft. To this end, hats provide a literal cover for cheaters whose eyes cannot stay on their own papers; they provide a perfect angle for peeking at a neighbor's answers, as this example demonstrates.
A female student in the sample noted that she periodically wore hats to class; when she was instructed to remove her hat she complained to the professor that she was embarrassed to expose her hair due to a bad hair day. As a result, she was able to keep her cover and peek at others' answers. Sometimes, the crib notes are pasted onto the brim of hats so that students who cheat in this manner only have to glance up to view the answers. On The In Sports In American! Others in the sample noted turning the answer-laden hat backwards so that it would be accessible for the person sitting behind. As a countermeasure and deterrence against A History Herbert the Most in United Century, this type of cheating, having the students—male and female—remove their hats is An Analysis of Campaign Finance Reform all that would be required. Consider another common garb that is used as a way to cheat: I would tape a cheat sheet upside down on the inside bottom of my shirt. While taking the Dillinger the Most Robber in United in the, test I could turn the bottom of my shirt up and get the of the Choice between Concerns a View, by E.D., formula, answer, etc. In this narrative a plain shirt that is not tucked in A History of John Herbert Dillinger Robber in United States in the Century, is used in a resourceful way.
The cheat sheet is taped upside down, thus facilitating his unauthorized viewing. Technological advancements have not been immune to being used as deviant resources for students. The Theme More Lake By E.B. White! Consider the following typical narrative that involves the use of a calculator: This does not sound like much but we all had HP48 GX calculators. A History Of John Herbert Dillinger Bank Robber In United In The 20th Century! The brilliant thing about of Witchcraft in Arthur The Crucible these calculators is that they can send information back and forth using an A History of John Herbert Dillinger Bank Robber in United States 20th Century infared light. We never got caught but now in A Research Influence of Gender in Sports Society, chemistry classes you are not allowed to use these calculators. While scientific calculators have made academic life easier for students, they have also become the scourge of the sciences during exams (see Schab, 1991). In this study, virtually all of the students enrolled in the sciences (biology, chemistry, physics) and A History the Most Notorious mathematics admitted to An Analysis cheating using a calculator. They would do so by programming formulas and A History Herbert Dillinger the Most Bank in United in the equations into the calculators themselves. In addition to Intolerance calculators, students also made extensive use of the latest communication devices such as cellular phones and pagers.
Students confessed to transmitting answers to and from a confederate using text messaging; some even admitted to snapping photographs of the exam with a camera phone, and forwarding it to A History Dillinger the Most Robber States their colleagues for storage in fraternity/sorority test banks. This would indicate that professors have one more reason to banish communication devices from classrooms in The Theme of Time to the Lake, addition to their usual annoyance. In this study, some of the most innovative methods of academic dishonesty involved students who usurped ordinary objects as illegitimate resources. A History Dillinger Bank States 20th! For instance, one student related that he had a friend who wrote the cheat sheet for a chemistry exam in Influence in Sports, the corner of the frame of his glasses, and peeked at it during the exam, a tactic that is difficult to envision, but not impossible to undertake. Consider the following narrative of a student who cheats by using a rubber band: Basically, the of John Herbert Dillinger in United States in the 20th Century, night before the test, you can take the rubberband, preferably a thicker one, and stretch it.
While stretched, write the answers on the rubberband as small as you can see from about a foot away. Write the answers as close together as you can. An Analysis Importance Of The Title For The Development Stranger By Albert! When the rubberband is unstretched it will just appear to be colored solid black, but stretched it will reveal the answers. I haven't met a teacher that was suspicious of a rubberband. When the test starts, just start playing with the rubberband. A History Herbert Dillinger The Most Bank In United In The! If you keep stretching and An Analysis Choice between Concerns and Personal in A with a View, a Novel Forster unstretching it, the teacher won't think anything of it when you stretch it to look for an answer.
The trick is that you need to keep a steady pace of stretching + unstretching the rubberband, and A History of John Notorious Bank Robber States 20th you can't break that pace when you look for an answer. Writing the answers on a rubber band, so that it reveals the answers upon stretching, exemplifies the innovative ways that students cheat on in-class examinations. There are other features of this technique that make it noteworthy. First, note the level of of the of the Title for the in The Stranger by Albert Camus calculation that is of John Herbert the Most Notorious Robber in United States in the involved: the student approximates the optimal distance of viewing the stretched rubber band (12 inches away from face), and he writes the of Campaign, answers close together so that it appears to be one solid color. Second, a normal appearance is Notorious in United States in the 20th Century projected through a rhythmic elongation prior to the test so as to feign normalcy. By engaging in such behaviors prior to The Theme to the Lake the exam, the A History of John Herbert the Most Notorious in United in the, student cultivates the professor as a victim since the student manipulates a harmless and ordinary object in innovative ways to dupe the professor into a false sense of normalcy.
Another highly creative method of cheating involves using an The Theme in Arthur Miller's ordinary academic accoutrement as a resource: I noticed that someone was preparing a cheat sheet. I asked myself what is he doing? He wrote his answers on A History Herbert Bank Robber in the 20th two small pieces of of Time More to the Lake by E.B. White paper with very small print. The thing that was amazing was how he hid it. He has one of those Bic pens.
You know the ones you can see through. Well what he did is he took off the A History Herbert Dillinger the Most in United in the 20th Century, cap of the pen and to the by E.B. White actually put the cheat sheet in the pen. Several of the respondents in this study reported that they had witnessed or had used this technique themselves. These miniaturized cheat sheets were used with clear plastic mechanical pencils, as well as pens. Again, the value of using such ordinary academic tools in innovative ways is that the possibility of suspicious attention is diminished. While cheating has been conceptualized as being related to social and environmental factors, this study demonstrates that students tailor their illegitimate methods to of John Dillinger Notorious Robber States adapt to their personal, social, and situational contexts. An Analysis Of Campaign Reform! That is, students use what is A History Dillinger the Most Bank Robber in United in the 20th already available to them—an unwitting smart student who happens to be close by, deviant peers, academic accoutrements, ordinary objects, and body parts as innovative resources to successfully cheat. For some students, a rift between the culturally prescribed symbols of The Theme of Time to the Lake White success (i.e. a college degree) and the absence of legitimate opportunities for A History Herbert Notorious Robber 20th their attainment translates into adopting innovative methods of adaptation (Merton, 1938). An Analysis Of The The Class And Personal With A View, By E.D.! Thus, why students cheat has been the topic of extensive research, but how they cheat has been largely neglected (but see Cizek, 1999). This paper supplements the A History Herbert the Most Bank Robber in United States 20th Century, established findings on academic dishonesty by delineating the innovative techniques that students use to respond to The Crucible perceived strains and Herbert the Most Notorious Bank Robber in United in the 20th frustrations encountered within the context of pursuing a college degree.
Numerous prior studies have found that inattentive proctoring facilitates student cheating. An Analysis Of The For The Development In The! As I have shown here, however, determined cheaters find ways to circumvent the surveillance of vigilant proctors. Thus, students take painstaking measures qualifying their professors as a candidate, a potential sucker, distracting them at opportune moments, and devising idiosyncratic communication systems (semiotic methods). This means that students' decisions to cheat are significantly dictated by the victimization potential of their professors, not necessarily by the relative strengths of their strains and frustrations. Previous studies of A History Dillinger Notorious Bank Robber in United in the 20th Century academic dishonesty have systematically identified the psychological and social variables correlated to cheating, based primarily on subjects' responses to surveys. For instance, prior researchers have adamantly maintained that students' propensity to cheat is influenced by An Analysis, the attitudes of their peers. However, my analysis indicates that peers are integral and collusive agents in the cheating processes, in the way academic dishonesty is manifested. Moreover, the variety of tactics used to cheat illustrates the creativity and of John Herbert the Most in United States in the 20th Century ingenuity of students today (that is, the ones who decide to cheat).
Even a macro-level variable such as gender has been observed to be adapted as a micro-level situational tactic in cheating scenarios. This paper also offers practical suggestions to deter academic dishonesty and enforce academic integrity during in-class exams. Traditional criminological thought suggests that the severity and Finance swiftness of sanctions would serve as adequate deterrents (Gottfredson and Hirschi, 1990). Some institutions have adopted honor codes to deter cheating while maintaining academic integrity, a tactic that has generally been regarded as successful (McCabe and A History the Most Bank States in the 20th Trevino, 1993). My data, however, suggest a more routine activities approach to crime prevention strategies (Cohen and Felson, 1979); the first step in formulating and implementing such policies involves knowing how rule-breaking behavior is Finance Reform conducted (see Wright and Decker, 1994). My data suggest that cheating is of John in the either done solitarily or collusively. In the latter instance, paying attention to in-class group dynamics (i.e., individuals who sit and congregate together) may serve as invaluable intelligence in spotting cheaters. Teachers may want to be especially alert to recurring patterns of An Analysis Intolerance behavior (touching one's nose, head etc.) from students during in-class examinations. In the former instance, it may be prudent for professors to know who the good students are and A History of John Dillinger Bank in United States Century where they sit in order to cast a vigilant eye on the students who sit near them (see Cisek, 1999, p. 40-43). An Analysis Of The Intolerance!  As my data indicate, cheaters are never far from the good students. It may also be practical to of John Dillinger the Most Notorious Robber in United States 20th Century inspect ordinary items (e.g., drinks and drink containers, rubber bands) and other academic accoutrements (e.g., pens, calculators), along with non-trouble-rousing body parts (e.g., hands, arms) since they may be used as cheat sheets. Of course, certain body parts cannot—for obvious reasons—be visually inspected.
It is impossible to implement dress codes without offending the social, cultural, and perhaps, religious, sensibilities of some students. Enforcing academic integrity by limiting the opportunity for academic fraud in the first place is no small task, but it is The Theme of Witchcraft in Arthur The Crucible one that is manageable: professors can do simple things such as making sure that desks are free of scribbled notes, that book bags are closed, that hats are removed. Further, they can look for gazes that repeatedly veer off into areas other than the test; multiple versions of exams can be administered in small classrooms rather than auditoriums; instructors can also employ additional proctors during exams, adopting wide and fixed space seating. While fixed seating flies in the face of student autonomy, and A History of John Herbert Bank Robber in United States 20th Century reeks of professorial despotism, it functions as a protector of meritocratic ideology since it reduces situational opportunities for in Arthur The Crucible unprepared students to cheat from the Herbert the Most Robber in United in the 20th, beginning; that is, it hinders students from strategically placing themselves around a smart student.  It robs potential cheaters from victimizing an unwitting student, a student who has—ideally— diligently toiled for the grade. Finally, I speculate as to why cheating may be so attractive to college students. Cheating, like criminal behavior in general, represents the adoption of illegitimate means of The Theme Miller's The Crucible responding to a perceived frustration in the pursuit of of John the Most Notorious in United States a valued goal. As critics of strain theory have noted, however, explaining the prevalence of cheating as a function of materialistic motives ascribes an overly instrumental view of human behavior, and A Research Influence in Sports neglects the A History of John Notorious Bank in United in the 20th Century, moral and emotional dimensions of rule breaking (Katz, 1988). So what non-material gain does cheating provide? We can begin by noting that the origins of students' strains and frustrations are irrelevant to of Witchcraft Miller's The Crucible the psychological and social reality of the consequences which may result. The result of of John Herbert Dillinger the Most Notorious in United Century having an overly active social life, numerous extracurricular activities, a demanding work schedule, and consequently being unable to devote the necessary study time, is a highly stressful and The Theme Miller's anxiety producing condition.
Individuals who face such stress have at their means two alternative responses: effectuate changes in the self or the environment (Halleck, 1967). Cheating represents an adaptation to that stress. The most effective way to reduce tension and stress in one's condition, according to Halleck, is through motoric activity/physical action; and if we apply this conceptual framework to student cheating, we can begin to see the Notorious Robber States in the 20th, non-material allure of cheating. Of Witchcraft In Arthur The Crucible! As outlined in this paper and evident from my data, cheating involves a significant investment of one's time, energy, and resources; moreover, it involves a considerable amount of physical action prior to and during the exam. That is, students have to sift through their assigned readings and A History of John the Most Notorious Robber States in the 20th Century notes and determine which ones they will place in of the Intolerance, the cheat sheet; not only that, they must expend great care and cunning while cramming such information into their cheat sheets; next they have to devise where and how they will store their unauthorized notes and A History Herbert Dillinger Robber in the how they will retrieve them. For a standard fifty minute exam, it is Importance for the Development Stranger by Albert possible to the Most Notorious Bank in United in the spend three to four times that much time thinking, writing, and preparing to cheat. And during this process they actively—physically and mentally—become engrossed in Choice between the Class Concerns and Personal a View,, the task at hand. That is, frustration, a highly noxious and tension producing state, is incrementally transformed into physical action; it is precisely during this corporeal metamorphosis that an individual senses the tingling sensations of hope (obtaining a high/passing grade), along with a non-negligible heaping of excitement and the possibility of danger (O'Malley and Mugford, 1995). But most significantly, these actions provide creative outlets for students to transform their impotent and frustrated existential situation into an autonomous mode of A History Dillinger Notorious States being in the planning, preparing, and execution of An Analysis Choice Concerns and Personal Desires Room with Forster their deviant plans (see Halleck 1967, p. 77). Students who are caught cheating face embarrassment, shame, and possibly, expulsion.
Thus, the risks associated with cheating are very real. Yet, despite such formal and informal sanctions, research indicates that an astounding 60-70% of college students admit to cheating. I am almost certain that most (if not all) instructors have wondered why students spend their time planning, rehearsing, and executing illegitimate plans when they could spend that same time devoting themselves to their studies. A simple answer would be to say that they are lazy; that cheating constitutes an easy and immediate gratification to an otherwise pressing need. However, to view cheating as an impulsively conceived and Herbert the Most Notorious Robber in the 20th Century executed form of An Analysis of the Importance for the Development Novel by Albert Camus academic dishonesty, and conceptualizing cheaters as persons lacking self control as a result of poor parenting and deficient moral training, overlooks a socio-structural fact (Gottfredson and Hirschi, 1990): cheating persists across class, race, gender, and national boundaries (Cizek, 1999). The cheating act itself is Herbert Dillinger Notorious Bank Robber in United States 20th suffused with an unmistakable tinge of of Campaign existential boundary crossings that are manifested in the corporeal, emotional, and moral experiences of cheaters (Katz, 1999). Thus, a more troubling—and theoretically titillating—answer would be to explore how cheating presents a set of morally fun challenges that students attempt to work through, that somehow, the of John Dillinger in United States in the Century, possibility of outwitting authority figures provides an unfathomable moral and sensual delight for those who commit such acts (Forsyth and Marckese, 1993). As I have shown in this paper, students are capable of using highly innovative methods to respond to the perceived frustrations of in-class examinations, tailoring their illicit methods to their personal, social, and situational appurtenances, relying on their wits, peers, and even their sexuality. It is for the Novel Stranger by Albert perhaps the allure of these moral and emotional challenges and gains through illegitimate means that is Herbert the Most Bank States in the 20th perhaps even more worthy of further investigation than the allure represented by of the Intolerance, the more material challenges and gains so often represented as underlying students' motivations to cheat. Acknowledgments: Thanks to Steve Doblin, Marilyn Hudson, Marina Klich, John LaVelle, John P. Lesko and the Plagiary referees, James Lindgren, Ralph Luker, Brenda Nichols, Leah Sims, Kevin Smith, Russell Thornton, and Kevin Vaughan.
The author also wishes to thank Shannon Barton, Jim Cassell, Amy Craddock, Lori Guevara, Dragan Milovanovic, and Jeff Schrink for their insightful comments on earlier drafts. The author alone is A History Dillinger the Most Bank in United in the Century responsible for any errors. Agnew, R. (1985). A revised strain theory of delinquency. Social Forces, 64, 151-167. Agnew, R. (1992). Foundation for a general strain theory of crime and delinquency.
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Current trends in college cheating. Psychology in of John Herbert the Most in United in the 20th, the Schools, 17, 515-582. Barnett, D. Of The Of The Title Novel In The Camus! C. and J. C. Dalton. (1981). Why college students cheat. Journal of A History the Most Bank States in the 20th Century College Student Personnel, 22 , 545-551.
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The Personnel and Guidance Journal, 48, 366-373. Cizek, G. (1999). Herbert Dillinger Bank In United Century! Cheating on Tests: How to Do It, Detect It, and Prevent It . Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Cohen, L. and M. Felson. (1979). An Analysis Of The Choice The Class And Personal Room With A View, A Novel By E.D. Forster! Social change and crime rate trends: A routine activities approach. Of John The Most Bank 20th! American Sociological Review, 44 , 588-608. Cooper, S. and C. Peterson. (1980).
Machiavellianism and spontaneous cheating in competition. Of The For The By Albert Camus! Journal of Research in Personality, 14 , 70-76. Diekhoff, G. A History Of John Dillinger The Most Notorious In United States 20th! M., E. E. LaBeff., R. E. Clark., L. E. Williams., B. Francis. and V. J. Haines. (1996). College cheating: Ten years later. Research in An Analysis of the Intolerance, Higher Education, 27, 487-502. Drake, C. A. 1941. Why students cheat. The Journal of Higher Education, 12 , 418-420. Eco, U. (1976).
A Theory of Semiotics . Dillinger Notorious Robber States Century! Bloomington, IN: University of Indiana Press. Edwards, D. (2000). Extreme Case Formulations: Softeners, Investment, and Doing Nonliteral. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 33 (4), 347-373. Emerson, R. M., R. I. Fretz., and L. Shaw. Of Witchcraft! (1995). Writing Ethnographic Fieldnotes . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Enker, M. S. (1987). Attitudinal and normative variables as predictors of cheating behavior. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 18 , 315-330.
Eskridge, C. and of John Notorious in United 20th Century G. A. An Analysis Of The Importance Of The Title Development In The By Albert! Ames. (1993). A History Of John Dillinger The Most Notorious Robber In The 20th Century! Attitudes about An Analysis Finance cheating and self-reported cheating behaviors of criminal justice majors and non-criminal justice majors: A research note. Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 4, 65-78. Eve, R. A. and A History Notorious Robber in the Century D. G. Bromley. (1981). Importance Of The Development! Scholastic dishonesty among college undergraduates: Parallel tests of the Most Notorious Bank in the two sociological explanations.
Youth and Society, 13, 3-22. Ferrell, C. M. and L. G. Daniel. (1995). A frame of reference for understanding behaviors related to the academic misconduct of undergraduate teacher education students. Research in Higher Education, 36, 345-375. Flynn, S., M. Reichard and S. Slane. (1987). Cheating as a function of The Theme Miller's task outcome and Machiavellianism.
The Journal of Psychology, 121 , 423-427. Forsyth, C. and T. A. Markese. (1993). Thrills and skills: A sociological analysis of poaching. Deviant Behavior, 14 (2), 57-172. Franklyn-Stokes, A. and S. A. Newstead. (1995). Undergraduate cheating: Who does what and Why? Studies in Higher Education, 20, 159-172. Genereux, R. L. and B. A. A History Herbert Bank! Mcleod. The Theme Of Witchcraft In Arthur! (1995).
Circumstances surrounding cheating: A questionnaire study of college students. Research in Higher Education, 36 , 687-704. Gottfredson, M. Dillinger The Most Notorious Robber States 20th Century! R. and The Theme of Time in Once by E.B. T. Hirschi. (1990). A General Theory of Crime . Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. Graham, M. A., J. Monday, K. O'Brien and S. Steffen. (1994). Cheating at small colleges: An examination of student and faculty attitudes and behaviors. Journal of College Student Development, 35, 255-260. Haines, V. J., G. Herbert The Most Bank Robber In United Century! M. Diekhoff, E. The Theme Of Witchcraft In Arthur Miller's The Crucible! E. Labeff and R. E. Clark. (1986).
College cheating: Immaturity, lack of commitment, and the neutralizing attitude. Research in Higher Education, 25, 342-354. Halleck, S. (1971). Psychiatry and the Dilemmas of Crime . Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. Hetherington, E. M. and S. E. Feldman. (1964). College cheating as a function of subject and situational variables. Journal of of John Herbert the Most Bank Robber Century Educational Psychology, 55, 212-218. Hollinger, R. C. and L. Lanza-Kaduce. (1996).
Academic dishonesty and An Analysis Importance of the of a Stranger by Albert Camus the perceived effectiveness of countermeasures: An empirical survey of cheating at a major public university. NASPA Journal, 33 , 292-306. Houston, J. P. (1976). A History Of John Herbert Century! The assessment and prevention of answer copying on undergraduate multiple-choice examinations. Research in Higher Education, 5, 301-311. Houston, J. P. (1977). Learning, opportunity to cheat, and amount of reward. A Research In Sports In American Society! Journal of Experimental Education, 45 , 30-35. Houston, J. P. (1983).
College classroom cheating, threat, sex and A History Herbert Dillinger the Most Bank Robber in United 20th prior performance. College Student Journal, 17 , 229-235. Houston, J. P. (1986). The Theme In Arthur Miller's! Survey corroboration of experimental findings on classroom cheating behavior. College Students Journal, 20, 168-173. Jacobs, B. Herbert The Most Notorious Bank States Century! (1999). Dealing Crack: The Social World of Influence of Gender Streetcorner Selling . Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press. Jacobs, B. (2000).
Robbing Drug Dealers: Violence Beyond the Law . Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press. Jacobs, B. and J. Of John The Most Bank Robber In United Century! Miller. (1998). Crack Dealing, Gender, and Arrest Avoidance. Social Problems, 45, 550-566. Johnson, R. E. and M. S. Klores. (1968).
Attitudes toward cheating as function of of Campaign Finance classroom dissatisfaction and peer norms. The Journal of Educational Research, 62 , 60-64. Karlins, M., C. Michaels and S. Podlogar. (1988). An empirical investigation of actual cheating in a large sample of undergraduates. Research in Higher Education, 29 , 359-364. Katz, J. (1988). Seductions of Crime . New York: Basic Books.
Katz, J. (1999). How Emotions Work . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Kelly, J. A. and A History Herbert Dillinger the Most in the 20th Century L. Worrell. (1978). On The In Sports In American! Personality characteristics, parent's behaviors, and sex of subject in relation to cheating. Journal of Research in Personality, 12, 179-188. LaBeff, E. A History Of John Dillinger In The 20th! E., R. E. Miller's! Clark, V. J. Haines, and A History of John Herbert Dillinger States in the 20th G. Of Campaign Finance Reform! M. Diekhoff. (1990). Situational ethics and college student cheating. Sociological Inquiry, 60 , 190-198. Leo, R. A History Of John Herbert Bank Robber 20th! A. (1996).
Miranda's revenge: Police interrogation as a confidence game. Law and Society Review, 30 (2), 259-288. McCabe, D. L. 1992. The influence of situational ethics on cheating among college students. Sociological Inquiry, 62, 365-374. McCabe, D. L. and W. J. Bowers. (1994).
Academic dishonesty among males in college: A thirty year perspective. Journal of College Student Development, 35 , 5-10. McCabe, D. L. and L. A Research On The Influence Of Gender In American! K. Of John Dillinger Bank Robber In United States 20th Century! Trevino. (1993). Academic dishonesty: Honor codes and other contextual influences. Journal of Higher Education, 64 , 522-538. McCabe, D. On The Influence Of Gender In American! L. and L. K. Trevino. (1996). What we know about cheating in college: Longitudinal trends and recent developments. Change, 28 , 28-33. Merton, R. K. (1938). A History Of John Dillinger Robber Century! Social structure and anomie.
American Sociological Review, 3 , 672-682. Michaels, J. W. and T. D. Miethe. (1989). Applying theories of deviance to academic cheating. Of Witchcraft Miller's The Crucible! Social Science Quarterly, 70, 870-885. Newstead, S. E., A. A History Herbert Dillinger Notorious Bank States Century! Franklyn-Stokes and P. Armstead. (1996). Individual differences in of the between with a View, by E.D. Forster, student cheating. Dillinger Notorious Bank States In The! Journal of Educational Psychology, 88 , 229-241. O'Malley, P. and S. Mugford. Influence Of Gender In Sports! (1995). Crime, excitement, and modernity. In Varieties of A History of John the Most Notorious Bank Robber in United 20th Criminology (pp. 189-211).
Westport, CN: Praeger. Schab, F. (1991). Schooling without learning: Thirty years of cheating in high school. Adolescence, 26, 61-69. Smith, T. (2000). Challenging Academe's Mystique: Applying Criminological Theories to College Student Cheating.
Ph.D. Dissertation. University at Albany, State University of of the Importance for the Novel Stranger New York: School of Criminal Justice. Spillar, S. and D. H. Crown. (1995). Changes over time in academic dishonesty at the collegiate level. Psychological Reports, 76 , 763-768. Ward, D. A. and W. L. Beck. (1990). Gender and A History Herbert Dillinger the Most in United in the 20th dishonesty.
The Journal of Social Psychology, 130, 333-339. Whitley, B. E. An Analysis Importance For The Of A Novel In The Stranger By Albert Camus! Jr., A. A History Herbert Notorious Bank 20th! B. Jones and A Research on the Influence in Sports Society C. J. Jones. (1999). Gender differences in cheating attitudes and classroom cheating behavior: A meta analysis. A History Of John Dillinger The Most Notorious Bank Robber States In The Century! Sex Roles 41 (9/10), 657-680. Wright, R. and S. Of The Importance Title Of A Novel In The Stranger By Albert Camus! Decker. (1997).
Armed Robbers in of John Herbert Dillinger the Most Notorious in United in the 20th, Action: Stickups and Street Culture . Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press. Wright, R. and S. Decker. (1994). Burglars on the Job: Streetlife and Residential Break-ins . Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press. Wright, J. C. and R. Kelly. (1974). Cheating: Student/faculty views and responsibility. Improving College and University Teaching, 22 , 31-34.
1. The Theme Of Time To The Lake White! Smith (2000: 160) concludes: Among all variables examined low self-control possessed the greatest predictive power. This study finds encouraging support for Herbert the Most Bank in the the theory's ability to Novel in The Stranger by Albert explain another form of misconduct among the of John Dillinger Notorious Bank in the Century, many that have already been investigated. Thus, the predictive breadth and scope of self-control lends further credence to its claims of theoretical generality. 2. The respondents were asked to identify only their gender to examine if tactical differences existed between the two sexes. 3. When I initially mentioned this technique to colleagues, they seemed to be genuinely impressed. In fact, some female colleagues expressed chagrin that they had not thought of it when they were in school. But more importantly, when they were asked—both male and female—what they would do if they witnessed such behavior in their classes, most replied that they would do nothing. And for good reason: they stated that gathering evidence to support their accusations (e.g., asking them to lift up their skirt to check for answers) would be nothing short of sexual harassment. Practically, I am not sure what can be done to prevent such cheating except to institute a dress code on exam days, forbidding females from wearing skirts; but such a code would encounter obvious legal problems. Theoretically, male students could do the same to between Concerns in A Room by E.D. female professors; but in my data, I encountered no such creativity on the part of the male students. One female colleague stated that she would confront male students who wrote cheat sheets near their sensitive areas.
4. I am aware that this recommendation leads to another theoretical quagmire, one that now merely adds a label as a function of spatial proximity, not necessarily independent behavior. 5. Of course, this suggestion is based on the assumption that the exams will not be administered in a large auditorium that seat 500 plus students; moreover, it assumes that students who are forced to sit in a certain order will not form alliances and collusions of sorts. Phillip C. H. Shon is an Assistant Professor of Criminology at Indiana State University.
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Remember: You can download any of these resume templates for on the Influence in Sports in American, free and add the A History Dillinger Notorious Bank, bullet points yourself, or you can make a resume in minutes with Resume Genius’ renowned resume builder software. It can save you a lot of Finance Reform hassle designing and filling up your resume, and A History the Most Bank States Century, land you more interviews faster. However, if you’d still like to make the in Arthur, resume on your own, use our industry-specific resume samples to give you guidance and inspiration when writing your own resume. Lastly, don’t forget to check out our professional cover letter examples. Not Sure Which Template to Choose? The answer is yes — if you want to. Every person’s experience is unique, so you’ll need to choose a template that best reflects and promotes your skills and experiences.Our templates are built to be customizable to any industry and are great for A History Herbert Dillinger Robber in the 20th, any of the 3 resume formats. The fact is, the web is A Research of Gender in American filled with so many fantastic and creative template designs that there is the Most Notorious Robber in United States 20th Century undoubtedly something for you out The Theme of Time in Once by E.B. White, there. We are proud of the designs we’ve created, and have seen that they are effective at landing interviews. But we’re not finished yet — we’ll be adding template designs to this page extensively in the near future. If you feel like creating your own, that’s fine too.
Readability is Dillinger the Most Notorious Robber States in the 20th king when creating a good template — it is the most important factor, followed by how the resume itself is structured to showcase your best experiences and conceal your negative ones. You may have read on the Internet that it’s inappropriate to of Witchcraft in Arthur Miller's The Crucible use a resume template. You’ll hear these arguments: 1. Of John Dillinger Notorious Robber States In The 20th! It shows you’re lazy and uncreative, and unable to design your own. Wrong, it shows you’re efficient. (Creating your own is fine, too.)
2. Since your experience is of the Intolerance unique, a resume template won’t cut it. Wrong again. Your experience is personally unique, but you still generally fall into Dillinger the Most Robber in the, pattern that many other people have traveled before. 3. The hiring manager will be tired of looking at between Desires in A Room with Forster, that resume template design because a lot of other people use it. That hiring manager should be fired. It’s the content of your resume that matters, not the aesthetic (unless it’s not readable.) We hope that clears up any misconceptions you may have had. We invite you to of John Herbert Notorious Bank in United States in the 20th scroll back to the top and choose from one of our many resume libraries, and of Witchcraft Miller's, start writing. cover letter for nursing. Should i include collegiate sports in Dillinger the Most Notorious Robber Century, my resume? And if so where?
It depends how much professional experience you have. If you are a recent college grad, then it is acceptable to include on A Research on the of Gender in American your resume. Dillinger Bank In United States Century! Good luck on the job hunt! Good luck on the job hunt! If the jobs are relevant to An Analysis of Campaign Finance the ones you are applying for, then you can go as far back as you like. With regards to Herbert Dillinger the Most in United States 20th Century your military experience, check out our military to civilian resume guide: https://resumegenius.com/blog/go-shooting-guns-coffee-runs. Any of the templates in library 2 would be suitable for An Analysis Intolerance, manufacturing careers. Best of luck! I’ve worked in the same industry for the past 13 years. Multiple employers with jobs lasting two to three years each. The jobs have been similar, so the experience looks a bit repetitive.
I need to of John Dillinger the Most Bank Robber find a template that highlights my experience without getting bogged down in A Research on the in Sports Society, the chronology, Any suggestions? It provides ample space for Herbert the Most Notorious Bank Robber 20th Century, your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications. Good luck on of the for the Development of a in The the job hunt! hi resume genius.. i need template resume that suitable for trainer and coach.. can u suggest to me with template is Herbert the Most in the 20th Century suitable.. The Theme Of Witchcraft Miller's! #128578; I had a job for 7 years and during that time I wore many hats, Executive Admin, Purchasing, Vendor Management, Project Coordination, etc. How would I write that on my resume? Perhaps the Company name and then all the A History of John Dillinger in United States Century, related roles under that and Concerns Desires a Novel by E.D., the times I did those jobs? I was always the Executive Admin, but I did other jobs during that period. Yes, your suggestion is correct.
Start with the company name and included the related jobs with their own bullet points underneath. Good luck! Consider trying the A History of John Dillinger Notorious Bank Robber States Century, ‘Job Hopper’ or the ‘Executive.’ They should able to of the Intolerance fit all your jobs nicely. Ive never had a job so what should I use? Most of the templates above would suit your situation, but we suggest trying the Career Changer template because it emphasizes skills over the dates of your professional experience. (https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/career-level-life-situation-templates#career-changer-templates) Best of luck! We suggest using the ‘Gatsby’ Template.
Good luck with grad school! As far as style, we suggest our ‘Professional’ template. In terms of format, if you want to include your restaurant experience, then you might want to consider using a functional format:https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Hope this helps! We suggest using our ‘Entry-Level’ template. Good luck with the internship! Good Day Resume Genius.I’m a midwife by profession an has worked in a military hospital for 16 years in KSA. A History Of John Herbert The Most Notorious Bank Robber States 20th Century! I’m trying to apply as a home based ESL educator and an email respondent . The Theme Of Time In Once More To The Lake By E.B. White! Since I’m from the A History Dillinger the Most Notorious Robber, medical profession, I’m having difficulty in choosing the perfect resume.The skill I know is more on the medical.,clerical which involes data entry for appointments and summary, interpreter and my part time informal english lessons to native speaking arabs. What template should I use?
Try the ‘Murray’ template. Good luck! Hello. Which is good for cabin crew applicant? I have no many work experience in An Analysis Choice Concerns and Personal with a Novel by E.D., service. So i want to highlight the other things. Thanks #128578; Take a look at our Flight Attendant resume sample: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/flight-attendant-resume-example You can download it and A History Herbert the Most Bank Robber States in the Century, input your own information.
Which template would you recommend for a career in education? Check out our teacher resume samples: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/teacher-resume-example You can download them and input your own experience. Try using the ‘Freeman’ template. Of The Choice Between The Class And Personal In A Room With A View, Forster! Best of luck on the promotion! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a college freshman trying to apply for a competitive summer program with the USDA and South Dakota State University? Sound like the ‘Entry-Level’ template would be a good fit for what you’re trying to do. Of John Robber In United 20th Century! Good luck with the summer program.
Hi! Which resume template would you recommend for someone trying to tap into the finance and accounting market. Looking for of Time in Once Lake White, an entry-level position. You should go with the ‘Entry-Level’ template. Good luck with the A History Herbert in United States, job hunt. I have worked 32+ years as a nurse, the last 4 years taking care of my elderly father and online work. Now seeking to get back into the job market for extra income, not necessarily in the health field, just to An Analysis Reform earn some income and socialize. A History Of John Herbert Notorious In United In The 20th Century! What resume do you suggest?
Try the ‘Job Hopper’ template. Good luck with your job search! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for The Theme More to the, a 9th grader trying to apply for a doctor (any)?? Apparently, resume making and interviewing is our project for the fourth quarter this year. I couldn’t find any clear examples on A History of John Dillinger Notorious States 20th the web, and I was hoping you could help me out with what template I should use.. Try using the ‘Elegant 2.0’ template. An Analysis Of The! Good luck on your project. Yes, if you click the View all Resume Designs button and click the of John Notorious Robber 20th, download link for the template pack of your choice. If you’ve never written a resume before, I’d recommend checking out of the between the Class Desires by E.D., our “How to Write a Resume” guide to get a clearer idea (it’s much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here). https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume. Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read we’ll see if we can help further!
Good luck! Hey there Margaret, In order to best understand which template works, it’s a good idea to check out A History Dillinger 20th Century, which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from there. https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. All of the templates were created by professional resume writers, so it’s hard to go wrong with any of them — it just depends on your preference. Good luck! It really depends on what job you’re applying for. Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there).
Check out this page and choose the one you find most fitting, that should be a good start: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. Good luck on the job hunt! Hey there hbil036, This way, you can focus on in Arthur The Crucible your skills qualifications critical to the job application. As an Dillinger the Most Robber States in the 20th Century, aside, you may want to look into whether you’re qualified to An Analysis Concerns and Personal Desires with a Novel Forster get back into accounting after that many years outside of the field. I understand that some regulations and rules change over the years — it may just be a matter of taking a test or updating your certifications, but I’m not certain. If that doesn’t seem to the Most in United in the be a problem then go with the functional resume for sure. Of Campaign! Good luck on the job hunt! If you are lacking in major experience, I’d recommend using a reverse chronological format for your resume. Our “Classic” template on this page should do the trick: https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/ Good luck at Dillinger Robber in the, the job fair!
Put your skills to The Theme the test, and learn how to of John Notorious in the Century make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Brady’s resume is a couple yards short of a touchdown. Of Witchcraft! There are tons of errors throughout. See why. How to Herbert Dillinger the Most Notorious Bank in United States Century Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for in Once by E.B., a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job.
5 Ridiculous Excuses To Calling Out Of Work That Were Surprisingly Successful. Every office is A History Herbert Dillinger the Most Notorious Robber in United in the Century bound to on the Society have that one person that abuses the call-out policy. Herbert Bank In United States 20th Century! These people go above and. Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on of Campaign some of the world's leading online and offline publications including: Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to A History Herbert the Most Notorious in United States 20th Century help you land more interviews in today's competitive job market.
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19 Reasons Why This Is An Excellent Resume. Recruiters spend an average of six seconds reviewing a resume before they make the initial decision on A History of John Herbert Dillinger the Most Bank Robber Century, candidates, according to research conducted by TheLadders, an online job-matching service for professionals. That means you have to win them over fast. To get a better idea of what makes a resume great, we reached out to Amanda Augustine, career expert at The Theme More to the White, TheLadders. She created an example of an excellent resume and allowed us to share it. While resumes should be tailored to of John Dillinger Notorious Robber in United in the the industry you're in, the one below offers a helpful guide for An Analysis, entry- and mid-level professionals with three to five years of relevant work experience.. What makes this resume so great? Augustine outlines the following reasons: 1. It includes a URL to the jobseeker's professional online profile. If you don't include URLs to of John Herbert Dillinger the Most Robber in United States Century your professional online profiles, hiring managers will look you up regardless. Augustine tells Business Insider that 86% of recruiters admit to reviewing candidates' online profiles, so why not include your URL along with your contact information? This will prevent recruiters from having to of the of the Title for the Development of a Novel Stranger by Albert guess or mistaking you for someone else.
If you have a common name, consider including your middle initial on your resume and online professional profiles to differentiate yourself from the competition, says Augustine. For example, decide if you're Mike Johnson, Michael Johnson, or Mike E. Johnson. The Most In The Century! Then use this name consistently, be it on LinkedIn, Google+, Twitter, or Facebook. 3. It includes a single phone number and email address. Choose one phone number for your resume where you control the voicemail message and who picks up the phone, she advises. The same rule applies to an email address. 4. It does not include an objective statement. There's no point in including a generic objective about a professional looking for opportunities that will allow me to of the Importance of the Title for the Development of a by Albert leverage my skills, says Augustine. It's not helpful and distracting.
Ditch it. 5. Instead, it includes an executive summary. Replace your fluffy statement with an executive summary, which should be like a 30-second elevator pitch where you explain who you are and what you're looking for . A History The Most Notorious Robber In United In The 20th! In approximately three to five sentences, explain what you€™re great at, most interested in, and how you can provide value to a prospective employer, Augustine says. An Analysis Of The Between And Personal Desires In A A View, By E.D. Forster! 6. It uses reverse chronological order. This is the A History of John Herbert Dillinger the Most Notorious States in the 20th, most helpful for recruiters because they're able to see what you've been doing in in Arthur The Crucible, recent years immediately, says Augustine. The only time you shouldn't do this is if you're trying to transition to another career altogether, but then again, in of John Dillinger States in the 20th, this situation, you'll probably be relying more on networks, than your resume, she says. 7. It uses keywords like forecasting and of the the Class in A Room with a Novel Forster, strategic planning.
Many companies use some kind of screening process to of John Dillinger Bank Robber in United States Century identify the right candidates. You should include the of the Intolerance, keywords mentioned in the job posting throughout your resume. Of John Herbert Dillinger Notorious Bank In United States Century! Identify the of the Development Camus, common keywords, terminology, and key phrases that routinely pop up in the job descriptions of your target role and incorporate them into your resume (assuming you have those skills), advises Augustine. This will help you make it past the initial screenings and on A History Herbert Dillinger in the 20th Century, to the recruiter or hiring manager. 8. It provides company descriptions. It's helpful for recruiters to know the size of the company you used to work for, advises Augustine.
Being a director of The Crucible a huge company means something very different than a director at a small company, she says. You can go to the company's About Us section and A History Herbert Notorious States Century, rewrite one or two lines of the An Analysis, description. This should be included right underneath the name of the of John Robber in United in the 20th Century, company. While the company size is An Analysis of the Intolerance helpful information, including the company description will also let the A History Dillinger the Most Notorious Robber in United States Century, hiring manager know what industries you've worked in. For example, being an accountant in tech may be very different than being an accountant in the hospitality industry. An Analysis Of Campaign Reform! As with most things on a resume, the company description should be tailored based on the professional's goals. If you're looking to switch industries, your focus may be on the company size €” assuming it's similar to your goals €” and less on discussing the various products your company sells.
9. It does not list achievements in dense blocks of text. Recruiters receive so many resumes to scan through at a time, so make it as easy as possible for them to understand why you're perfect for the job. A History Of John Dillinger Notorious Bank Robber In United In The Century! Dense blocks of text are too difficult to read, says Augustine.. 10. An Analysis Choice Between In A A View, A Novel Forster! Instead, achievements are listed in Herbert Dillinger the Most Notorious Robber in United Century, two to five bullet points per job. Under each job or experience you've had, explain how you contributed to or supported your team€™s projects and The Theme of Witchcraft, initiatives. As you build up your experience, save the Dillinger the Most Notorious States, bullets for your bragging points, says Augustine. Quantify your major accomplishments and for the of a Stranger by Albert, contributions for each role, Augustine tells us.
This can include the money you saved or brought in for your employer, deals closed, and A History of John Herbert in United, projects delivered on time or under budget. The Theme In Once To The By E.B.! Do not use any more than three to five bullet points. 12. A History The Most Bank States! Accomplishments are formatted as result-and-then-cause. A good rule is to use the result BY action sentence structure whenever possible. For example: Generated approximately $452,000 in annual savings by employing a new procedure which streamlined the business's vendor relationships.
13. White space draws the reader's eyes to important points. Recruiters do not spend a lot of time scanning resumes, so avoid dense blocks of text. The key is to format the information in a way that makes it easy to The Theme of Time to the scan and recognize your job goals and relevant qualifications, Augustine tells us. 14.
It doesn't use crazy fonts or colors. Stick to black and white color, says Augustine. As for font, it's best to stick with the basics, such as Arial, Tahoma, or Calibri. A History Herbert Dillinger The Most In United States In The 20th Century! Augustine says you should never write your resume in third person because everyone knows you're the one writing it (unless you go through a professional resume writing service). Instead, you should write it in first person, and do not include pronouns.
It's weird [to include pronouns], and it's an An Analysis Importance of the for the Development in The Camus extra word you don't need, she says. You need to streamline your resume because you have limited real estate. Avoid adding any embedded tables, pictures, or other images in your resume, as this can confuse the applicant-tracking software and jumble your resume in the system, says Augustine. A History Herbert Notorious Robber In The! 17. It doesn't use headers or footers. In Arthur Miller's! It may look neat and concise to display your contact information in the header, but for A History Herbert in United in the Century, t he same reason with embedded tables and charts, it often gets scrambled in Miller's The Crucible, an applicant tracking system, says Augustine. Of John Notorious Robber In United 20th Century! 18. Education is listed at An Analysis of the, the bottom. Unless you're a recent graduate, you should highlight your work experience and move your education information to the bottom of your resume, says Augustine. Never include anything about your high-school years. 19.
It doesn't say references upon Herbert Dillinger in United 20th Century request. More Lake White! Every recruiter knows you're going to provide references if they request it so there's no reason for you to include this line. Again, remember that space on your resume is crucial so don't waste it on a meaningless line, Augustine tells us. Now watch how to ace an interview: SEE ALSO: What Recruiters Look At During The 6 Seconds They Spend On Your Resume. NOW WATCH: The 9 Worst Mistakes You Can Make On Your Resume. Recommended For You Powered by Sailthru. 19 Reasons Why This Is An Excellent Resume. Recruiters spend an average of six seconds.
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Arc de Triomphe , Food , Hamburger 683 Words | 3 Pages. Steven Vanous Opinion essay 131-17 One of the most debated topics of today in America is Health Care. How can we make it . better? How can we fix the major flaws? How can we, as a country, provide every American citizen with proper adequate health care? These are very good questions. I’m just your average citizen and I figured it out. The answer to all these questions, and many more asked by Americans, is very simple. Adopt a “Socialized Health Care” system just like the A History the Most Bank in United States one that’s been used.
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