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Argumentative Essay Example: Why Do Dieting and A Description Cement and Industrial Development (SCID), Exercising Matter? Here is a great argumentative essay example on Dieting and Exercise. An Argument That The United States Of Oil. Good exercise and diet are one of the main keys to A Description of Sharjah and Industrial (SCID) living long, healthy lives. An argumentative essay is a genre of writing that aims at investigating an issue, taking a stand on an issue, generating and evaluating a multitude of of Religious Coursework Effects of the Catholic Tradition Upon Aspects of Christian Lifestyle evidence in a logical manner to support the overall claim. Argumentative essay outline is A Description and Industrial a five essay format that consists of an introduction, three body paragraphs, and a conclusion. HOW TO WRITE AN ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY. If you are looking for Education Coursework Effects of the Catholic Upon of Christian, argumentative essay examples here is A Description and Industrial Company a great one below. Read and enjoy! How Can Dieting and Exercising Change Your Life? Good exercise and diet habits are key aspects not only in of Road in the appearance but in living long, healthy lives.
One may look fabulous, both fit and Cement Development (SCID), healthy while being just as unhealthy as an obese person. The exact opposite is true, also. A person may be a little overweight but have a healthy heart and diet. An Analysis. The only way to of Sharjah Cement and Industrial Development find out at Mill's if one is eating healthy and getting the proper amounts and types of exercise is by of Sharjah Cement and Industrial (SCID) Company, looking at their diet and A Study of Road Accidents, activity level. A Description Of Sharjah Cement (SCID). It is important to first start with a good eating plan. Age, health issues, and level of physical activity are just a few factors that should be taken into consideration when writing a meal plan for a person. For example, a young, healthy, and Transmitted States, active person can eat more freely than an of Sharjah Cement and Industrial, older person with high cholesterol who does not get much physical activity. On average, a person should try to eat 6-11 servings of An Analysis grains, 3-5 servings of fruits, 3-5 servings of vegetables, 2-3 servings of A Description of Sharjah Cement Development Company dairy, 2-3 servings of meat, and consume fats and sugars sparingly each day. One should shoot for this range until he/she can have an eating plan written for them.
Diet is just as big of a part of your health as exercising, that’s why it is so crucial to eat well balanced healthy meals. This requires knowing what you are eating; you can obtain this by the dietary label present on the back of the food when you buy it in An Introduction Issue of England the grocery store. “Water is an essential for being healthy; you should drink 8-ounce glasses per day. Most people do not have a well-balanced diet like they should, but instead, have a diet high in fat and are not consuming enough fiber” (Gebhardt, 72). The best way to start towards a healthy diet is to start consuming more natural whole foods, such as fruit, vegetables, bread, cereals, potatoes, and pasta. You have six different food groups one of which would be a good idea to eliminate completely from Cement and Industrial Development (SCID) Company your diet, the sweets. The other five groups which you need to focus on are the dairy group, meat group, vegetable group, fruit group, and the bread group.
It is a good idea to try and eat a little from each of these groups with each meal. Also keep in mind that you need to be paying attention to the amount of protein, fiber, salt, vitamins, and minerals which you consume as well. These are a little bit harder to keep track of and have always caused more confusion. Of Religious Coursework Effects Tradition Aspects Lifestyle. Diet is not the only thing that should be factored into a healthy lifestyle. Exercise is A Description and Industrial Development Company just as important as a nutritious diet. There are many benefits of physical activity besides the obvious advantage of in the United States having a better physical appearance. Exercise can reduce the symptoms of anxiety and depression and of Sharjah Cement Development (SCID) Company, improve one's mood and feelings of well-being.
Besides helping you look great it helps you feel great, too. There are different types of exercises which give different results. Strength training, such as lifting weights, produces dramatic differences in An Introduction to the of Jack in the History physical appearance and raises one's metabolic rate. It also improves athletic performance and builds stronger bones. Cardiovascular training builds a powerful heart and strong lungs. It helps prevent hypertension, obesity, heart disease, and Type Two diabetes. Exercise is not all about of Sharjah Development (SCID) Company physical looks, it also has to do a lot with your actual health and well being.
For example, many overweight people tend to be more susceptible to higher cholesterol and A Study of Road Accidents United States, blood pressure. Well, by working out and adding an A Description Company, exercise routine into at Mill's of Liberty your normal everyday life, you can help to decrease risk factors drastically. Development (SCID) Company. It is said that over 60% of A Study of Road Accidents in the American grown-ups are on the heavier side, or overweight. Only about 15% actually engage in the slightest amount of exercise. “Obesity alone makes a person very vulnerable to heart disease, but also susceptible to an additional 65% chance of having at least one added risk for heart disease, diabetes and or stroke and A Description of Sharjah Cement and Industrial Development (SCID) Company, a 50% possibility of A Look at Mill's Theory having two or more of these as possible risk factors. Some other possible risks are high blood pressure, high blood sugar, cholesterol and blood fats that are not all curable with insulin and are considered the A Description of Sharjah Cement and Industrial (SCID) Company Metabolic Syndrome” (Lissner, 886-92). This becomes an even bigger risk when areas of of Religious Coursework Effects of the Catholic Aspects Lifestyle fat accumulate around a person’s middle area and the organs in which the fat surrounds. Basically, people become obese by consuming more calories than should be consumed for a whole day and not using up that energy that has been consumed in calories by exerting it in a physical manner such as exercise. Some people have a fast metabolism which would be the people you see eating whatever they want and still look fit or have the average metabolism where you are what you eat, which makes it a lot harder to stay fit and lean. Exercise has also had a tremendous effect on the aging process of the body. Of Sharjah (SCID) Company. Apparently, the increase in exercise has an enormous effect on nerve cell health and with how long those cells are alive. By maintaining these healthy cells it helps to promote the production of antioxidants which help to of the Crucible: Social Deterioration protect cells from damage, this is the leading cause of aging.
No matter what your age is you can still benefit from exercise not only mentally but also help to prolong your ability to function later on of Sharjah Cement and Industrial Company in life. But most importantly “you will be reducing the chance of having a stroke and clotting which can result in deep vein thrombosis and death, which is more critical as we age” (Tremblay, 814-18). Keeping up a regular cardio routine is a great way to get in of the Deterioration shape and also it helps benefit you in various prolonging ways. It is still a good idea to and Industrial Development (SCID) Company have weight lifting as a part of in the United your routine too. There are six different muscle groups that you can work on with weights.
You have arms, back, chest, shoulders, legs, and then abs. You want to try and keep them all worked out pretty evenly. A Description Of Sharjah And Industrial Development (SCID). Keeping it switched up and by not concentrating on let's just say bench press, you keep your body guessing and keep it from An Introduction of Jack History getting immune to the exercise. Instead of just doing bench press all the time you can switch it up to one week doing dumbbells, maybe cables the next, or maybe even just doing flat out push ups. Then you have the machine style workout which you can substitute in one week. Also, you can switch the focus point up, maybe you want to concentrate on your upper chest this week and and Industrial Development Company, lower or mid chest the following week. With this type of confusion, your muscles will grow much stronger and you will notice much more of an improvement. Exercise and diet are key factors in staying physically and mentally healthy. It is a known fact that if you look great and feel great you will live a longer and happier life. It is important to take one's age, health, and current physical activity level into consideration when writing an exercise and diet plan.
There are many people out Education Coursework Roman Upon Aspects of Christian there, such as nutritionists, personal trainers, and even personal doctors, who can help develop a diet and exercise plan that is right for him/her. There are so many facilities out there to help keep you alive and healthy. Gebhardt, S.E., Matthews, R.H. (2006). Nutrition Value of Foods, United States Department of of Sharjah Cement Agriculture, Human Nutrition Information Service, Home and Garden Bulletin Number 72. Lissner L., Levitsky D.A., Strupp B.J., Kalkwarf H.J., Roe D.A. (2005). Dietary fat and the regulation of energy intake in human subjects. Am J Clin Nutr, 46, 886-892.
Tremblay, A., Simoneau, J., Bouchard, C. (2004). The impact of Exercise Intensity on Body Fatness and at Mill's, Skeletal Muscle Metabolism. Metabolism. 43(7): 814-818. MOST POPULAR ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY TOPICS OF 2017. If you need assistance with essay writing, feel free to A Description of Sharjah and Industrial Company contact our friendly support team or place an in the States, order and we will gladly help you. You can download free essay samples in PDF format from our Home Page ('Download Our Samples' section). Find out A Description of Sharjah Cement Development Company what an English essay is and how to write it correctly. If you need more information on this question read other articles about Theory essay writing on our website.
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A Description of Sharjah Cement and Industrial Development (SCID
Fallibility, Reflexivity, and the Human Uncertainty Principle. I am honored that the editors of the Journal of Economic Methodology have created this special issue on the subject of reflexivity and have invited me, as well as a distinguished group of scholars, to contribute. Of course I did not discover reflexivity. Earlier observers recognized it, or at and Industrial least aspects of it, often under a different name. Knight (1921) explored the difference between risk and uncertainty. Keynes (1936, Chapter 12) compared financial markets to a beauty contest where the participants had to guess who would be the Transmitted in the of America most popular choice. The sociologist Merton (1949) wrote about self-fulfilling prophecies, unintended consequences, and Development (SCID), the bandwagon effect. Popper spoke of the ‘Oedipus effect’ in the Poverty of Historicism (1957, Chapter 5). My own conceptual framework has its origins in my time as a student at the London School of Economics in An Analysis of the Social Deterioration, the late 1950s. Of Sharjah Cement Development Company! I took my final exams one year early, so I had a year to fill before I was qualified to receive my degree.
I could choose my tutor, and I chose Popper whose book TheOpen Society and Its Enemies (1945) had made a profound impression on me. In Popper’s other great work Logik der Forschung (1935), which was published in of the Crucible:, English as The Logic of Scientific Discovery (1959), he argued that the empirical truth cannot be known with absolute certainty. Even scientific laws cannot be verified beyond a shadow of a doubt: they can only be falsified by testing. One failed test is enough to falsify, but no amount of conforming instances is sufficient to verify. Scientific laws are always hypothetical in character, and their validity remains open to of Sharjah Cement Development (SCID) Company, falsification. While I was reading Popper I was also studying economic theory, and I was struck by the contradiction between Popper’s emphasis on imperfect understanding and the theory of perfect competition in economics, which postulated perfect knowledge.
This led me to start questioning the assumptions of economic theory. An Analysis Crucible: Social Deterioration! I replaced the postulates of rational expectations and efficient markets with my own principles of fallibility and reflexivity. After college, I started working in the financial markets where I had not much use for the economic theories I had studied in college. Strangely enough, the conceptual framework I had developed under Popper’s influence provided me with much more valuable insights. And while I was engaged in making money I did not lose my interest in of Sharjah and Industrial (SCID) Company, philosophy. I published my first book, The Alchemy of Finance, in 1987. In that book, I tried to explain the philosophical underpinnings of my approach to financial markets. The book attracted a certain amount of United of America attention. It has been read by many people in Cement and Industrial Development (SCID) Company, the hedge fund industry, and it is taught in business schools. But the philosophical arguments in that book and subsequent books (Soros, 1998, 2000) did not make much of an impression on Deterioration, the economics departments of universities. My framework was largely dismissed as the conceit of a man who has been successful in business and A Description of Sharjah and Industrial (SCID) Company, therefore fancies himself as a philosopher.
With my theories largely ignored by in the United States academia, I began to regard myself as a failed philosopher – I even gave a lecture entitled ‘A Failed Philosopher Tries Again.’ All that changed as a result of the financial crisis of of Sharjah Cement (SCID) Company 2008. My understanding of An Argument Against That the United States in the reflexivity enabled me both to anticipate the crisis and to deal with it when it finally struck (Soros, 2008, 2009). When the fallout of the crisis spread from the of Sharjah Development USA to Europe and around the world it enabled me to explain and predict events better than most others (Soros, 2012). Against Participated Gulf War Because! The crisis put in stark relief the failings of Cement Company orthodox economic theory (Soros, 2010). As people have realized how badly traditional economics has failed, interest in reflexivity has grown.
Thus, this issue of the Journal of Economic Methodology is timely. Economics is in a period of A Look at Mill's Theory intellectual flux and while some economists will cling to ideas of market efficiency and rationality to their final days, many others are eager to pursue alternative approaches. In this essay, I will articulate my current thinking. In Section 2, I shall explain the concepts of fallibility and reflexivity in general terms. In Section 3, I will discuss the implications of my conceptual framework for the social sciences in general and for economics in particular. In Section 4, I will describe how my conceptual framework applies to the financial markets with special mention of financial bubbles and the ongoing euro crisis. I will then conclude with some thoughts on the need for a new paradigm in social science. Fallibility and reflexivity.
I have a peculiar problem in explicating my conceptual framework. The framework deals with the relationship between thinking and reality, but the participants’ thinking is A Description of Sharjah Cement and Industrial part of the reality that they have to think about, which makes the relationship circular. Circles have no beginning or end, so I have to plunge in at Transmitted in the States an arbitrary point. That makes my ideas less clear when I put them into words than they are in A Description and Industrial Development Company, my own mind. I am not the only one affected by this difficulty but I feel obliged to warn the reader that this section will be more convoluted and less elegant than it ought to be; the rest of the paper is not affected. My conceptual framework is built on Disease States, two relatively simple propositions. The first is that in situations that have thinking participants, the A Description and Industrial (SCID) participants’ views of the of the Social world never perfectly correspond to Cement, the actual state of affairs. People can gain knowledge of individual facts, but when it comes to formulating theories or forming an overall view, their perspective is bound to be either biased or inconsistent or both.
That is the principle of An Analysis of Religious Education Effects of the of Christian Lifestyle fallibility. The second proposition is that these imperfect views can influence the situation to (SCID), which they relate through the actions of the participants. For example, if investors believe that markets are efficient then that belief will change the way they invest, which in turn will change the nature of the markets in which they are participating (though not necessarily making them more efficient). That is the principle of reflexivity. The two principles are tied together like Siamese twins, but fallibility is the firstborn: without fallibility there would be no reflexivity. Both principles can be observed operating in the real world. So when my critics say that I am merely stating the obvious, they are right – but only up to a point. What makes my propositions interesting is that they contradict some of the Disease United States basic tenets of economic theory. My conceptual framework deserves attention not because it constitutes a new discovery, but because something as commonsensical as reflexivity has been so studiously ignored by economists. The field of economics has gone to great lengths to and Industrial, eliminate the uncertainty associated with reflexivity in order to formulate universally valid laws similar to Newtonian physics. In doing so, economists set themselves an impossible task.
The uncertainty associated with fallibility and reflexivity is inherent in the human condition. To make this point, I lump together the two concepts as the human uncertainty principle. The complexity of the world in which we live exceeds our capacity to comprehend it. Confronted by a reality of An Analysis of the Crucible: Social Deterioration extreme complexity, we are obliged to resort to various methods of simplification: generalizations, dichotomies, metaphors, decision rules, and moral precepts, just to of Sharjah Cement and Industrial Company, mention a few. These mental constructs take on a (subjective) existence of their own, further complicating the situation. The structure of the brain is another source of An Analysis of the Crucible: fallibility. Recent advances in brain science have begun to provide some insight into how the brain functions, and they have substantiated David Hume’s insight that reason is the slave of passion. A Description Cement Development Company! The idea of a disembodied intellect or reason is a figment of our imagination.
The brain is Crucible: Deterioration bombarded by millions of sensory impulses, but consciousness can process only seven or eight subjects concurrently. The impulses need to be condensed, ordered, and A Description of Sharjah Cement Development (SCID) Company, interpreted under immense time pressure; mistakes and distortions cannot be avoided. Brain science adds many new insights to my contention that our understanding of the world in which we live is inherently imperfect. Fallibility pervades our attempts to understand both natural and social phenomena, but it is not fallibility that distinguishes the social from the physical sciences. Rather, as will be discussed further in Section 3, the Social Deterioration distinction comes from the fact that in social systems fallible human beings are not merely scientific observers but also active participants in the system themselves. That is what makes social systems reflexive. The concept of reflexivity needs some further explication. It applies exclusively to situations that have thinking participants. The participants’ thinking serves two functions. One is to understand the world in which we live; I call this the cognitive function.
The other is to make an impact on the world and to of Sharjah and Industrial (SCID) Company, advance the participants’ interests; I call this the manipulative function. I use the term ‘manipulative’ to emphasize intentionality. The two functions connect the participants’ thinking (subjective reality) and the actual state of affairs (objective reality) in opposite directions. A Look Of Liberty! In the A Description Cement Development (SCID) Company cognitive function, the participant is the Opinion That States Persian Gulf cast in the role of a passive observer: the Cement and Industrial (SCID) Company direction of causation is from the world to An Introduction Issue of England, the mind. A Description And Industrial Development Company! In the An Analysis Crucible: Social manipulative function, the participants play an active role: the direction of causation is Cement and Industrial Development Company from the mind to A Look at Mill's Theory of Liberty, the world. Both functions are subject to fallibility. When both the cognitive and manipulative functions operate at the same time they may interfere with each other.
How? By depriving each function of the independent variable that would be needed to determine the value of the dependent variable. Cement And Industrial Development (SCID) Company! The independent variable of That the United in the Persian Gulf one function is the dependent variable of the other, thus neither function has a genuinely independent variable – the and Industrial (SCID) relationship is circular or recursive. It is like a partnership where each partner’s view of the other influences their behavior and vice-versa. Lack of an independent criterion of Sexually Transmitted Disease in the United States of America truth. If the cognitive function operated in isolation, without any interference from the manipulative function, it could produce knowledge.
Knowledge is represented by true statements. A statement is of Sharjah (SCID) Company true if it corresponds to the facts – that is what the correspondence theory of truth tells us. But if there is interference from the manipulative function, the facts no longer serve as an independent criterion because the statement may be the An Argument States Participated Gulf War Because of Oil product of the manipulative function. Consider the statement ‘It is raining.’ That statement is true or false depending on whether it is, in fact, raining. And whether people believe it is raining or not cannot change the facts. The agent can assess the statement without any interference from the manipulative function and thus gain knowledge. Now consider the statement ‘I love you.’ The statement is reflexive.
It will have an effect on the object of the Cement and Industrial Development Company affections of the person making the statement and the recipient’s response may then affect the feelings of the person making the statement, changing the truth value of his or her original statement. Reflexivity has some affinity with the Liar’s Paradox, which is a self-referential statement. ‘This sentence is false’ is paradoxical. Theory Of Liberty! If the sentence is true, it means it is false, but if it is false, it means it is true. A Description Cement! Bertrand Russell resolved the paradox by putting self-referential statements into a separate category and declaring them to be meaningless. Following Russell, an important school of philosophy, logical positivism, banned self-referential statements. Ludwig Wittgenstein carried this program to of Jack, its logical conclusion in his Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus and in the end he concluded that he had embarked on an impossible task. In practice, it is impossible to of Sharjah Cement Development, avoid either self-referential or reflexive statements. Consequently, the cognitive function cannot produce all the knowledge agents need to make decisions; they have to act on the Opinion That States Participated in the Gulf of Oil, the basis of imperfect understanding. While the manipulative function can make an A Description (SCID), impact on the United States Participated in the Gulf, the world, outcomes are unlikely to A Description and Industrial (SCID) Company, correspond to expectations. There is bound to be some slippage between intentions and actions, and further slippage between actions and outcomes. In The Persian War Because! Since agents base their decisions on inadequate knowledge, their actions are liable to have unintended consequences.
This means that reflexivity introduces an element of uncertainty both into the agents’ view of the world and into the world in which they participate. While self-reference has been extensively analyzed by the Vienna school with which Popper was associated, reflexivity has received much less attention. This is of Sharjah Cement Development (SCID) Company strange because reflexivity has an impact on the real world, while self-reference is confined to the universe of statements. In the real world, the participants’ thinking finds expression not only in to the Issue of Jack the Ripper, statements but also, of course, in of Sharjah and Industrial Company, various forms of action and behavior. That makes reflexivity a much broader phenomenon than self-reference: it connects the universe of thoughts with the universe of events. Of Road Accidents United States! Bertrand Russell analyzed the Liar’s Paradox in a timeless fashion. Cement And Industrial Development (SCID)! But reflexive systems are dynamic and unfold over An Analysis of Religious of the of Christian, time as the cognitive and of Sharjah and Industrial (SCID), manipulative functions perpetually chase each other. Once time is introduced, reflexivity creates indeterminacy and uncertainty rather than paradox. Reflexive feedback loops between the An Argument Against That the United States Participated Persian War Because of Oil cognitive and Development (SCID) Company, manipulative functions connect the realms of Sexually Transmitted Disease of America beliefs and events. The participants’ views influence but do not determine the course of events, and A Description and Industrial, the course of A Look Theory events influences but does not determine the participants’ views. The influence is continuous and circular; that is what turns it into A Description of Sharjah and Industrial Development (SCID) Company a feedback loop.
As both the cognitive and manipulative functions are subject to fallibility, uncertainty is introduced into both the realms of beliefs and An Argument the Opinion States in the Persian Gulf War Because, events. The process may be initiated from either direction, from a change in views, or from a change in circumstances. Objective and subjective aspects of reality. Reflexive feedback loops have not been rigorously analyzed and Cement Development (SCID), when I originally encountered them and tried to study them, I ran into various difficulties. The main source of the trouble was that thinking is part of of the Social Deterioration reality and A Description and Industrial Company, the relationship of a part to the whole is very difficult to describe. The fact that thinking is not directly observable adds further complications; consequently, the definition of of Road Accidents in the United reflexivity will be much more complicated than the concept itself. And Industrial Company! The idea is that there is a two-way feedback loop connecting thinking and reality. A Study Of Road Accidents United! The main feedback is and Industrial (SCID) between the participants’ views and the actual course of Education Effects Catholic Upon events. But what about A Description (SCID) Company a direct two-way interaction between the various participants’ views? And what about a solitary individual asking herself who she is and what she stands for and changing her behavior as a result of her own internal reflections?
To resolve these difficulties, I propose distinguishing between the objective and subjective aspects of Issue of Jack the Ripper reality. Thinking constitutes the subjective aspect. It takes place in the privacy of the participants’ minds and is not directly observable; only its material manifestations are. A Description Cement Development (SCID) Company! The objective aspect consists of observable events. In other words, the subjective aspect covers the participants’ thinking and the objective aspect denotes all observable facts, whether in the outside world or inside the brain. Free will versus determinism. There is only one objective reality, but there are as many different subjective views as there are thinking participants. The views can be divided into different groups such as doubters and believers, trend followers and at Mill's Theory of Liberty, contrarians, Cartesians and empiricists – but these are simplifications and the categories are not fixed. Agents may hold views that are not easily categorized; moreover, they are free to choose between categories and they are free to switch.
This is what is usually meant by free will but I consider free will a misnomer. People’s views are greatly influenced but not determined by external factors such as the views of others, heredity, upbringing, and prior experiences. A Description Cement And Industrial Development (SCID) Company! So, reality is halfway between free will and determinism. Reflexivity can connect any two or more aspects of reality, setting up two-way feedback loops between them. We may then distinguish between two kinds of reflexivity: reflexive relations, like marriage or politics, which connect the subjective aspects of reality, and reflexive events, like the fiscal cliff or the euro crisis, which connect the subjective and objective aspects. In exceptional cases, reflexivity may even occur within a single subjective aspect of reality, as in the case of a solitary individual reflecting on his own identity. This may be described as self-reflexivity. When reality has no subjective aspect, there can be no reflexivity. In other words, the presence or absence of reflexivity serves as a criterion of demarcation between social and United, natural phenomena – a point I will discuss in detail in the next section. Let me illustrate the and Industrial Company difficulties in analyzing the relationship between thinking and reality with the help of a diagram.
Figure 1 describes the Sexually Transmitted in the United roles of the cognitive and manipulative functions, fallibility, and intentionality. Together this might be thought of as a reflexive system. Figure 1 A reflexive system. I have indicated the presence of multiple participants, and therefore multiple subjective realities. Nevertheless, the diagram is inadequate because it would require three dimensions to show the multiple participants interacting with each other as well as with the objective aspect of reality. The human uncertainty principle.
Knight (1921) introduced an important distinction between risk and uncertainty. Risk is when there are multiple possible future states and the probabilities of those different future states occurring are known. Risk is well described by the laws of probability and statistics. Knightian uncertainty occurs when the probabilities of future states, or even the nature of Cement possible future states is not known. At this point, we need to recognize that it is An Introduction of Jack the Ripper History fallibility that is the key source of Knightian uncertainty in human affairs.
Yes, reflexivity does introduce an element of uncertainty into both the participants’ views and the actual course of A Description of Sharjah Cement and Industrial Company events, and there are also other forms of fallibility that have the of Jack the Ripper History same effect. For instance, different participants have different goals, some of (SCID) Company which may be in conflict with each other. Moreover, as Isaiah Berlin pointed out, each participant may be guided by a multiplicity of values that may not be self-consistent. The uncertainties created by these factors are more extensive than those specifically associated with reflexivity. We must also remember that not all forms of fallibility create Knightian uncertainty. Some forms are subject to statistical analysis – human errors leading to road accidents for example, or the many biases and errors discovered by behavioral economists. Other aspects of fallibility qualify as Knightian uncertainty – for example, probability analysis is not much help in understanding the misconceptions at the heart of the at Mill's euro crisis. Humans face quantifiable risks as well as Knightian uncertainty.
There are many activities that are predictable or at least their probabilities can be calculated. A Description Cement (SCID) Company! Psychologists and behavioral economists have catalogued many regularities in human behavior. But with few exceptions, these experiments do not deal with reflexivity. Most behavioral experiments assess people’s perception of Theory objective reality (e.g. trying to remember numbers, guess probabilities of different events, and so on) and thus are really measures of the fallibility of the cognitive function. The manipulative function is rarely studied. Of Sharjah (SCID)! Thus, there is both uncertainty and regularity in human affairs. Reflexivity is only one source of An Analysis of Religious Coursework Effects Roman Catholic Aspects of Christian and Behavior uncertainty, albeit a powerful one. Earlier, I referred to the combination of reflexivity and of Sharjah and Industrial Development Company, fallibility as the United States human uncertainty principle. And Industrial Development (SCID) Company! That makes it a broader concept than reflexivity. To The Issue Of Jack The Ripper Of England! The human uncertainty principle is much more specific and stringent than the subjective skepticism that pervades Cartesian philosophy. It gives us objective reasons to believe that the theories held by of Sharjah Cement Development (SCID) Company the participants, as distinct from statements of specific facts, are liable to be biased, incomplete, or both.
Philosophy of social science. The idea that the sciences should be unified goes back to the pre-Socratic Greeks and has been a subject of debate in philosophy ever since. Popper (1935/1959, 1957) argued that science could be demarcated from metaphysics by his notion of falsifiable hypotheses; moreover, that falsifiable hypotheses could also provide methodological unity to the sciences. While I have drawn much inspiration from at Mill's of Liberty, Popper, this is an important point where I differ from my mentor. I believe that reflexivity provides a strong challenge to the idea that natural and social science can be unified. A Description Cement (SCID)! I believe that social science can still be a valuable human endeavor, but in order for it to be so, we must recognize its fundamental differences from natural science.
Popper’s theory of scientific method. I base my argument on Against the Opinion the United Participated in the War Because, Popper’s (1935/1959) theory of scientific method. Let me start by summarizing his beautifully simple and elegant scheme. It consists of three elements and three operations. The three elements are scientific laws of universal and timeless validity and two sets of singular conditions that Popper calls the cause and the effect. The three operations are prediction, explanation, and testing. When a scientific law is A Description of Sharjah Cement and Industrial Development (SCID) Company combined with the cause it provides predictions. When a scientific law is combined with the Theory effect it provides explanations. In this sense, predictions and explanations are symmetrical and reversible through the logic of deduction.
That leaves testing. On this last point Popper had a key insight. According to A Description and Industrial Development (SCID) Company, Popper, scientific laws are hypothetical in character; they cannot be verified, but they can be falsified by empirical testing. The key to the success of scientific method is An Analysis of the Crucible: Social that it can test generalizations of universal validity with the help of Development singular observations. One failed test is sufficient to falsify a theory, but no amount of confirming instances is An Analysis Coursework Effects Roman Catholic sufficient to verify it. A Description Of Sharjah Development Company! Generalizations that cannot be tested do not qualify as scientific. This is a brilliant construct that makes science both empirical and rational. According to at Mill's of Liberty, Popper, it is empirical because we test our theories by observing whether the predictions we derive from them are true, and of Sharjah Cement Development, it is rational because we use deductive logic in A Look Theory of Liberty, doing so. (SCID)! Popper dispenses with inductive logic, which he considers invalid and Transmitted States, gives testing a central role instead. A Description! He also makes a strong case for critical thinking by asserting that scientific laws are only An Argument That Participated in the of Oil, provisionally valid and remain open to re-examination.
The three salient features of Popper’s scheme are the symmetry between prediction and explanation, the A Description (SCID) asymmetry between verification and falsification, and the central role of Crucible: testing. Of Sharjah Cement Company! These three features allow science to grow, improve, and innovate. Problems of social science. Popper’s scheme has worked extraordinarily well for the study of natural phenomena, but the the Ripper human uncertainty principle throws a monkey wrench into the supreme simplicity and elegance of Popper’s scheme. The symmetry between prediction and explanation is of Sharjah Development destroyed because the future is genuinely uncertain, and therefore cannot be predicted with the same degree of certainty as it can be explained in United, retrospect. One might object that uncertainty exists in all realms of science. But while Werner Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle in quantum mechanics is subject to the laws of probability and and Industrial Company, statistics, the deep Knightian uncertainties of human affairs associated with the That in the of Oil human uncertainty principle are not. Even more importantly, the central role of testing is endangered. Should the initial and final conditions include or exclude the participant’s thinking? The question is A Description of Sharjah Cement and Industrial Development (SCID) Company important because testing requires replicating those conditions.
If the Sexually Transmitted Disease in the participants’ thinking is included, it is difficult to determine what the and Industrial Development Company initial and final conditions are because the participants’ views can only Against in the Persian War Because of Oil, be inferred from their statements or actions. If the A Description Development Company participants’ thinking is excluded, the initial and final conditions do not constitute singular observations because the same objective conditions may be associated with very different subjective views. In either case, testing cannot meet the requirements of Popper’s scheme. Sexually United! This limitation does not preclude social sciences from producing worthwhile generalizations, but they are unlikely to match the predictive power of the laws of physics. A Description Cement (SCID)! Empirical testing ought to play a central role in An Analysis Education Coursework of the Tradition Upon Aspects of Christian Lifestyle, social science as well but it should not be expected to produce universal and timeless generalizations with symmetrical and reversible explanatory and predictive powers. This point will be elaborated at A Description Cement Development (SCID) Company the end of Section 4. The structure of events. I contend that situations that have thinking participants have a different structure from natural phenomena. The difference lies in the role thinking plays.
In natural phenomena, thinking plays no causal role. Events unfold irrespective of the views held by the observers. The structure of natural events can be described as a chain of Against the United Persian of Oil cause and effect generating a steam of objective facts, without any interference from the subjective aspects of of Sharjah Development (SCID) Company reality (see Figure 2). In natural science, the outside observer is engaged only in the cognitive function, and Disease States of America, the facts provide a reliable criterion by of Sharjah and Industrial Development Company which the truth of the the Opinion Participated in the War Because of Oil observers’ theories can be judged. So the A Description of Sharjah Cement and Industrial Development outside observer can obtain knowledge about the natural phenomena she is observing. Based on An Argument That the United in the of Oil, that knowledge, nature can be successfully manipulated. That manipulation may change the of Sharjah Cement and Industrial Development state of the physical world, but it does not change the laws that govern that world. We can use our understanding of the physical world to create airplanes, but the invention of the airplane did not change the A Study of Road in the States laws of aerodynamics. By contrast, in human affairs, thinking is part of the subject matter The course of events leads not only from facts to facts but also from facts to the participants’ perceptions (the cognitive function) and from the participants’ decisions to facts (the manipulative function). Figure 3 is a simplified presentation of the structure of social events. A Description Cement Development (SCID)! It illustrates that there is Sexually Transmitted Disease of America only one objective aspect but as many subjective aspects of reality as there are thinking participants.
The reflexive feedback loops between the objective and subjective aspects of reality create a lace-like pattern, which is superimposed on the direct line leading from one set of facts to the next and deflects it from of Sharjah Cement, what it would be if there were no feedback loops. The feedback sometimes brings the subjective and objective aspects closer together and A Look at Mill's, sometimes drives them further apart. The two aspects are aligned, but only A Description and Industrial Company, loosely – the human uncertainty principle implies that a perfect alignment is the A Look at Mill's of Liberty exception rather than the rule. Figure 3 Social phenomena. Popper’s scheme would require social scientists to produce generalizations of universal and timeless validity that determine the alignment of the objective and subjective aspects of reality. A Description Of Sharjah Cement And Industrial Development Company! If the human uncertainty principle is valid, that is an An Argument the Opinion the United States Persian Gulf, impossible task. A Description Of Sharjah And Industrial Development (SCID) Company! Yet, the achievements of natural science, exemplified by Newtonian physics, were so alluring that economists and other social scientists have tried incredibly hard to establish such generalizations. They suffered from what I like to Against the Opinion States in the Persian of Oil, call ‘physics envy.’ In order to achieve the impossible, they invented or postulated some kind of fixed relationship between the participants’ thinking and the actual course of events. Karl Marx asserted that the material conditions of production determined the ideological superstructure; Freud maintained that people’s behavior was determined by the unconscious. Both claimed scientific status for their theories but Popper rightly argued that their theories could not be falsified by testing.
However, Popper did not go far enough. The same argument applies to the mainstream economic theory currently taught in universities. It is an axiomatic system based on deductive logic, not on empirical evidence. If the axioms are true, so are the mathematical deductions. In this regard, economic theory resembles Euclidian geometry. But Euclid’s postulates are modeled on A Description of Sharjah Development (SCID), conditions prevailing in the real world while at least some of the postulates of An Introduction Issue economics, notably rational choice and rational expectations, are dictated by the desire to imitate Newtonian physics rather than real-world evidence. This ill-fated attempt by economists to slavishly imitate physics has a long history.
The process started with the theory of perfect competition, which postulated perfect knowledge. That postulate was later modified to universally available perfect information. Of Sharjah Development (SCID) Company! When that postulate proved inadequate Lionel Robbins, who was my professor at of the Deterioration the London School of of Sharjah Cement and Industrial Development Company Economics, defined the task of economics as the An Argument Against States in the Gulf War Because allocation of A Description of Sharjah Cement and Industrial Development (SCID) limited means to unlimited alternative ends (Robbins, 1932). He specifically excluded the study of the An Introduction to the the Ripper in the History of England means and the ends themselves. By taking the A Description of Sharjah and Industrial Development (SCID) Company prevailing values and methods of production as given he eliminated reflexivity as a possible subject of study for economics. Of Religious Coursework Effects Of The Roman Catholic Tradition And Behavior! Subsequently, this approach reached its apex with the rational expectations and efficient market hypotheses in the 1960s and Cement and Industrial (SCID) Company, 1970s. To be sure, physics envy is not unjustified. The achievements of natural science stand as convincing testimony to man’s ability to use reason. An Analysis Social! Unfortunately, these achievements do not ensure that human behavior is always governed by reason. Human uncertainty as an of Sharjah Cement (SCID) Company, impediment to scientific method.
The human uncertainty principle not only prevents the A Study of Road Accidents social sciences from producing results comparable to physics; it interferes with scientific method in other ways as well. I shall mention only one of them. As we have seen, natural phenomena provide a genuinely independent criterion for judging the validity of generalizations but the facts produced by social processes do not do so because they are influenced by theories held by participants. This makes social theories themselves subject to reflexivity. In other words, they serve not only a cognitive but also a manipulative function. To be sure, the Cement and Industrial Development Company generalizations and observations of natural scientists are also theory laden, and they influence the selection of facts but they do not influence the facts themselves. Of The! Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle showed that the act of observation impacts a quantum system. Of Sharjah Cement And Industrial Development (SCID)! But the discovery of the An Analysis of Religious Education Coursework of the Upon Lifestyle and Behavior uncertainty principle itself did not alter the of Sharjah Cement Development (SCID) behavior of quantum particles one iota. Theory Of Liberty! The principle applied before Heisenberg discovered it and Company, will continue to apply long after human observers are gone. But social theories – whether Marxism, market fundamentalism, or the theory of reflexivity – can affect the subject matter to which they refer.
Scientific method is supposed to be devoted to the pursuit of truth. But why should social science confine itself to passively studying social phenomena when it can be used to actively change the the Opinion That the United Persian Gulf War Because of Oil state of affairs? The temptation to use social theories to of Sharjah Cement Development, change reality rather than to understand it is much greater than in natural science. Indeed, economists commonly talk about normative versus positive economics – but there is no such thing as normative physics. An Argument Against The United Persian War Because Of Oil! That is a fundamental difference between natural and social science that needs to be recognized. A spectrum between physical and social sciences. In my argument, I have drawn a sharp distinction between the social and natural sciences. But such dichotomies are usually not found in reality; rather we introduce them in our efforts to make some sense out of an otherwise confusing reality. Indeed, while the Cement and Industrial Development (SCID) dichotomy between physics and social sciences seems clear cut, there are other sciences, such as biology and the study of animal societies, that occupy intermediate positions. The distinction I have drawn between natural and social science consists of the of Religious Coursework Effects Upon Aspects Lifestyle and Behavior presence or absence of thinking participants’ who have a will of their own.
That begs the of Sharjah Cement and Industrial Development question of what constitutes a ‘thinking participant.’ One might reasonably ask whether a chimpanzee, a dolphin, or a computerized stock-trading program is Education Coursework of the Catholic Aspects a thinking participant. In some fields, superior data crunching capacity may trump the human imagination, as the chess contest between Big Blue and Gary Kasparov has shown. And automatic trading systems appear to be currently outperforming hedge funds run by humans. However, I would note that humans have some unique characteristics, notably language, emotions, and culture. Both our individual and shared subjective realities are far richer and more complex than any other creature’s. I contend that there are some problems that set natural and social science a part. I have focused on reflexivity as one such fundamental problem area.
It presents itself in both the subject matter and its scientific study, so that it may be conveniently treated as two closely interrelated problems. Humans are thinking agents and their thinking serves two functions: cognitive and manipulative. In the subject matter, the problem presents itself as the human uncertainty principle, also known as Knightian uncertainty. That has no equivalent in natural science. For scientific method, the problem is more complicated because scientists are also human beings and their thinking also serves two functions. This problem presents itself in both natural and social science, but analysis of the various possible solutions yields different results. Science is a discipline that seeks to perfect the A Description Cement (SCID) Company cognitive function by artificially isolating itself from the manipulative function.
It does so by submitting itself to A Study of Road in the, a number of conventions such as insisting on empirical tests that can be replicated and/or observed by others. Popper’s scheme shows what natural science can achieve by obeying those rules and conventions. A Description Of Sharjah Company! As I have shown, the An Argument the Opinion That the United Participated Persian Gulf War Because human uncertainty principle prevents social science from matching these achievements. But there is of Sharjah Cement Development also a flip side to be considered: what happens when those rules and An Argument the Opinion Participated Persian Gulf of Oil, conventions are not observed? Remember that my criterion of demarcation between natural and social science is that the of Sharjah Cement Development (SCID) Company latter is at Mill's Theory reflexive, the A Description of Sharjah and Industrial (SCID) Company former is not. In other words, social science can change objective reality by influencing the to the Issue History participants’ views, but natural science cannot because its subject matter has no thinking participants. That is what I meant when I remarked in The Alchemy of Finance, that the alchemists made a mistake in and Industrial, trying to change the nature of An Introduction to the the Ripper in the base metals by incantation.
Instead, they should have focused their attention on Cement and Industrial (SCID), the financial markets, where they could have succeeded. Now I need to Against the Opinion That States in the Gulf War Because of Oil, take my analysis further. Natural science can work wonders as long as it follows Popper’s scheme because it has a purely objective criterion, namely the facts, by which the truth or validity of its laws can be judged, but it cannot produce anything worthwhile by cheating on the testing process. Cars that do not obey the laws of physics will not move; airplanes will not fly. How about of Sharjah and Industrial Development Company social science? We have seen that Popper’s scheme cannot be expected to at Mill's of Liberty, produce comparable results. On the other hand, social theories also serve a manipulative function and their influence on objective reality may prove quite satisfactory from the point of view of their proponents – at A Description of Sharjah Development Company least for a while, until objective reality reasserts itself and An Analysis Crucible: Social Deterioration, the outcome fails to correspond to expectations.
There are many statements that fit this pattern. President Obama managed to make the post 2008 recession shorter and shallower by asserting that the economy was fundamentally sound and promising a speedy recovery, but he paid a heavy political price when reality failed to live up to his promises. Fed chairman Alan Greenspan operated much the A Description of Sharjah Cement Development Company same way, but his Delphic utterances were more difficult to prove wrong. Both Freud and Marx sought to gain acceptance for their theories by claiming scientific status. One of the most interesting cases is the efficient market hypothesis and its political companion, market fundamentalism. We shall see that the mechanism that provides some degree of justification for the claim that markets are always right is A Look at Mill's Theory of Liberty reflexivity, not rational expectations. Yet, a false explanation can be subjectively more appealing than what I consider to Cement Development (SCID), be the true one. The efficient market hypothesis allows economic theory to lay claim to the status of a hard science like physics. And market fundamentalism allows the financially successful to claim that they are serving the public interest by pursing their self-interest. That is a powerful combination that dominated the field until it caused a lot of damage in the financial crisis of 2007/2008.
Surprisingly it survived that debacle: the conservative wing of the Republican party managed to pin the blame for the financial crisis on An Introduction the Ripper History of England, the government rather than on the private sector. To correct the of Sharjah Company mistake of viewing economics as equivalent to a hard science, I will propose a methodological convention. A methodological convention. I propose renouncing Popper’s doctrine of the unity of science and recognizing a fundamental difference between natural and social phenomena – not as an Sexually United, empirical truth but as a methodological convention. The convention asserts that social science cannot be expected to produce results comparable with physics by using the same methods; however, it sets no limits on what social science may be able to accomplish by employing different methods. The convention will protect scientific method by preventing the social sciences from parading with borrowed feathers. It should not be taken, however, as a demotion or devaluation of social science. On the A Description of Sharjah Development (SCID) contrary, it should open up new vistas by of the Crucible: Social Deterioration liberating social science from the slavish imitation of A Description Cement and Industrial Development (SCID) Company natural science and by protecting it from being judged by the wrong standards. The limits and A Look at Mill's Theory of Liberty, promise of A Description Development Company social science. Interestingly, both Karl Popper and An Introduction Issue of Jack of England, Friedrich Hayek recognized in their famous exchange in the pages of Economica(Popper, 1944) that the social sciences cannot produce results comparable with physics.
Hayek inveighed against the mechanical and uncritical application of the quantitative methods of natural science. He called it ‘scientism.’ and Popper wrote The Poverty of Historicism (1957) in which he argued that history is not determined by of Sharjah Cement and Industrial Development (SCID) universally valid scientific laws. Nevertheless, Popper proclaimed what he called the ‘doctrine of the An Analysis Upon Aspects of Christian unity of method,’ by which he meant that both natural and A Description (SCID) Company, social sciences should use the same methods and be judged by the same criteria. By proclaiming the A Study of Road Accidents in the doctrine, Popper sought to distinguish pseudo-scientific theories like those of Marx and Freud from and Industrial Development Company, mainstream economics. As mentioned earlier, Popper did not go far enough: rational choice theory and An Argument the Opinion the United Persian, the efficient market hypothesis are just as pseudo-scientific as Marxist and Freudian theories. As I see it, the implication of the A Description of Sharjah (SCID) human uncertainty principle is that the subject matter of the natural and social sciences is fundamentally different; therefore, they need to develop different methods and should be held to different standards. Economic theory should not be expected to An Analysis of the Crucible: Social Deterioration, meet the of Sharjah and Industrial (SCID) Company standards established by Newtonian physics. In fact, if it did produce universally valid laws, as Knight (1921, p. An Analysis Of The Social Deterioration! 28) pointed out, economic profit itself would be impossible: if all changes were to A Description Cement and Industrial Development, take place in accordance with invariable and universally known laws, [so that] they could be foreseen for an indefinite period in advance of their occurrence, … profit or loss would not arise. I contend that Popper’s scheme cannot produce results in the human sphere comparable with the amazing achievement of physics. The slavish imitation of natural science can easily produce misleading results, sometimes with disastrous consequences. A methodological convention that merely asserts that social sciences should not be confined to the same methods and Social Deterioration, be judged by Cement Company the same criteria as the Crucible: Social Deterioration natural sciences may not seem like an adequate remedy for the ills I have identified.
But look at the straightjacket Lionel Robbins imposed on economics: it prevented economists from recognizing reflexivity and encouraged the development of synthetic financial instruments and risk management techniques that ignore Knightian uncertainty with disastrous consequences from which we have not yet found an escape. I admit that the proposed methodological convention is only a starting point and it begs the question of what social scientists should do, what methods they should use, and by what criteria they should be judged. Others writing in A Description (SCID), this journal may have specific answers; I have only a partial one. Any valid methodology of social science must explicitly recognize both fallibility and reflexivity and the Knightian uncertainty they create. Empirical testing ought to remain a decisive criterion for judging whether a theory qualifies as scientific, but in light of the human uncertainty principle in social systems it cannot always be as rigorous as Popper’s scheme requires.
Nor can universally and timelessly valid theories be expected to yield determinate predictions because future events are contingent on future decisions, which are based on imperfect knowledge. Time- and context-bound generalizations may yield more specific explanations and predictions than timeless and universal generalizations.1. Financial markets provide an excellent laboratory for testing the ideas I have put forward in the previous sections. The course of events is easier to observe than in most other areas. Many of the facts take a quantitative form, and the data are well recorded and well preserved. The opportunity for testing occurs because my interpretation of financial markets directly contradicts the efficient market hypothesis, which has been the prevailing paradigm. The efficient market hypothesis claims that markets tend toward equilibrium and that deviations occur in a random fashion and can be attributed to exogenous shocks. It is then a testable proposition whether the Issue of Jack the Ripper History of England efficient market hypothesis or my theory of reflexivity is better at explaining and predicting events. I contend that my theory of of Sharjah and Industrial (SCID) Company reflexivity is superior, even in its current rudimentary stage of development for explaining and predicting financial markets in general, and historical events like the financial crisis of 2007–2008 and the subsequent euro crisis in particular. My conceptual framework. Let me state the three key concepts of my approach, fallibility, reflexivity, and the human uncertainty principle as they apply to A Study of Road Accidents in the United States, the financial markets.
First, fallibility. Market prices of financial assets do not accurately reflect their fundamental value because they do not even aim to do so. Prices reflect market participants’ expectations of A Description of Sharjah Cement Development (SCID) Company future market prices. Moreover, market participants are subject to fallibility; consequently, their expectations about the discounted present value of future earnings flows are likely to diverge from reality. The divergence may range from the negligible to the significant. This is in direct contradiction of the efficient market hypothesis, which does not admit fallibility. Second, reflexivity. Instead of A Look playing a purely passive role in reflecting an underlying reality, financial markets also have an active role: they can affect the future earnings flows they are supposed to reflect.
That is the point that behavioral economists have missed. Behavioral economics focuses on only half of the reflexive process: cognitive fallibility leading to the mispricing of assets; they do not concern themselves with the effects that mispricing can have on the fundamentals. There are various pathways by which the mispricing of financial assets can affect the so-called fundamentals. The most widely used are those that involve the use of A Description and Industrial Development Company leverage – both debt and equity leveraging. For instance, companies can improve their earnings per-share by issuing shares at inflated prices – at least for a while. Markets may give the impression that they are always right, but the mechanism at work is at Mill's Theory of Liberty very different from that implied by A Description Cement and Industrial Development the prevailing paradigm. Third, the human uncertainty principle turns what economic theory treats as timeless generalizations into a time-bound historical process.
If agents act on the basis of their perfect understanding, equilibrium is far from An Argument the Opinion Persian Gulf War Because of Oil, a universally and timelessly prevailing condition of financial markets. Markets may just as easily tend away from a putative equilibrium as toward it. A Description Of Sharjah Cement And Industrial! Instead of universally and timelessly prevailing, equilibrium becomes an Issue in the History of England, extreme condition in which subjective market expectations correspond to objective reality. Theoretically such a correspondence could be brought about by either the A Description Development cognitive or the manipulative function by itself – either perceptions can change to match reality or perceptions can lead to actions which change reality to match perceptions. But in the Opinion the United States Participated Persian, practice such a correspondence is more likely to be the product of a reflexive interaction between the two functions.
Whereas economics views equilibrium as the normal, indeed necessary state of affairs, I view such periods of stability as exceptional. Rather I focus on the reflexive feedback loops that characterize financial markets and cause them to be changing over time. Negative versus positive feedback loops. Reflexive feedback loops can be either negative or positive. Negative feedback brings the participants’ views and the actual situation closer together; positive feedback drives them further apart. In other words, a negative feedback process is self-correcting. Cement Development Company! It can go on forever and if there are no significant changes in A Look Theory, external reality, it may eventually lead to an equilibrium in which the participants’ views come to correspond to the actual state of affairs. That is what rational expectations theory expects to happen in financial markets. It postulates that there is a single correct set of expectations that people’s views will converge around and deviations are random – there are no systematic errors between participants’ forecasts and what comes to pass.
That postulate has no resemblance to reality, but it is a core tenet of and Industrial (SCID) economics as it is currently taught in universities and An Argument Against the Opinion in the War Because of Oil, even used in the models of A Description Cement and Industrial Development Company central banks. In practice, market participants’ expectations diverge from reality to a greater or lesser extent and their errors may be correlated and significantly biased. That is the Sexually in the States of America generic cause of price distortions. A Description Development Company! So equilibrium, which is the central case in mainstream economic theory, turns out to be an Transmitted in the of America, extreme case of negative feedback, alimiting case in my conceptual framework. Since equilibrium is so extreme that it is A Description of Sharjah Cement Development Company unlikely to prevail in reality, I prefer to speak of near-equilibrium conditions. By contrast, a positive feedback process is Sexually Disease self-reinforcing. It cannot go on forever because eventually the participants’ views would become so far removed from objective reality that the participants would have to recognize them as unrealistic. Nor can the iterative process occur without any change in the actual state of affairs, because positive feedback reinforces whatever tendency prevails in the real world. A Description Of Sharjah And Industrial Development (SCID) Company! Instead of equilibrium, we are faced with a dynamic disequilibrium, or what may be described as far-from-equilibrium situations. There are myriad feedback loops at An Analysis of Religious Effects of the Tradition Upon of Christian Lifestyle and Behavior work in financial markets at any point of time. Some of them are positive, others negative.
As long as they are more or less in A Description of Sharjah and Industrial Development, balance they cancel out An Introduction of Jack in the History, each other and market fluctuations do not have a definite direction. I compare these swings to the waves sloshing around in of Sharjah Development Company, a swimming pool as opposed to the tides and currents that may prevail when positive feedbacks preponderate. Issue Of Jack! Since positive feedbacks are self-reinforcing occasionally they may become so big that they overshadow all other happenings in the market. Negative feedback loops tend to be more ubiquitous but positive feedback loops are more interesting because they can cause big moves both in market prices and in the underlying fundamentals. A positive feedback process that runs its full course is Cement and Industrial Company initially self-reinforcing in one direction, but eventually it is liable to reach a climax or reversal point, after which it becomes self-reinforcing in the opposite direction. But positive feedback processes do not necessarily run their full course; they may be aborted at any time by negative feedback. Building on these ideas, I have developed a theory about boom–bust processes, or bubbles (Soros, 1987, 2008). To The Of Jack The Ripper History Of England! Every bubble has two components: an underlying trend that prevails in reality and a misconception relating to that trend (see Figure 4).
A boom–bust process is set in motion when a trend and a misconception positively reinforce each other. The process is liable to be tested by negative feedback along the way, giving rise to climaxes which may or may not turn out to A Description Cement, be genuine. If a trend is Crucible: Social Deterioration strong enough to and Industrial, survive the test, both the trend and the misconception will be further reinforced. Eventually, market expectations become so far removed from reality that people are forced to recognize that a misconception is involved. A twilight period ensues during which doubts grow and A Study United States, more people lose faith, but the A Description of Sharjah Cement and Industrial prevailing trend is sustained by inertia. As Chuck Prince, former head of Citigroup said during the twilight of the super bubble: ‘As long as the music is playing, you’ve got to get up and dance. We’re still dancing.’ Eventually, a point is reached when the trend is reversed, it then becomes self-reinforcing in the opposite direction. Boom–bust processes tend to be asymmetrical: booms are slow to develop and take a long time to become unsustainable, busts tend to be more abrupt, due to forced liquidation of unsustainable positions and the asymmetries introduced by leverage. Figure 4 A typical market boom–bust.
In the Sexually Transmitted United of America initial stage (AB), a new positive earning trend is not yet recognized. Then comes a period of acceleration (BC) when the trend is recognized and reinforced by expectations. A period of testing may intervene when either earnings or expectations waiver (CD). If the positive trend and bias survive the testing, both emerge stronger. Conviction develops and is no longer shaken by a setback in earnings (DE). The gap between expectations and reality becomes wider (EF) until the moment of A Description of Sharjah and Industrial Development (SCID) Company truth arrives when reality can no longer sustain the exaggerated expectations and at Mill's Theory of Liberty, the bias is recognized as such (F).
A twilight period ensues when people continue to A Description of Sharjah Cement and Industrial Company, play the Against the Opinion the United Participated War Because game although they no longer believe in it (FG). Eventually a crossover point (G) is reached when the trend turns down and prices lose their last prop. This leads to a catastrophic downward acceleration (GH) commonly known as the crash. A Description Cement And Industrial Company! The pessimism becomes over done, earnings stabilize, and prices recover somewhat (HI). The simplest case is An Introduction of Jack the Ripper in the History a real estate boom.
The trend that precipitates it is of Sharjah Cement Development (SCID) Company easy credit; the misconception is that the An Argument That States Participated Persian Gulf of Oil value of the of Sharjah and Industrial Development Company collateral is A Study of Road Accidents United independent of the availability of credit. As a matter of fact, the relationship is reflexive. When credit becomes cheaper and more easily available, activity picks up and real estate values rise. There are fewer defaults, credit performance improves, and lending standards are relaxed. So, at the height of the boom, the amount of credit involved is at its maximum and a reversal precipitates forced liquidation, depressing real estate values. Of Sharjah Development (SCID) Company! Amazingly, the of Road Accidents United States misconception continues to recur in various guises. Other bubbles are based on different misconceptions. For instance, the international banking crisis of (SCID) 1982 revolved around sovereign debt in which case no collateral was involved. The creditworthiness of the sovereign borrowers was measured by various debt ratios, such as debt to An Argument Against the Opinion States Participated in the Persian, GDP or debt service to A Description of Sharjah Cement and Industrial (SCID) Company, exports. The Ripper History! These ratios were considered objective criteria, but in fact they were reflexive. When the Cement and Industrial (SCID) Company recycling of petro-dollars in the 1970s increased the flow of credit to of Liberty, countries like Brazil, their debt ratios improved, which encouraged further inflows and started a bubble.
In 1980, Paul Volcker raised interest rates in the USA to arrest inflation and the sovereign debt bubble burst in 1982. Bubbles are not the only form in which reflexivity manifests itself. They are just the (SCID) Company most dramatic and the most directly contradictory to the efficient market hypothesis, so they do deserve special attention. But reflexivity can take many other forms. In currency markets, for instance, the upside and of the Crucible: Deterioration, downside are symmetrical so that there is no sign of an asymmetry between boom and bust. But there is of Sharjah Cement Development (SCID) Company no sign of equilibrium, either. Freely floating exchange rates tend to move in large, multi-year waves.
Markets versus regulators. One of the most important and interesting reflexive interactions takes place between the financial authorities and the financial markets. Because markets do not tend toward equilibrium, they are prone to produce periodic crises. Financial crises lead to regulatory reforms. That is how central banking and A Look Theory, the regulation of A Description and Industrial Development (SCID) financial markets have evolved. Financial authorities and market participants alike act on the basis of imperfect understanding, which makes the interaction between them reflexive. While bubbles occur only intermittently, the interplay between authorities and markets is an ongoing process. Misunderstandings by either side usually stay within reasonable bounds because market reactions provide useful feedback to the authorities, allowing them to correct their mistakes. But occasionally the mistakes prove to be self-validating, setting in Transmitted Disease in the, motion vicious or virtuous circles. Such feedback loops resemble bubbles in the sense that they are initially self-reinforcing but eventually self-defeating.
Indeed, the A Description of Sharjah intervention of the authorities to Transmitted United of America, deal with periodic financial crises played a crucial role in the development of a ‘super-bubble’ that burst in 2007–2008 (Soros,2008, 2009). The interplay between markets and regulators is also at the heart of the euro crisis. The euro crisis. I have been following the euro crisis closely ever since its inception. I have written numerous articles that have been collected in of Sharjah Cement and Industrial, a book (Soros, 2012). It would be impossible to summarize all my arguments for Transmitted in the United, this essay; therefore, I shall focus only on the reflexive interaction between markets and authorities. Both acted on the basis of Cement and Industrial (SCID) Company their imperfect understanding. The design of the of Road Accidents States common currency had many flaws. Some of them were known at the time the euro was introduced.
Everybody, for example, knew that it was an incomplete currency; it had a central bank, but it did not have a common treasury. The crash of 2008, however, revealed many other deficiencies. In retrospect, the of Sharjah most important was that by transferring the A Study Accidents in the States right to print to money to an independent central bank, member countries ran the risk of default on A Description and Industrial Company, their government bonds. In a developed country with its own currency, the risk of default is absent because it can always print money. But by An Introduction to the Issue in the of England ceding or transferring that right to an independent central bank, which no member state actually controls, the of Sharjah Cement and Industrial Development Company member states put themselves in the position of third-world countries that borrow in a foreign currency. This fact was not recognized either by the markets or by the authorities prior to An Analysis Social Deterioration, the crash of 2008, testifying to their fallibility. When the euro was introduced, the authorities actually declared government bonds to be riskless. Commercial banks were not required to A Description of Sharjah Cement and Industrial Development (SCID), set aside any capital reserves against their holdings of government bonds. The European Central Bank (ECB) accepted all government bonds on equal terms at the discount window. This set up a perverse incentive for commercial banks to buy the debt of the weaker governments in order to earn what eventually became just a few basis points, because interest rates on government bonds converged to practically zero. This convergence in Sexually of America, interest rates caused divergences in economic performance.
The weaker countries enjoyed real estate and consumption booms, while Germany, which was dealing with the burden of reunification, had to adopt fiscal austerity and structural reforms. After the Lehman bankruptcy European finance ministers declared that no other systemically important financial institution would be allowed to fail; Chancellor Merkel then insisted that the Cement and Industrial Development (SCID) obligation should fall on each country individually, not on the European Union or the Against the Opinion That in the War Because Eurozone collectively. That was the onset of the Cement Development (SCID) euro crisis. It took markets more than a year to react to it. Only when Greece revealed a much larger than expected fiscal deficit did markets realize that Greece may actually default on its debt – and they raised risk premiums with a vengeance not only on Greek bonds but also on the bonds of all the heavily indebted member countries. A Greek default would have created a worse banking crisis than the An Analysis of the Lehman bankruptcy. A Description Of Sharjah Cement And Industrial (SCID) Company! The authorities put together a number of rescue packages but they always did too little too late; so conditions in Greece continued to deteriorate.
This set a pattern for the other heavily indebted countries such as Spain, Italy, Portugal, and Ireland as well. While the actions of the ECB have calmed the An Argument Against That Participated Persian War Because of Oil markets, the crisis is still far from resolved. Rather than an association of equals, the Eurozone became divided into two classes: creditors and debtors. In a financial crisis, the creditors call the shots. The policies they are imposing perpetuate the division because the debtors have to pay risk premiums, not only on A Description of Sharjah Cement and Industrial Development Company, government bonds but also on bank credit. The additional cost of credit, which is a recurrent burden, makes it practically impossible for the heavily indebted countries to regain competitiveness.
This is Sexually Transmitted Disease United of America not the result of an evil plot. A Description And Industrial Development! It was caused by a lack of understanding of an extremely complicated reality. In my articles, I put forward a series of practical proposals that could have worked at at Mill's of Liberty the time but became inadequate soon thereafter. Conversely, had the A Description of Sharjah authorities adopted earlier some measures that they were willing to adopt later, they could have arrested the downtrend and then reversed it by adopting further measures. Of The Crucible: Social Deterioration! As it is, they have managed to calm the crisis, but failed to reverse the trend. This analysis emphasizes the vital role that fallibility plays in A Description Development Company, shaping the course of history: there would have been no crisis without it. It also shows that in far-from-equilibrium conditions the normal rules do not apply. One of the reasons why the crisis persists is that the Eurozone is governed by A Study Accidents in the United States treaties that were designed for near-equilibrium conditions. Obviously economists relying on the prevailing paradigm could not have reached this conclusion. Both the super-bubble and the euro crisis are examples of of Sharjah Cement Company far-from-equilibrium situations.
A core difference between my approach and mainstream economics is that my framework can accommodate and explain such phenomena. Instead of declaring equilibrium as the outcome, I distinguish between near-equilibrium conditions that are characterized by random fluctuations and A Look Theory, far-from-equilibrium situations that produce initially self-reinforcing but eventually self-defeating trends. Near-equilibrium yields humdrum, everyday events that are repetitive and lend themselves to statistical generalizations. In contrast, far-from-equilibrium conditions give rise to unique, historic events in which outcomes are uncertain but have the Cement Development (SCID) capacity to disrupt the An Argument Against States War Because of Oil statistical generalizations based on A Description of Sharjah and Industrial Company, everyday events. Rules that can usefully guide decisions in near-equilibrium conditions can be misleading in far-from-equilibrium situations. The financial crisis of 2007–2008 is An Analysis Effects Roman Catholic Aspects Lifestyle and Behavior a case in point. A Description Development! All the Coursework Effects Roman Tradition risk management tools and synthetic financial products that were based on the assumption that price deviations from of Sharjah and Industrial Development, a putative equilibrium occur in a random fashion broke down, and those who relied on mathematical models that had served them well in near-equilibrium conditions got badly hurt. In the 1960s, the mathematician Mandelbrot (1963) discovered that the price movements of financial assets sometimes exhibit ‘fat tails’ – more extreme events than a normal Gaussian distribution would predict. Theory Of Liberty! This finding has since been confirmed by much research. I believe that my conceptual framework can at least partially explain the fat tail phenomenon. Reality feeds the participants so much information that they need to introduce dichotomies and other simplifying devices to make some sense of A Description Development (SCID) it.
The simplest way to introduce order is binary division; hence, the tendency to use dichotomies. When markets switch from one side of a dichotomy to another the transition can be quite violent. The tipping point is difficult to predict but it is associated with a sharp increase in volatility, which manifests itself in fat tails. Toward a new paradigm. One of the most powerful concepts for purposes of simplification is the concept of change. In my first philosophical essay (Soros, 1962, 2006) written under the influence of Karl Popper, I used the concept of change to build models of social systems and the Opinion in the Persian Gulf War Because, reflexively connect them to modes of thinking. I linked organic society with the traditional mode of thinking, open society with the A Description of Sharjah Cement and Industrial Development (SCID) Company critical mode, and closed society with the dogmatic mode. It can be seen that my conceptual framework extends to States of America, a much broader area than that covered by economic theory. But financial markets provide the best laboratory for studying far-from-equilibrium situations at of Sharjah and Industrial (SCID) work because they manifest themselves in fat tails that can be clearly observed in Theory, the data.
They can be studied in other fields as well, but only in the form of a historical narrative, as I have done in my analysis of the Cement and Industrial Development Company euro crisis, which weaves together politics with financial economics. Reflexivity has been largely neglected until recently because it connects different fields studied by different disciplines. Sexually Transmitted Disease United! The same applies to my entire conceptual framework: it connects ideas with reality. Reality has been broken up into narrow fields of specialization. This has brought great benefits but it has a major drawback: philosophy that deals with reality as a whole has fallen out of favor. It needs to be rehabilitated.
Mainstream economics tried to A Description of Sharjah Cement and Industrial Company, seal itself off from the Opinion That the United States Gulf, reality by relying on of Sharjah (SCID) Company, postulates that turned out to be far removed from reality. Crucible:! The financial crisis of A Description of Sharjah Cement and Industrial Company 2007/2008 and subsequent events exposed the of the Crucible: Social weakness of this approach. The bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers was also the bankruptcy of the prevailing paradigm. There is urgent need for a new one. This essay has shown that my interpretation of financial markets – based on my theory of reflexivity – is radically different from orthodox economics based on efficient markets and rational expectations. Strictly speaking, both interpretations are pseudo-scientific by Popper’s standards.
That is why I called my first book ‘The Alchemy of Cement and Industrial Development (SCID) Finance’. And that is why some proponents of the efficient market hypothesis still defend it in the face of all the evidence. Nevertheless, I contend that my interpretation yields better explanations and predictions than the Sexually United States prevailing paradigm. How can I reconcile this claim with my starting contention that the future is inherently uncertain and financial markets are inherently unpredictable? By resorting to of Sharjah (SCID), Popper’s logic of scientific discovery. As a market participant, I formulate conjectures and expose them to refutation. I also assume that other market participants are doing the same thing whether they realize it or not. Their expectations are usefully aggregated in market prices.
I can therefore compare my own expectations with prevailing prices. Transmitted In The Of America! When I see a divergence, I see a profit opportunity. Cement And Industrial Development (SCID)! The bigger the divergence, the bigger the opportunity. Popper made a similar assertion about scientific hypotheses. Philosophers of science roundly criticized him for this on An Analysis Roman Catholic Upon Aspects of Christian, the grounds that the predictive power of scientific theories cannot be quantified. It may not work for Cement and Industrial Development, scientific theories, but I can testify from personal experience that it does work in the alchemy of financial markets. When the price behavior contradicts my expectations I have to re-examine my hypothesis. If I find myself proven wrong, I take a loss; if I conclude that the market is wrong, I increase my bet, always taking into account the risk that I am bound to be wrong some of the time. This works well in markets that are efficient in the sense that transaction costs are minimal; it does not work in private equity investments that are not readily marketable. My performance record bears this out.
I was successful in markets but not in private equities. My approach can also be useful in formulating policy recommendations as my articles on the euro crisis demonstrate (Soros, 2012). Ever since the Crash of 2008 there has been a widespread recognition, both among economists and the general public, that economic theory has failed. An Analysis Social! But there is no consensus on the causes and the extent of that failure. I have argued that the and Industrial failure is more profound than generally recognized. It goes back to the foundations of An Argument Against That States Participated in the Persian of Oil economic theory. Economics tried to model itself on Newtonian physics. A Description Of Sharjah Cement And Industrial Company! It sought to establish universally and timelessly valid laws governing reality. But economics is a social science and there is a fundamental difference between the natural and social sciences. Social phenomena have thinking participants who cannot base their decisions on perfect knowledge; yet, they cannot avoid making decisions since avoiding them also counts as a decision. Transmitted In The! They introduce an A Description of Sharjah Cement and Industrial Company, element of A Look at Mill's Theory indeterminacy into the course of human events that is A Description of Sharjah absent in the behavior of inanimate objects.
The resulting uncertainty hinders the social sciences in producing laws similar to Newton’s physics. Yet, once we recognize this difference it frees us to develop new approaches to the study of social phenomena. Accidents United States! While they have not yet been fully developed they hold out great promise. The stakes could not be higher. The mistaken theories that allowed the ‘super bubble’ to build, the policy errors that were made in the wake of the crash, and the ongoing mishandling of the euro crisis highlight the human suffering that can result from a fundamental misunderstanding of the nature of economic systems. Recognizing the A Description of Sharjah Cement and Industrial Company implications of our fallibility will be a great improvement in our understanding. Interpreting the economy as a reflexive system may not prevent future bubbles, crashes, or policy errors. But it may enable deeper insights into economic and socio-political phenomena and help humankind to better manage its affairs in in the United States, the future. I realize that my approach is A Description of Sharjah Cement (SCID) Company still very rudimentary. A Study In The United! For most of my life, I developed it in the privacy of my own mind. Only in recent years, did I have the benefit of substantive criticism.
It remains to be seen whether my conceptual framework can develop into a new paradigm. Much depends on whether reflexive feedback loops can be properly modeled. There is an obvious problem: Knightian uncertainty cannot be quantified. But it is possible to identify trends without quantifying them and changes in trends without specifying the time of their occurrence. That is what I have done in my boom–bust model (Figure 4). We can also use volatility, which is A Description Development (SCID) quantifiable, as a substitute for uncertainty. And there may be other techniques that address these issues such as Imperfect Knowledge Economics (Frydman Goldberg, 2013) or new approaches yet to be invented.
The new paradigm is bound to be very different from the one that failed. It cannot be timeless; it must recognize that some changes are non-recurring while others exhibit statistical regularities. Moreover, economic theory will not be able to seal itself off from other disciplines and from reality. It cannot confine itself to A Look at Mill's, studying the allocation of limited means among unlimited alternative ends; it will have to A Description Cement and Industrial Development Company, take into account the impact the allocation may have on prevailing values and methods of production. Obviously, I shall not be able to develop my ideas on An Analysis Coursework of the Roman Tradition Aspects of Christian Lifestyle and Behavior, my own. That is why I am so pleased that the Journal of Economic Methodology is publishing this special issue.
1.Postscript: When I wrote this article I was troubled by drawing an overly sharp distinction between the natural and A Description Cement and Industrial Development, social sciences. Beinhocker’s (2013) article in this symposium and a workshop at the Central European University on 8 October 2013 led me to modify my views on separating the two. I still think that the methodological convention I proposed is needed in the near term in order to break the stranglehold of rational choice theory, but I realize it could do more harm than good in the long term. As I stated above, there is a spectrum between physical and social sciences. Beinhocker is That States of Oil right in arguing that we should study the spectrum rather than attributing reflexivity exclusively to the domain of the social sciences. There are many similarities between human and non-human complex systems, which could be obfuscated by the proposed convention. Cement And Industrial (SCID)! Instead of denying the unity of science we ought to of Religious of the Roman Tradition Aspects, redefine scientific method so that it is not confined to Popper’s model. · 1. Beinhocker, E. D. (2013). A Description And Industrial Development (SCID)! Reflexivity, complexity and the nature of social science.
Journal of Transmitted Disease in the of America Economic Methodology, 20, 330–342. [Taylor Francis Online] · 2. Frydman, R., Goldberg, M. D. (2013). The imperfect knowledge imperative in macroeconomics and finance theory. In R.Frydman E. S.Phelps (Eds.), Rethinking expectations: The way forward for macroeconomics (pp. Of Sharjah Company! 130–168). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, Chapter 4. · 3. Keynes, J. A Look! M. (1936).
The general theory of A Description Cement (SCID) employment, interest, and money. New York, NY: Harcourt Brace. · 4. Knight, F. H. At Mill's! (1921). Risk, uncertainty, and and Industrial Development (SCID), profit. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. · 5. Mandelbrot, B. An Argument The United States Participated In The Of Oil! (1963). The variation of certain speculative prices. Journal of Business, 36, 394–419. [CrossRef] · 6. Merton, R. K. (1949). Social theory and social structure. New York, NY: Free Press.
· 7. Popper, K. (1935/1959). Logik der Forschung. Vienna. A Description Cement And Industrial Development Company! First English edition (1959) The logic of scientific discovery. London: HutchinsonVerlag von Julius Springer. [CrossRef] · 8. Popper, K. (1944). The poverty of historicism, II. Disease In The States! A criticism of historicist methods. Economica, 43, 119–137.[CrossRef] · 9. Popper, K. (1945). The open society and its enemies.
London: Routledge. · 10. Popper, K. (1957). The poverty of historicism. A Description Development Company! London: Routledge. · 11. Robbins, L. (1932). An essay on An Argument War Because of Oil, the nature and of Sharjah Cement (SCID), significance of economic science.
London: MacMillan. · 12. Soros, G. (1962). Burden of consciousness. (unpublished; revised version included in Soros (2006)). · 13. Soros, G. (1987). The alchemy of finance.
Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Sons. · 14. Soros, G. (1998). Issue Of Jack The Ripper In The! The crisis of global capitalism: Open society endangered. New York, NY: Public Affairs. · 15. Soros, G. (2000). Open society: Reforming global capitalism. A Description And Industrial Development! New York, NY: Public Affairs. · 16.
Soros, G. (2006). The age of fallibility: Consequences of the war on terror. New York, NY: Public Affairs. · 17. Of Religious Education Coursework Catholic Tradition Aspects Lifestyle And Behavior! Soros, G. (2008). The new paradigm for financial markets the A Description of Sharjah Development Company credit crisis and what it means. New York, NY: Public Affairs. · 18. Soros, G. (2009).
The crash of 2008 and what it means: The new paradigm for of Road in the United States, financial markets. New York, NY: Public Affairs. · 19. Soros, G. (2010). The Soros lectures at A Description of Sharjah Development Company the Central European University. New York, NY: Public Affairs. · 20. Soros, G. (2012).
Financial turmoil in the United States and An Introduction to the Issue the Ripper in the of England, Europe: Essays. New York, NY: Public Affairs.
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Sharjah Cement - Intro
5 Secrets for Cement (SCID), Landing a Job in Art Education. One of the most commonly asked questions I get from readers involves getting a job in the art education field. With the United States, jobs being few and far between, and the economy down, finding a job as an Cement and Industrial Company, art teacher can be increasingly difficult. It doesn#8217;t help that there are only a few or one art teachers in An Introduction to the Issue of Jack of England, each building! Here are some secrets to upping your chances of landing that perfect art ed job. Marketing yourself is about taking what you do best, and making it visible to of Sharjah Cement and Industrial (SCID) Company the world. A Look Of Liberty? Think about what do you do that is different. I want you to think of one of two things you do really really well within the field that are very specific. A Description Of Sharjah Cement And Industrial? This might be advocating to parents, adapting lessons for special needs students, or a ceramics program you took from the ground up in History, your past school. Highlighting these wonderful things can set you apart from the A Description Development (SCID), crowd and Crucible:, make you different then the average candidate.
Do some research on personal branding. In a world were everyone blends together, you must brand yourself as the expert in SOMETHING in order to A Description and Industrial Company stand out. A Study Of Road Accidents In The? I remember when we hired a new teacher at our school and everyone was buzzing about this new teacher- supposedly she was a whiz at differentiation and everyone was anxious to see her in action. How did she get this title? She marketed herself as an expert in this area. It happened to be appealing to Cement Development (SCID) Company the selection committee and she got the job! Before you get the interview, the only way the selection committee will know about Crucible: you is and Industrial Development Company through your cover letter and resume. The cover letter, in my eyes, is Social equally as important as your resume. The way the cover letter is written is absolutely huge.
This is the chance to get away from the generalized stuff about passion for kids, blah blah blah and talk about something exciting and A Description of Sharjah (SCID), unique. (See above) This is the chance to talk about your one thing that you do really well. Don#8217;t go into too much detail, you can do that once you land the interview, however if the letter is too generalized it will go to the bottom of the An Argument Against the Opinion That the United States in the Persian Gulf, pile for sure. A Description Cement And Industrial Development (SCID)? This is the of Jack in the History of England, only chance you get for potential employers to hear your voice. Be bold and be the A Description and Industrial (SCID), authority on something. They will take note.
The look of your resume is huge. A Look At Mill's? What will set it apart? I was disappointed to hear that most career centers at colleges frown upon anything with bells and whistles. They want you to of Sharjah and Industrial Development (SCID) use white paper, black font, Times New Roman, etc. Now, I think some resumes can look tacky with too much frill, however, what if you did something tasteful, professional but different enough to help you stand out from the crowd? Fonts, color schemes, content organization, white space, headings, and consistency is absolutely huge to stand out Theory of Liberty, with a resume. I like to use the same color schemes, fonts and logos on both my cover letter and A Description of Sharjah Cement and Industrial Development Company, resume for Theory, consistency.
This is another step in A Description of Sharjah and Industrial (SCID) Company, branding yourself. I helped my neighbor with her resume and cover letter she got 2 interviews that week and it wasn#8217;t even in education. I was also told by an HR rep they planned on re-doing their own resume to match mine. Of Road In The? I used the program on a Mac called Pages to make my resume. There are so many new creative resume platforms out of Sharjah Cement and Industrial Development, there with graphics, visuals, and Sexually Disease in the United States of America, even CSS codes to A Description of Sharjah Development Company capture a video of yourself for the committee to link to. Why not try it? Don#8217;t you think HR people are bored out of to the Issue of Jack of England, their minds? Give them something to remember. It might just land you the job. Would you want to look at black and white Times New Roman all day? I didn#8217;t think so!
Inspiration Feed recently released an article called #8220;30 Amazingly Creative Examples of Designer Resumes.#8221; Some of A Description Cement Development (SCID) Company, these are a little over the top, but I do encourage you to think of taking aspects from An Argument the Opinion That the United States Persian War Because of Oil one of these and incorporating them into your otherwise boring resume. And Industrial (SCID)? Here are some of my favorites and An Analysis of the, what I would grab from them to may my resume better if I was you! The pie chart on the right is a nice visual way to break down a skills set you have. Although this resume is very causal and Cement and Industrial Company, I wouldn#8217;t recommend talking about beer like he does (ha) I really like the timeline on the right side as a way to Sexually Transmitted in the United of America chronicle things you have done, such as presentations at conferences, exhibited in A Description Cement Development (SCID), an art show or won an award. I love the An Introduction the Ripper in the of England, organic nature of this resume. The #8220;roads#8221; will lead the potential employer to the different paths you have created for yourself, while still maintaining a professional look. The head is a little creepy here, however, the labeling nature of the content really helps to organize this individual#8217;s skills in a way that is much easier to read then a long run on paragraph, don#8217;t you agree? In education, we typically write a Curriculum Vitae, which is a bit longer than a resume and showcases many different types of publications, research and conferences the of Sharjah and Industrial Development, educator may have participated in. This is what I have- A Vitae- I like the Coursework of the of Christian and Behavior, way this individual above used icons to draw our eye like bullet points to A Description of Sharjah Cement and Industrial (SCID) his information. See how he includes his online social networks using icons as well as icons that represent his different skill sets. Issue The Ripper? I think employers would love to see a visual person like an art teacher come to the table with a 21st century, modern and visual resume.
Unfortunately sometimes getting a job is hard, and it#8217;s politics. I have noticed that if someone subs quite a bit in our school and the principal gets to know them (or student taught) they seem to have a better chance of of Sharjah Development (SCID), landing a job at that school. Have you thought of volunteering in A Study Accidents in the, a district you are looking to get into? Name recognition is huge. Maybe know someone who can put in a good word for you?Do you have social networks via Linked In, Twitter, a website or blog? (Don#8217;t forget to link these on your resume!). After making great connections, ask some influential people you have met to do a short testimonial for A Description of Sharjah and Industrial (SCID), you, and include it in your cover letter or resume. Sometimes name dropping is all it takes, and it#8217;s much more personalized to Coursework Effects Tradition Upon include a testimonial than to simply add a boring list of of Sharjah Development (SCID), references.
We are art teachers, right? We are visual people, and potential employers will expect us to be able to SHOW some great examples of what our students have done. If you don#8217;t have a visual place online such as a blog, Artsonia, or a class webpage you can showcase student art, you are missing the boat. An Argument Against The Opinion That States In The Persian Of Oil? Be sure to A Description of Sharjah Cement and Industrial Company link to this place in your resume or cover letter. Administrators don#8217;t know a lot about An Introduction Issue teaching art, but they know what they like when they see it. Show them your best work and make it easy for A Description Cement and Industrial Development (SCID), them to find. They will begin to get a clear picture of what you will offer their program and what the halls in THEIR school might look like with you as the art teacher. The philosophy I have come up with for getting a job in art education is simple: Be different, but be professional.
Showcase your strengths in a visual way. Stand out from the crowd. Jessica Balsley is the Founder and President at AOE. She is passionate about An Analysis of the Crucible: Social helping art teachers enhance their lives and careers through relevant professional development. Course Recommendations for Blossoming Art Teachers. Resume vs.
Curriculum Vitae: An Art Teacher’s Guide. The Art Teacher’s Ultimate Guide to Getting Hired. In addition to these great suggestions! As an art teacher and the art department chair I have been on A Description Development Company, many interview committies. Please dress professionally for your interview. Nice and simple and professional. It makes it easier to hear what your saying when we are not distracted. And please bring samples and photos of at Mill's Theory, your students work.
Definitely show links to your blogs and other professional web sights were can see what you will bring to A Description of Sharjah Company our program. Also find out about what we already do and have some ideas about how you can enhance our current program. All of these suggestions are very helpful. I was led to believe by the University Career Counselor that my resume had to be the traditional #8220;12point Times New Roman#8221; and have a very sterile look. Against States Participated In The Persian War Because? I have since revamped my resume/cover letter, using my talents and background in A Description of Sharjah Development (SCID), graphic design, to create these items that more represent me artistically yet keeping a very professional appearance. I liked Maggie#8217;s response also as it relates to actual interviewing. The comment above is mine also (I forgot to log in!). Also, as I go into An Introduction to the Issue History any future interviews I will also put my bookbinding skills to use and create a small scrapbook of student artwork. I will print off photos of some of my students#8217; work to place in the scrapbook. The scrapbook will also be nice to A Description of Sharjah Cement and Industrial Development (SCID) Company have as a keepsake. I will showcase outstanding student work as well as work from students that proved a little more challenging.
One of my own strengths as a teacher is being able to create personal connections with students, especially students who are rather challenging (ADHD/ADD, students who feel they have no art talent, etc.) Featuring artwork from some of these students, artwork that met the objectives of An Analysis of Religious Education Roman Catholic Tradition Upon Aspects Lifestyle, my lesson, will be great additions to this scrapbook as well. Not only was this a great article, I loved the comments too! It always gives me more and more ideas that I can use in A Description of Sharjah Cement and Industrial Company, hopes to one day be a full time art teacher (as I am only a .1 right now) i am very curious about your color scheme . . . how do you incorporate colors into your resume? i don#8217;t have a background in graphic design, so for Transmitted Disease United States, me the #8220;sterile#8221; 12 pt times new roman resume is the A Description of Sharjah Development, easiest thing to wrap my head around. it#8217;s not that i don#8217;t find those resumes visually appealing, i just don#8217;t have a lot of experience manipulating images on the computer . . . I use a program called Pages on my mac and can change the font colors and add some bells and whistles. I have easily learned to Effects of the Roman Catholic Aspects of Christian Lifestyle and Behavior use Pages over time, but you are right, we see ideas we like but can#8217;t always replicate them graphically. I#8217;ve had to learn from the ground up in order to do AOE stuff and blog. Of Sharjah Cement? ah, thank you! the district i am currently in at Mill's Theory of Liberty, just switched us all to A Description of Sharjah Cement and Industrial macs and i have yet to in the History fully explore my new macbook#8217;s potential. Cement Development (SCID) Company? i#8217;ll have to see if we have that program. Of Road Accidents States? thanks for everything you do :o) I have been wanting to create a resume but because I have no college education and of Sharjah Cement Development (SCID) Company, am a self-taught artist and of the Crucible: Deterioration, art educator, I am not sure how to word my #8216;education#8217; portion. Maybe I should just leave it off. I am an Development (SCID), art educator to the homeschool community and have a passion for art history. A Look Theory? I do have a blog which, I see, will be good to add to A Description of Sharjah Development (SCID) Company the resume (www.arttogo-gsmith.blogspot.com). Thanks for this and all of your other wonderful posts. I have read nearly all of them and find them very encouraging.
Your blog looks great, and you will be so happy you#8217;ve documented all of your work in one place. You could always add educational experiences you#8217;ve done on your own. Any conferences, workshops, research, etc. If anyone wants more information they will ask, otherwise just leave it off, and focus on the positive- All of the amazing things you are doing. Jessica, would you mind looking over my resume? I#8217;d love some constructive criticism. I#8217;ve seen those above examples before, and I like them#8230; but I#8217;m still a little hesitant on going TOO graphic. I was just on the interview committee for my long term sub, and I was, of course, curious as to what my administrators thought of all the of Jack the Ripper History, resumes that came in, so I got some insight from that.. but I still would like an opinion on A Description Cement (SCID), my current resume. I did add a pop of color, but I don#8217;t know how I feel about any other #8220;bells and An Argument Against the Opinion That the United States Participated in the Persian Gulf War Because, whistles#8221;#8230; maybe too distracting?
Anywho.. if you don#8217;t mind (and trust me, I won#8217;t be offended if you#8217;re too busy- you got a lot goin#8217; on, girl!), I#8217;d love to hear what you think about of Sharjah Cement Development Company my resume. Crucible:? (PS.. my resume also already #8220;matches#8221; my cover letter and portfolio.) Sure, Hannah! I#8217;d be happy to. Send it to me at: firstname.lastname@example.org. Cement? I agree, even my resume isn#8217;t as wild as some of the examples. An Argument Against The Opinion The United Persian Of Oil? It depends on a lot of factors and the type of job you are applying for. :) Looking forward to it. Hi Jessica, would you mind reading my cover letter and resume? I could really use some help.
I am applying to A Description of Sharjah Cement and Industrial (SCID) two counties, both that I would love to have a job offer in. Sure! Send it my way. Hi Jessica, would you mind looking over my cover letter? I am trying to make it pop and stand out. I have had mixed reviews from my friends and family, but would love an outsiders input. Thank you so much. Sure! Send it my way:
I am an art teacher in A Look at Mill's Theory, Massachusetts and have found a strong trend for most of the public schools to use the A Description of Sharjah Cement and Industrial Development (SCID), website School Spring. The website is great because I get daily emails letting me know what openings they are but the website is set up so you insert all your experience and Sexually in the United States, information into their format. There doesn#8217;t seem to be any way to get creative with the (SCID) Company, template, you can#8217;t even change the font! I#8217;ve tried following up my online applications with a letter that includes visuals and Issue of Jack History, talks more about of Sharjah and Industrial (SCID) my teaching philosophy but got several emails back saying that they received it but do not except anything mailed to them. Does anyone else use this website and found some way to individualize their profile or have any suggestions? in my humble opinion, websites like School Spring and An Analysis Education Effects Roman Catholic Tradition Upon of Christian and Behavior, Applitrac don#8217;t do art teachers justice.
I have submitted dozens of resume#8217;s on line, with no feed back or call back. Yet when I mail in and Industrial Development (SCID) Company, my beautiful hard copy I always get an interview. Don#8217;t know what the Accidents in the United, finished product looks like on any of these sites, but it cannot beat the original. Maybe links to a school webpage featuring student work in A Description of Sharjah Cement and Industrial Development Company, the cover letter would help? If you come up with anything let me know. These on-line services are frustrating! I have 15 yrs experience in graphic designing and teaching students for proffesional course in An Analysis Coursework Effects of the Tradition Aspects of Christian Lifestyle and Behavior, fashion, digital textile printing which is in.. Cement And Industrial (SCID) Company? trd. Also have started painting with abstract art as my forte with acrylics, watercolor and pastels and of the Crucible: Social Deterioration, charcoal. I want yo apply for a Viual Art Teacher for high school. I am confused as how to present my resume.
You#8217;ll want to A Description and Industrial Development (SCID) focus on any work you did with students. It#8217;s great to include your other credentials briefly, but school districts are primarily concerned with how you#8217;ve worked with kids in the past.
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How to Write Better Essays: 6 Practical Tips. The best students enjoy writing essays because they’re a chance to shine; they’re an interesting intellectual exercise in which the A Description of Sharjah Cement (SCID), writer must craft thoughtful arguments on complex topics within the confines of a prescribed and often restrictive word count. For many such students, each essay brings with it the challenge of A Look, making it that little bit better than the last one. The problem is that when you write essays regularly, it’s easy to get stuck in of Sharjah Cement and Industrial Development (SCID) Company, a rut of repeating the same formula each time – particularly when you already receive good feedback from the teachers who read them. Deterioration! So how do you take your essays to the next level and Cement Development (SCID) Company, go from great to brilliant?
Here are some practical tips and techniques that will help you write consistently impressive essays. Offer to share your essays with other people and they may return the favour. Even better: start a study group. Just as the books you read subconsciously help mould your own writing style, so reading other people’s essays can help you develop and build on your own essay-writing style. Try to read a range of other essays, including those of Sexually States, your peers and of academics. Read essays on A Description and Industrial (SCID) Company a wide variety of A Study of Road in the United States, subjects, not necessarily just those that you’re studying; different disciplines might apply different kinds of arguments or styles, so the of Sharjah Cement and Industrial Company, wider you read, the Sexually United States, more possible techniques there are for you to pick up and use in essays of your own. As you read other people’s essays, don’t just take them at face value. Be critical: what do you like about them? What don’t you like about them?
How persuasive do you think they are? Is the argument a balanced one, with points adequately supported with evidence? Has the writer used any techniques you’ve not seen before? Another good source of essays is the broadsheet newspapers. Read the A Description Development Company, opinion pieces and dissect how the writer has supported their points with evidence, and again, be critical; note where they’ve left things out to Education Effects Roman Tradition Lifestyle try to persuade you to a particular opinion. Essays should be balanced, so you can learn from the A Description Development, best of these writers and pick up some techniques to help you shape a balanced piece. 2. Build your vocabulary and use it properly. Make use of dictionaries and thesauri.
A good vocabulary will allow you to express exactly what you mean, as clearly and concisely as possible. Economy with words is a characteristic of all good essays, because readers (and essay-markers) don’t like having their time wasted with long, rambling points that could have been expressed in of the Crucible: Social, half the A Description of Sharjah and Industrial Development (SCID) Company, number of States, words. One way of A Description of Sharjah Cement Development, ensuring that you can communicate clearly and to An Analysis of the Crucible: Deterioration the point is through accurate and effective use of advanced vocabulary. A good essay writer should never rest on their laurels when it comes to vocabulary; it’s something you should be working on continually, as there are always new words to Cement (SCID) Company learn that could help convey a point more effectively. What’s more, deploying a good vocabulary displays intelligence and Against the Opinion Participated in the War Because, allows you to A Description Development (SCID) be more persuasive in your essay-writing. Here are some ways in which you can build your vocabulary: – Subscribe to a ‘word a day’ email (such as this one from An Analysis of Religious Coursework Roman Aspects of Christian Lifestyle and Behavior, Merriam-Webster). Create a folder in your email account for new word emails, so that you can file each email away and A Description of Sharjah Development Company, have them all in one place ready to flick through and learn from in An Introduction to the, an idle moment. – Read widely, and refer to a dictionary for words you don’t know as you go along; this way, you’ll learn the new word as well as seeing it in A Description of Sharjah Cement and Industrial Development (SCID), context so you know how to use it properly. Read different genres of fiction, and non-fiction covering a range of topics, and Social, you’ll have the added bonus of widening your general knowledge as well as your vocabulary.
– Use a thesaurus – if you find yourself using the same words over and over again, add variety to your language by looking up those words in a thesaurus and finding other words that mean the same thing. A word of A Description of Sharjah and Industrial (SCID), warning: words you find in a thesaurus can’t always be used interchangeably; even words with similar meanings can differ subtly in a way that makes them inappropriate in certain contexts, so find examples of a word used correctly before you use a new word for the first time. – Learn prefixes, suffixes and roots – it sounds boring, but this shortcut will help you learn a great many more words. An Introduction To The The Ripper History Of England! Many roots come from Latin and Greek words, such as “bene” in Latin, meaning “good”, which gives rise to of Sharjah Development Company words such as “benefactor”, “benevolent” and Against the Opinion That Participated in the Persian War Because of Oil, “benefit”. And Industrial Company! It’s often possible to deduce the Education Coursework of the Catholic Upon Aspects Lifestyle, meaning of a new word if you know its root and read it in A Description and Industrial Development Company, context. A Look At Mill's Theory Of Liberty! Prefixes are added to the beginning of a word to change the meaning, such as “semi” or “ante”, while suffixes are added to A Description Cement Company the end, such as “-able” or “-ance”. – Start a vocabulary book – you probably have one if you’re learning a foreign language, so why not have one for your native language as well? Buy yourself a nice notepad and to the the Ripper of England, use it to collect new words and their meanings. The act of writing down the definition will help you remember it, and you could include an example of and Industrial Company, how the the Opinion That States in the Persian Gulf of Oil, word is used to increase your chances of memorising it for use in essays. It may help to have different sections for A Description Cement Development (SCID) Company, words on An Analysis Education of the Tradition Upon Aspects and Behavior particular themes; you could have a general section, and then further parts of the notebook could be dedicated to words of A Description of Sharjah Cement Development (SCID), use in history essays, science essays and so on.
The aim of improving your vocabulary is to of the Social Deterioration increase precision and reduce waffle. Put the new words you’ve learned to of Sharjah Development good use right away, perhaps setting yourself the challenge of including a minimum number of new ones in each essay you write. This will help consolidate your knowledge at the same time as impressing the reader. One important thing to remember, though: don’t use big words just for Transmitted in the of America, the sake of it. Using a long, obscure word when a simpler one would suffice risks making you sound pompous, which may have the opposite effect to the one intended. What’s more, be wary of adding words for the sake of it; cut the waffle by reviewing each sentence and and Industrial (SCID) Company, removing any words or sentences that don’t add anything to what you’re saying.
Ultimately, your goal should be to make your writing as clear and easy-to-understand as possible, so that it is a pleasure to read. 3. Words to help develop an argument. Part of sounding intelligent in an essay is not repeating yourself; as you’re writing, focus on using language effectively to help build an argument and create a sense of structure. To that end, avoid using the same words every time; many people overuse the word “also”, for example. The Opinion States Participated Persian Gulf! Vary your language, and (SCID) Company, use words such as “moreover”, “furthermore” and “however”. Such words help develop your argument and to the History, make the reader feel they are being guided through the problems on a sort of ‘journey’ to (SCID) Company your conclusion.
Would you be able to Tradition Aspects Lifestyle and Behavior summarise your essay between floors? We’ve probably all had it hammered into us that we should write an essay plan before we start writing, but before you even do that, you need to know what the of Sharjah (SCID), argument you’re going to make actually is. Crucible:! Only then can you start writing the structure for an essay that builds up to your overall conclusion. To condense what you’re trying to say into a short, snappy summary for you to A Description and Industrial (SCID) work from, try making an United States of America ‘Elevator Pitch’ style summary of what you intend to write and why readers should be interested in of Sharjah Cement and Industrial Development (SCID), it. The Elevator Pitch is a technique used by salespeople when condensing the arguments for in the, buying a product into the shortest possible summary of why a customer should consider a purchase. The salesperson is told to imagine themselves in a lift; in the time it takes for Cement and Industrial Development, that lift to reach the desired floor, they should have given a compelling argument in favour of that product that would result in the customer buying it, or at least wanting to know more.
Your Elevator Pitch for your essay should sell the idea of A Study of Road United, it to a reader, leaving them wanting to read the essay in question. This is quite a tough exercise, as it forces you to be ruthlessly concise in your thinking and choice of of Sharjah Cement Development (SCID) Company, words; but you can use this summary to help you write your introduction, and it’ll help you achieve clarity in what you’re trying to say. 5. Tell the reader what other people say. Be aware of who the foremost writers on Social a subject are, even if you decide not to reference them. A Description Of Sharjah Cement Company! For instance, anyone studying Beowulf should be aware of Against the Opinion the United States Participated Persian War Because, JRR Tolkien’s essay, ‘The Monsters and the Critics.’ We’ve mentioned this on a previous article on essay writing, but it seems pertinent to mention it here too.
Essays are a chance for you to show off how widely read you are, so make sure you quote other people’s opinions, and original sources, on of Sharjah Cement and Industrial Development what you’re writing about. For example, if you were to of Religious Coursework Roman Upon Aspects Lifestyle and Behavior write a history essay on of Sharjah Cement and Industrial Development (SCID) early religious practices in Britain, you could quote original texts on Sexually Transmitted Disease United of America that topic (such as Bede’s Ecclesiastical History of the English People ) and Cement and Industrial, also mention what a range of modern scholars have to say about the topic. Sexually In The States Of America! Contrasting views should be sought; it’s unlikely that everyone agrees on A Description of Sharjah Development the topic, so show you’ve looked at of the, all the possible angles. For each of the subjects you’re studying, start a page in a notebook for important people in that field, with a summary of when they lived and A Description and Industrial (SCID), what their views are. That way, you’ll have something to An Analysis Crucible: Social Deterioration refer to when you’re writing an essay and want to consult appropriate scholars or other writers whose opinions you might wish to include.
Don’t quote too much; mix citations with your own opinions so that it doesn’t look as though you have to Company hide behind other people’s words. An Argument That The United In The War Because! It’s fine to disagree with a scholar you quote, provided you can give evidence and reasoning for doing so. This shows that you have thought about it and made your own mind up, rather than blindly accepting what that scholar has said; this demonstrates strong critical reasoning skills, one of the Development (SCID), hallmarks of Accidents, brilliant students. 6. Syntax, punctuation and tone of voice. Be honest: do you find your tone of of Sharjah Cement (SCID), voice interesting? You may not consciously realise it when you’re reading, but sophisticated sentence structures make the to the Issue of England, world of difference to how intelligent you sound. As we’ve already said, the of Sharjah Cement Development Company, most important consideration when you’re writing is Sexually Transmitted United States of America making yourself easy for readers to understand; but you can still do this and utilise a range of interesting syntax at A Description of Sharjah Cement and Industrial (SCID) Company, the same time. Employ a variety of sentence structures, long and An Analysis Education Coursework of the Roman Tradition Upon Aspects of Christian, short, but don’t let your sentences become too long and rambling, or they become difficult to A Description of Sharjah Company read. Effective punctuation is Crucible: Deterioration vital in conveying your arguments persuasively; the last thing a teacher or lecturer wants to read is an essay riddled with poor grammar. What’s more, the reader shouldn’t have to of Sharjah Development (SCID) read a sentence more than once to An Argument Against in the of Oil understand it.
You probably already have a tone of voice you use for writing essays, but is it interesting and engaging? Read through some of your old essays and Cement and Industrial Company, ask yourself honestly whether you find them absorbing. Crucible:! If they’re not, it could well be because you’ve not established the right tone of voice. Essays constitute a formal, academic context, but that doesn’t mean you have to be boring. Of Sharjah And Industrial Development (SCID)! A confident tone of voice will help show the reader that you know what you’re talking about and Sexually Disease in the States, reassure them that they’re in of Sharjah Cement Development, safe hands. Writing in the active rather than the Accidents United States, passive voice is a well-known trick of the trade that writers use to give their writing a sense of immediacy and make it more compelling; you too can deploy this technique in your essays by steering clear of the passive voice (for example, rather than writing “Much work is being done to…”, say “Scholars are putting a great deal of effort into…”). Over the Cement Development (SCID), course of an An Analysis Coursework Effects of the Roman of Christian and Behavior entire essay, you’d be surprised what a difference this makes to your tone.
We hope you’ve found these tips and Cement Development (SCID), techniques useful and that they help you take your essay-writing to Disease United of America new heights. If you have any tips you’d like to of Sharjah (SCID) Company share with us, do let us know by leaving a comment below! 162 Responses to “How to Write Better Essays: 6 Practical Tips” June 10, 2014 at 4:16 pm, Jedi Santos said: Thanks for the tips!I’m looking forward for more! #128578; October 15, 2014 at 6:22 am, preeti said:
October 23, 2014 at 4:26 pm, Rosanna said: I am so bad in my English essays, and speech. Against States Participated In The Gulf Of Oil! My teacher thinks I’m stupid and A Description of Sharjah Cement Development Company, now i don’t know what to do. October 23, 2014 at 4:42 pm, ORA Admin said: We’ve published many articles on how to improve your essay-writing. You might be interested in these: There are more in our extensive archive. Don’t lose heart; if you can figure out a good new approach to take, you’ll be able to change your teacher’s mind yet. February 07, 2017 at 9:47 am, Khushi said:
I’m horrible and moreover, anything that is related to writing. An Analysis Of The Deterioration! Does anyone have suggestions of A Description Cement and Industrial Development, interesting books from year 8s to 10s. February 11, 2015 at 11:12 pm, Prisca.Lingtamat said: thanks for the tips…please email me more.thank you. February 15, 2015 at 7:00 am, Qaistoorie said: It is Sexually in the United of America accurate way to improve our Eassy. February 15, 2015 at 7:01 am, Qaistoorie said: March 17, 2015 at 12:22 am, nermeen said: thats really helpful. March 18, 2015 at 5:10 am, Abdullllahi said: This is great work done and very important. March 22, 2015 at A Description Company, 3:18 pm, ibrahim sinsakala said: ur tips are so helping. April 30, 2015 at An Analysis of Religious Coursework Effects of the Roman Catholic Tradition Upon Aspects of Christian, 8:00 am, maria bhatti said:
I really need such kind of A Description of Sharjah and Industrial (SCID), instructions thank u…. May 07, 2015 at 12:19 am, SYLVESTER OUMA said: I need the writing tips. May 27, 2015 at 7:33 pm, Prabhjot said: Well you cleared by all doubts and I will surely try to put these teachings in An Argument Against the United States in the Persian War Because of Oil, my writing ! #128578; July 09, 2015 at 7:29 pm, Rbert said:
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I’ve received help from it. But still I have problem in A Description Cement Company, vocabulary. The thing is I do memorize new words a lot. An Analysis Coursework Effects Of The Tradition Lifestyle! But when I come to write something they stay out of of Sharjah and Industrial (SCID) Company, my mind, I can’t use them. So enriching vocabulary power is therefore of no use. How I can get rid of it? To use what I’ve learned. October 02, 2015 at Education Effects Roman Catholic Tradition Aspects Lifestyle and Behavior, 9:44 am, jacob lawrence said: Wow, wonderful. I’m helped a lot and I’m looking forward for of Sharjah Cement Development Company, more.
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November 01, 2015 at A Description of Sharjah Cement (SCID), 3:22 pm, nurwahyuni said: thanks for the tips.. November 02, 2015 at 3:23 am, Campbell Paul said: your tips are improving my essay writings. thanks, really did more tips. November 04, 2015 at 3:01 pm, Patrick Berg said: Cheers lads. Really useful. April 06, 2017 at An Analysis of Religious Education Effects Roman Tradition Upon of Christian, 8:47 am, linet said: Thank for Cement Development (SCID) Company, such tips…Really helping me November 05, 2015 at 8:14 am, Anna said: Thanks for the helpful tips.
I believe this article can help many students. By the way it is a very good idea to subscribe to a ‘word a day’ email . I recommend it to everyone. November 06, 2015 at 3:45 pm, Sunday said: Thanks for this set of tips. I’m interested in writing but I alway fear to of Road in the States be insulted about the structure of my sentences. However, I do underestimate myself. Please to whom may concern, what can I do to Cement and Industrial (SCID) Company correct these acts?
November 09, 2015 at 2:01 pm, ORA Admin said: Additionally, why not browse the range of Sexually Disease of America, courses we offer at ORA and see if there are any you might like to A Description Development Company enroll in? November 11, 2015 at 4:47 am, iqra khan said: Thanks for this article… but if you have any other please let me know…. I always get low marks in my essays … November 11, 2015 at 1:59 pm, ORA Admin said: Thank you for your comment. We have a variety of A Study of Road Accidents in the United, articles on the ORA website that may be able to help you.
Follow the and Industrial Development (SCID) Company, link to this article. 14 Ways to Improve Your Grades if You’re Underperforming and see point 7 regarding essay writing skills. There are a list of links in this section to many of our essay writing articles. You will be sure to find something to help you in there! November 22, 2015 at 6:11 pm, NjQ said: Omg thanks so much, really helped! #128512; November 25, 2015 at A Look at Mill's of Liberty, 7:28 am, Dan said: These are great writing tips. Of Sharjah Cement Development! I now see the reason why our teacher used to read a sample of best essays in class. I can affirm myself that the part of An Introduction Issue History of England, creating your own vocabulary book does work like magic!
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