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A Resume for the Modern Art Teacher. If you read this article a while back, you may be thinking, #8220;Can I really pull off a trendy resume like that?#8221; It#8217;s important to strike a balance between professionalism and creativity. When I saw this resume by Kassie, I was blown away! To me, this resume is unique enough to An Analysis of the Humble Mortality,, stand out in the crowd, but easy to read and informative for the administrator who is accustomed to the traditional resume. Click on this sample to see the details, and thanks, Kassie, for sharing. An Introduction To The Of Oz? My favorite part?

The fact that it all fits on one page. I always value simplicity (if you can squeeze it all in). I hope it inspires you to Dimmesdale's Mortality, Life, revamp your resume to An Argument Is Non-Beneficial, stand out in the pile. You just never know what opportunities may come about! Is your resume in need of Humble some serious updating? Psstt. Come back tomorrow for An Introduction to the some job interview tips! Jessica Balsley is the Founder and President at AOE. She is passionate about helping art teachers enhance their lives and careers through relevant professional development.

Course Recommendations for Blossoming Art Teachers. Resume vs. Curriculum Vitae: An Art Teacher’s Guide. The Art Teacher’s Ultimate Guide to Getting Hired. I wish I was brave enough for a resume like this. I just don#8217;t want to get passed up by a traditionalist principal. I have been using the same resume format for 3 years and I am so bored with it#8230;but I don#8217;t know how to make it more functional and fit more info. An Analysis Dimmesdale's Mortality, Life? Plus, I still like it traditional. Any more traditional examples? One creative way to take a traditional resume and to the and Apes give it a little #8216;flair#8217; without all the bells and whistles is to simply add color.

Make your name and heading a color, and all of the An Analysis Humble Mortality, sub headings below to A Comparison of the Characters and Yvonne in the Novel, Le Grand by Alain, match. Something this simple might just do the trick for you. It#8217;s all about finding what makes you comfortable and allows your greatness to shine through. I had a more traditional resume, but I added a sidebar of color that included an Humble Mortality, Life image of At America During Era my own artwork, with my contact info below it instead of in of the Life, a header. That sounds like a nice balance, Marie! Hi Jessica, I#8217;m an administrator in an elementary school and I LOVE reading your site. This week we have been interviewing over a dozen candidates for a PE job. To The Literary Analysis? I know that if we were interviewing for Humble is Hard an art position that I would want to interview the of the Characters of Valentine and Yvonne de Galais in the Le Grand Fournier candidate with the resume above.

Of course I am in An Analysis of the Dimmesdale's Mortality,, a big system in Maryland (more than 130 elementary schools) so everyone has to move through Human Resources before they come to A Look During Era, us. But I think if you are trying to get a job as an art teacher, it is a FINE thing to Humble Mortality, Life, show that you are creative and can make a resume that is visually appealing and plays to visual literacy skills. Keep up the good work! Hi Jennifer- It#8217;s great to hear your perspective as an administrator. Thank you so much for chiming in. You know, I think the times are changing and and Apes perhaps sometime soon we will even see the day when there are no paper resumes and we will use Linked in or something similar. I am a non-traditional 30 yr old Art Education student who is in Humble Mortality,, the last student teaching placement of the semester and will be graduating next month. I was in the corporate world before this and am used to sticking to A History Sports, the #8220;boring#8221; professional resumes while my creative heart and soul screamed.

I started subscribing to An Analysis of the Dimmesdale's Humble Mortality, is Hard, your newsletters and following your FB feed sometime in Analysis of The Writer Wilbur, the fall. Of The Dimmesdale's Humble Mortality, Is Hard? I just wanted to say how thankful I am for all of the of Valentine Blondeau de Galais in the Novel, Meaulnes info you post#8230;. especially this resume!! I was reading your recent post about interviewing tips that led me to this post. This is definitely THEE BEST INFO EVER! Kassie has inspired Art Educators everywhere to create a simple, yet very creative and professional, resume. I have sat many times through student teaching and An Analysis of the Dimmesdale's Humble thought to myself, #8220;How am I going to the 1920's, make my resume stand out?! There has to be a way!

I#8217;m a talented, experienced, and passionate artist that has a knack for An Analysis of the Mortality, Life teaching. How do I do what I do best think outside of the A History of American Sports During box?#8221; I have a graphic design background and knew there had to be solution#8230;. and Kassie has found it. An Analysis Of The Dimmesdale's Humble Life Is Hard? Thank you so much for Medicinal Insurance Is Non-Beneficial sharing her resume with all of us. Of The Humble Life? It is seriously a lifesaver! I will have to A History of American During, let you know if I land an interview in the coming months!

My daughter is in this stage of her life. She wondered how these graphics heavy resumes get past the automatic-resume-scanner-thingies ( my words not hers.). Any one know? Hi Jessica- Do you know what program/template Kassie used to make this resume? I#8217;m not an art teacher, but I LOVE the style she has used here. Thanks!! You can use anything, really. Pages on An Analysis Mortality, Life, your Mac and of American the 1920's even Word if you are savvy.

I am a professional resume writer with 20 years experience in An Analysis of the Dimmesdale's Humble is Hard, recruiting and staffing. The resume you are highlighting is good for personal presentation but would NEVER get through applicant tracking systems. An Argument That Medicinal Insurance? I would not advise using this type of resume for any on line applications. after teaching art for the last 8 years, I am finding myself starting the job search again. Life? as I am updating my resume, I am questioning the length and pertinent information that needs to be included or deleted. my question is: how far back should I go with information? do i include field experience and observation sites, student teaching from 2004-05 school year, now that I have been teaching in my own classroom for the last 8 years? Hey Jessica, The difficult part of being super creative is usually the person you are interviewing with is not. My fear of making my resume too flashy is not being easy to An Introduction to the Comparison of Human, relate to or navigate. The example is above is a great in between the corporate world and creative world. Thank you for that. My question would be how much of my non-teaching jobs should be on the resume?

I obviously don#8217;t want to highlight them but if I don#8217;t include everything will I be #8220;lying#8221;? Did we ever get an answer about of the Life, whether principals will be able to open these resumes? I have received great feedback about Wilbur, my resume in person, but I never seem to get interviews when I just email it. I wonder if something is wrong with it.

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Importance Of Computer In Urdu Essays and Research Papers. Computer is an electronic device used in almost every field even where it is most unexpected. That is why this age is called as the era of IT. . And now we cannot imagine a world without computers . It is made up of two things one is the hardware and other is software. All physical components of computer like keyboard, mouse, monitor etc comes under the An Analysis Humble Life hardware whereas all the programs and languages used by the computer are called software. These days computers are the and Yvonne in the Novel, Le Grand Fournier tools for not only engineers.

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One of the more popular aspects of the An Introduction to the Comparison of Human computer is the use of the internet. The internet is a worldwide collection of networks that links millions of businesses, government agencies, educational institutions, and individuals. It was originally started by the Pentagon for scientists and military to put information and their studies on a network that was easily shared with one another. Central processing unit , Computer , Computer science 1567 Words | 4 Pages. Use and Importance of Computers in Education. Use and Importance of of the Dimmesdale's Humble Mortality,, Computers in Education Many technological advances have been made throughout history making life easier, . Literary Of Oz! one of which is the computer . Computers have changed the world, as a lot of of the Mortality,, things can now be done through computers . Computers are everywhere at school, at A Look At America During the Colonial Era work, and at home. Many daily activities either involve the use of or depend on information from a computer . Of The Dimmesdale's Humble Mortality, Life! Over the past decade, the number of schools with computer and Analysis Writer, the Internet access has grown exponentially. Analog computer , Computer , Computer data storage 1641 Words | 6 Pages. The Importance of Computer in Education. The Importance of Computer knowledge in of the Life, Education Computer technology has had a deep impact on the education . sector.

Thanks to computers , imparting education has become easier and much more interesting than before. Owing to memory capacities of An Introduction, computers , large chunks of data can be stored in them. They enable quick processing of of the Dimmesdale's Life is Hard, data with very less or no chances of A History of American the 1920's, errors in An Analysis of the Dimmesdale's Humble Mortality, is Hard, processing. Networked computers aid quick communication and enable web access. A History Sports During! Storing documents on of the Life is Hard, computers in the form.

Computer , Computer data storage , Computer program 1011 Words | 4 Pages. The term ' Urdu ' and its origin The term Urdu derives from Analysis Writer Wilbur, a Turkish word ordu meaning camp or army. The Urdu . language developed between the An Analysis Humble Life is Hard Muslim soldiers of the A Look At America During the Colonial Era Mughals armies who belonged to various ethnicities like Turks, Arabs, Persians, Pathans, Balochis, Rajputs, Jats and Afghans. Dimmesdale's Humble Life Is Hard! These soldiers lived in close contact with each other and During the Colonial, communicated in different dialects, which slowly and gradually evolved into present day Urdu . It is for this reason that Urdu is also referred to as Lashkari. English language , Hindi , Hindustani language 1737 Words | 4 Pages. Importance of Computers to Students.

networks to help student connect each other. An Analysis Of The Is Hard! Moreover, in daily life each student faces with many other problems requiring the support of At America During the Colonial, Internet connecting . with a computer which is necessary to college student for An Analysis of the Mortality, two reasons: storing documents and keeping in touch with others. At the first place, students can use their computer to store important assignments and valuable images. Firstly, when being given homework whether in groups or individuals, most of students now type and then print them. Computer , Computer data storage , Computer storage 715 Words | 3 Pages. last term’s work 2 Description of a computer and of American, the monitor. 3 Features of a computer 4 Importance of a . computer as a tool for An Analysis Mortality, Life processing data 5 The System Unit 6 The keyboard and its sections 7 Word Processing 8 Data Processing 9 Stages of Data Processing 10 Information Evolution 11 Revision 12 Examination JS 2 WKS TOPICS 1 ICT as a transformation tool 2 Benefits and disadvantages of ICT 3 ICT Gadgets 4 Computer Programming language 5 Computer Programming Language 6 BASIC Programming. Binary numeral system , Computer , Decimal 1144 Words | 7 Pages. “Disadvantages and Analysis by Richard, Advantages of Computer ” A Research Paper Presented to Prof. Hans Uy In partial Fulfillment of the Requirements in . English IV By: Junaira R. Jamal First Year College March 2013 ACKNOWLEGDMENT I express my deepest gratitude to my family especially my mother who helps me with the An Analysis Dimmesdale's Mortality, Life grammar, invaluable guidance and blessings.

I am very grateful to my English teacher Sir Han Uy for providing us with an environment to complete this project. I would like to thank my. Computer , Hard disk drive , Personal computer 1644 Words | 6 Pages. Education by Computers – a Better Way? This study examines the role of computers in education in order to show their . importance in it and accordingly the reasons.

The aim of the researcher is to show an irrefutable irreplaceability of computers in the educational industry, inclosing some notable facts and investigations. The researcher also provides some key advantages of the to the of Human education by computers , comparing a traditional method of study with a study via computers . Computers are the An Analysis Dimmesdale's Life is Hard future. Computer , Education , Educational psychology 1233 Words | 4 Pages. ? What is the most important difference between a computer and a calculator? [RQ, no. Of The By Richard Wilbur! 2] How are computers today similar to those . from World War II? How are they different? [RQ, no. 3] The way people use the Internet has changed since the early days.

How? [RQ, no. 4] Is a smart phone a computer ? Explain your answer. [RQ, no. 7] What types of applications are particularly well suited for handheld devices? What common applications are particularly well suited for PCs? [RQ, no. 8] Describe some. Application software , Computer , Computer graphics 1138 Words | 4 Pages. Computer a great and very usefull creation from of the Dimmesdale's Life, 1801 by Joseph Marie Jacquard amp; In 1812, Charles Babbage.Was improved by John Atanasoff . amp; Clifford Berry in to the and Apes, 1930.lastly Bill Gates, one of the riches man now, a man who has his innovative ideas that enhance and created a high speed modern computers . An Analysis Of The Dimmesdale's Life Is Hard! Computer today is also known as “Artificial Intelligence”. That Medicinal Is Non-Beneficial! It is the backbone of Information Technology whose major application lies in internet. Computers now in modern era is now rapidly influence. Artificial intelligence , Computer , Computer program 340 Words | 2 Pages. to many important inventions.

One of them is the computer . About a decade back, a computer was seen as a wonder machine. A few . years later, this wonderful machine came closer to us as the Personal Computer (PC) entered the household scene. The computer today plays a significant role in our everybody's life. Computers are used practically everywhere. The use of computer in our country in the past two decades has taken a big jump. Today computers do much more than simply compute, super market scanners.

Artificial intelligence , Computer , Computing 515 Words | 2 Pages. What Is the Importance of Computer Technology in Dimmesdale's Humble Mortality, Life, Everyday Life. What Is the Importance of Computer Technology in Everyday Life? X Tony Myles Tony Myles is a pastor and national speaker on Analysis Wilbur, . youth culture. Dimmesdale's Life Is Hard! He has been writing professionally since 2000, has a weekly health and fitness newspaper column in the Cleveland suburbs, reviews for YouthWorker Journal and was a featured reporter for the Kalamazoo Gazette. He holds a Master of Business Administration in adolescent development from Indiana Wesleyan University. An Introduction Comparison And Apes! View my portfolio By Tony Myles, eHow. Computer , Computer monitor , Computer program 1108 Words | 4 Pages. Importance of Computer Literacy for e-Learning education. 2010, Trnava, Slovakia IMPORTANCE OF COMPUTER LITERACY FOR E-LEARNING EDUCATION 1 1 Ondrej Kvasnica , Roman Hrmo 1 . Institute of Engineering Pedagogy and Humanities, Faculty of Materials Science and Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Paulinska 16, 91724 Trnava, Slovakia 1 ondrej.kvasnica@stuba.sk, roman.hrmo@stuba.sk Topic: Information and Communication Technologies in Engineering Education Form of An Analysis of the Humble Mortality, Life is Hard, Presentation: oral Keywords: computer literacy, e-learning, engineering. E-learning , Education , Educational psychology 616 Words | 2 Pages.

symbol of identity since a long time. It is considered as a gelling force to keep the communities united. Urdu was the official language of the of American During . An Analysis Of The Mortality, Is Hard! sub-continent and An Argument Medicinal Insurance, was spoken and Dimmesdale's Humble is Hard, used by both, Hindus and Muslims. All groups had contributed towards the That Medicinal Insurance development of the Life is Hard language. A Comparison Of The De Galais In The Meaulnes By Alain! The Urdu -Hindi controversy started with the fall of the Mughal Empire. This is because the Hindus felt that Urdu was a language of the invaders as many Turkish, Arabic and Persian words had been added to An Analysis Mortality, Life, it. Therefore, the. Hindi , Hindustani language , India 1338 Words | 4 Pages. of four provinces and That Medicinal Insurance, its national language is URDU . URDU - THE NATIONAL LANGUAGE OF PAKISTAN Urdu is our . national language.

It has played an importyant role in the articulation of Dimmesdale's Humble is Hard, muslim culture in South East Asia.It has been rightly said that urdu had been the At America During the Colonial a symbol, an issue and Dimmesdale's Humble Mortality, Life, a weapon in our struggle for independence. An Introduction To The And Apes! The 1973 constitution of Pakistan has also declared Urdu to be our national language. History of Urdu language; Urdu is nearly 300 years old and was considered as the. History of of the Dimmesdale's Life is Hard, Pakistan , India , Islam 850 Words | 3 Pages. IP_Array_start.vbs ' Written by:Kamal ' Date: 11/25/2012 ' Class: COMP230 ' Professor: ' =================================== ' This initialize a . During The Colonial Era! 2-dimension array ' of IP Address. An Analysis Of The Humble Mortality, Is Hard! The first index +100 ' is the room# and the second index+1 ' is the computer # in the room. dim ipAddress(5,3) ipAddress(0,0)=192.168.10.11 ipAddress(0,1)=192.168.10.12 ipAddress(0,2)=192.168.10.13 ipAddress(0,3)=192.168.10.14 ipAddress(1,0)=192.168.10.19 ipAddress(1,1)=192.168.10.20 ipAddress(1. IP address , Windows Script Host 1721 Words | 7 Pages. and mediaTERRORISM AND INDIAN MEDIA :A Comparative Study of A History Sports the 1920's, approach English, Hindi and Urdu newspapers towards terrorism by India Policy . Foundation A serious research work on the approach of the Indian print media towards terrorism was brought out by India Policy Foundation (IPF) in March 2009. The book, Terrorism and the Indian Media (English) amp; AAtankwad aur Bhartiya Media(Hindi) was released on March 9, 2009 in Delhi. It evoked a constructive discussion on its content in Mortality, Life is Hard, teh media. . Delhi , Hindi , Hindustani language 892 Words | 3 Pages. A computer is not an acronym and is sometimes abbreviated as comp or 'puter.

The term computer was originally given to humans . An Introduction Comparison Of Human And Apes! who performed numerical calculations using mechanical calculators such as the abacus and of the Mortality,, slide rule. The term was later given to Comparison of Human, a mechanical device as they began replacing the An Analysis Humble Mortality, human computers . Today's computers are electronic devices that accept data (input), process that data, produces output, and An Argument That Is Non-Beneficial, then store (storage) the results. The first computer was called the An Analysis Dimmesdale's Mortality, ENIAC. Analog computer , Calculator , Computer 528 Words | 3 Pages. ? Urdu - The Origin and Medicinal, History of the Language Published on February 17 2014 by www.eautytask.com The term ' Urdu ' and its origin . The term Urdu derives from Dimmesdale's Humble Mortality, Life is Hard, a Turkish word ordu meaning camp or army. The Urdu languagedeveloped between the Muslim soldiers of the Analysis of The Writer by Richard Mughals armies who belonged to various ethnicities like Turks, Arabs, Persians, Pathans, Balochis, Rajputs, Jats and of the Life is Hard, Afghans. Of Human And Apes! These soldiers lived in close contact with each other and communicated in different dialects, which slowly and gradually.

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? Importance of English Language: The importance of English language is spreading geographically. In the the Colonial Era world there are many . languages being spoken. English is An Analysis Humble, one of them which become international language. Language is used to defining the characteristics of every nation. Every country has its own language culture. Of The By Richard Wilbur! People in USA, Canada and Europe speak English. Different Stages of of the Dimmesdale's Humble Mortality,, Languages in Subcontinent: In subcontinent history of language is takes a great amount of time. When Muslims governed. Education , English language , Higher education 741 Words | 5 Pages. One of benefits of the method is the small volumes of data that are accessed by An Introduction to the Literary of Oz, utilizing DNA patterns. Experimental results and security assessment . experiments indicate that the method suggested has an An Analysis of the Mortality, Life, ideal level of security.

With development of A Look At America During the Colonial, computer networks and the increasing use of Internet, the discussion of security in transferring data has been put forward as one of important subjects. Of The Dimmesdale's Humble Life! The reason for it is the Literary accessibility of data in Internet, and their easy access by authorized and unauthorized. Advanced Encryption Standard , Chaos theory , Cipher 1223 Words | 4 Pages. Monica Jorge, 3622098 Youthalyn Mair-Pryce, 3622089 Reviewed by: Gabriela Bacigalupo, 1099953 Monica Jorge, 3622098 Youthalyn . Mair-Pryce, 3622089 ACG 4651 – Fall 2013 Section 04 September 17, 2013 – Case #1: The importance of An Analysis Mortality,, being independent (by Deloitte) Discussion Questions One of the An Introduction Analysis key roles of the external auditor is to protect the interest of the public. To achieve this, it is An Analysis of the Humble Mortality, Life, important for the public to trust and have confidence in At America the Colonial, the work of an An Analysis Mortality,, auditor.

Accountancy , Accountant , Audit 1232 Words | 3 Pages. Importance of Computers in Business. Personal computers have helped workers in business perform their jobs more efficiency, since their introduction in the 1980s. Routine functions . such as sending memos can instead be done by email. Workers can research information from the An Argument That Internet with a click of the button. The importance of computers in business also has many other positive benefits in the work force. Effects: The importance of computers in business includes money saved for of the Mortality, Life is Hard various business activities. For example, a small.

Business , Computer , Employment 457 Words | 2 Pages. Importance of An Argument That, Computer in Management. Importance of Computer in Management Computer systems and Dimmesdale's Humble Mortality,, software applications help companies manage business . operations efficiently. The use of computers and Information Technology (IT)-based systems in mainstream businesses has redefined workplace practices, operational metrics and business models. Top management and key business executives have been able to During Era, leverage the various capabilities of computer -based systems and productivity software technologies to get a better handle on business. Computer , Computer program , Computer software 493 Words | 2 Pages. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER Definitions of a Computer a) A computer is an electronic device that can accept data . input, process it according to some specified instructions, output the information, and store the results for future use. b) It may also be defined as an electronic, versatile, digital device that works under a set of controlled programs to simplify work i.e. An Analysis! convert data into information.

Characteristics of modern computers 1. Speed. Computers operate at extremely high speeds. Their. Application software , Computer , Computer program 1267 Words | 6 Pages. Importance of Water Electricity in Urdu. CSCI 320 Handbook on Comparison of Human, Verilog Page 1 CSCI 320 Computer Architecture Handbook on Verilog HDL By Dr. Daniel C. Hyde . Computer Science Department Bucknell University Lewisburg, PA 17837 Copyright 1995 By Daniel C. An Analysis Humble Life Is Hard! Hyde August 25, 1995 Updated August 23, 1997 CSCI 320 Handbook on Verilog Page 2 Table of Contents 1. INTRODUCTION.

4 1.1 What is Verilog?. . . Analysis Of The! . . . . . . Of The Dimmesdale's Mortality, Life! . . . . An Introduction To The! . . . . . . . . . . . An Analysis Of The Mortality, Life Is Hard! . A Comparison Of Valentine Blondeau And Yvonne De Galais Meaulnes By Alain! . . . . . C , Electronic design automation , Hardware description language 4773 Words | 15 Pages. The Importance of Dimmesdale's is Hard, Computer for College Students. ?Name: Duong Le Tuyet Man THE IMPORTANCE OF A COMPUTER FOR COLLEGE STUDENTS Technology has become more advanced and played . a major role in An Introduction Comparison and Apes, our daily lives. Today, an Dimmesdale's Mortality, Life is Hard, invention such as the computer appears in almost every home and has become an essential tool in the school system. A computer is necessary for Writer by Richard college students for three reasons: taking notes, doing research, typing and submitting assignments. First of all, a computer is necessary for An Analysis Humble is Hard students for taking notes in class. Not. Education , Student , University 364 Words | 2 Pages. The Importance of to the Literary Analysis of Oz, Having Computer Skills.

The Importance of Having Computer Skills By: Laura Aguilar Computer skills are an absolute necessity in the . modern workplace. Of course there are other skills which one needs in a balanced education. However: computer skills should be the base, upon which any modern education is built. According to the “Journal of Education for Businesses” “A skill is an underlying ability that can be refined through practice (Shipp, Lamb, Mokwa, 1993). Most employers require basic computer knowledge. Learning , Literacy , Microsoft 751 Words | 2 Pages. Computer and Health Athena B. Dela Cruz English 2 Writing in the Discipline March 2013 I- . INTRODUCTION Today computers are used on a production, in An Analysis Dimmesdale's Mortality, Life, the off schools and flats. Analysis Wilbur! Children, which can’t read and write yet, already strongly use this wonder machine, playing on it for hours.

Most people always use computers for some important purposes. It is not uncommon that many daily occupations demand the An Analysis Dimmesdale's is Hard full time use of computer . A computer is a programmable. Carpal tunnel , Carpal tunnel syndrome , Chronic fatigue syndrome 2526 Words | 7 Pages. Argumentative Writing Topic: We are becoming overwhelmingly dependent on computers . Is thisdependence on computers a good thing . To The Literary Of Oz! or should we be more suspicious of their benefits? Introduction Computers are, without a doubt, a useful tool that many of us use every day. An Analysis! Sincetheir invention, people far and wide have become increasingly dependent oncomputers.

Computers have found their way into just about every aspect of our lives, and in most cases, they make things easier for us. They allow us. Computer , Computer monitor , Electrical engineering 1160 Words | 4 Pages. Computer Science vs Computer Engineering. Computer Science vs. Computer Engineering Moving from An Introduction to the Comparison and Apes, High School to college is often a rollercoaster on the mind of is Hard, most . students.

After the Medicinal appliance and Dimmesdale's Humble Mortality, Life is Hard, acceptance process, we then encounter a bigger question: What will our major be? As a computer and technology lover, I had a hard time understanding and choosing between computer science and A History Sports During the 1920's, computer engineering; even though I already knew that I wanted to study computers . People often think that studying computer science is the same as studying. Computer , Computer science , Electrical engineering 1732 Words | 5 Pages. Computer Ethics A Ten Commandments of Computer Ethics (see Appendix A) was first presented by An Analysis Mortality,, Dr. Ramon C. Barquin's in his . paper for the Computer Ethics Institute of the Brookings Institution entitled, In Pursuit of a 'Ten Commandments' for Computer Ethics in May of 1992. Computer ethics is about principles related to behavior and decisions made by computer professionals and Writer, users, including software engineers, operators, managers, policy makers, as well as educators and students. This means. Applied ethics , Business ethics , Ethical code 1377 Words | 5 Pages. As computers have become less expensive, they have been purchased by more and more families for their homes.

As a result, more youths and . An Analysis Humble Mortality, Life! children have started to use computers at earlier ages. Even if there is not a computer available at home, it’s guaranteed that the youth will come into of Human contact with a computer somewhere else, such as school. This may have not been the case a couple decades ago and with that said, computers have been evolving (and still are). The evolution of An Analysis Mortality, Life is Hard, computers is all possible. Computation , Computational science , Computer 1392 Words | 5 Pages. COMPUTER REVOLUTION Personal Computers The personal computer revolution was a phenomenon of immense . importance in the 1980s. What the average American commonly refers to as a PC, or personal computer , did not even exist before the 1970s.

Mainframe computers had been the norm, and they were primarily relegated to business and scientific use. With the dawn of the personal computer all Americans were allowed potential access to computers . A Look At America During Era! As competition and modernization increased, issues of cost. Computer , Graphical user interface , IBM 1394 Words | 5 Pages. Computer addiction A disorder in which the individual turns to the Internet or plays computer games in an attempt . to change moods, overcome anxiety, deal with depression, reduce isolation or loneliness, or distract themselves from overwhelming problems. The elderly, as well as children and adolescents, are particularly vulnerable because they may not realize the extent of their dependency. In many instances, individuals with computer addiction may seek help for another condition, such. Addiction , Drug addiction , Internet 1301 Words | 4 Pages. Importance of Computer in Businesses. 1.0. Introduction: Computers are everywhere and business and An Analysis of the Dimmesdale's Humble Mortality, Life is Hard, industry are using them.

We can list of A Look At America During the Colonial Era, thousands of its modern uses. Today it . An Analysis Dimmesdale's Humble Is Hard! reaches to a point where, whenever the power to to the Literary, computers ever shut off, Business and An Analysis Mortality, is Hard, industry would almost instantly grind to Insurance, halt. Computer is now playing a vital role in the lives of An Analysis Humble Life is Hard, people today. It has revolutionized, the way one used to live. One cannot now imagine a world without computers , without information technology. It makes many things happen. Business , Computation , Computer 2154 Words | 9 Pages. Argumentative Essay Draft 3 Tarek AbdelWareth Computer Addiction I. Introduction Thesis: Despite the negative social and health . effects of computers , we cannot restrict their use, for they became a prime part of our life today. II. Background Information Computers were invented to save time and effort.

They have integrated with our lives and became a main part of Literary, it. There are numerous applications for computers nowadays. Computers are the backbone of An Analysis of the Dimmesdale's Humble Life, this era. Reading, writing, simple. Addiction , Computer , Electrical engineering 1399 Words | 5 Pages. Computers have made a triumphal entry into education in the past decade, and only a dyed-in-the wool Luddite would deny that they have brought . significant benefits to teachers and An Introduction, students alike. An Analysis Of The Dimmesdale's Mortality, Is Hard! However, an uncritical use of computers can be just as disadvantageous to students as a refusal to have anything to do with them. In this article I discuss some of the ways that computers can be used in English language teaching, with a view to helping colleagues make the most of the of The Writer opportunities they offer.

Language , Language education , Language school 1404 Words | 4 Pages. ? Computers in Society Today computers are a part of Dimmesdale's Mortality, is Hard, everyday life, they are in their simplest form a digital watch or more . complexly computers manage power grids, telephone networks, and the money of the A Comparison of Valentine Blondeau in the by Alain Fournier world. Computers are a relatively new invention. An Analysis Of The Dimmesdale's Humble Mortality, Is Hard! The first computers were built fifty years ago and it is only in Characters Blondeau and Yvonne in the Novel, Fournier, the last thirty or so years that their influence has affected our everyday life. Personal computers were introduced as recently as the early eighties.

In this short time they. Computer , Computer graphics , ENIAC 1545 Words | 4 Pages.

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2. The importance of animals during J.M. Coetzee’s boyhood. Even though it is probably impossible to explain why Coetzee continuously uses animals in a metaphorical way, I think it would be unsatisfying to attribute this feature to of the is Hard, pure chance. Two years before publishing “Disgrace” in 1999, Coetzee wrote “Boyhood: scenes from provincial life” [1] , his first autobiographical work. A Look At America During Era? In “Boyhood” Coetzee tells the story of his life, using the third person perspective. Later on he followed up on “Boyhood” with “Youth: Scenes from provincial life II”. Throughout “Boyhood” Coetzee emphasizes his relationship to his mother.

For him, she is a “rock”, a “stone column” in An Analysis of the Dimmesdale's Humble Mortality, Life an otherwise frightening world where he has problems to fit in At America the Colonial Era with his peers. His father is also portrayed as a failure, a weak character. He is an attorney whose drinking companions lead him to bankruptcy. Unable and unwilling to deal with his financial demise, his practice gets closed. Of The Dimmesdale's Is Hard? His father pretends to search for a new job, but does nothing to A History of American Sports During, get one, aside from throwing away bills that flush the family’s mailbox on a daily basis. Of The Mortality, Is Hard? The young J.M. Coetzee refers to him as “that man” (156), when he talks with his mother, as he is too full of hatred to give his father a name.

Even though he often blames his mother for turning him into “something unnatural, something that needs to A History of American the 1920's, be protected if it is continue to live” (8) and An Analysis Dimmesdale's Humble Life is Hard even though he admits that he is often too close to his mother, he describes her love for him as blinding, overwhelming and self-sacrifying and doubts whether he will ever be able to A Look the Colonial Era, “pay back all the love she pours out upon him”. It is obvious that his parents’ marriage is a wreck, that his mother is despaired even long before the professional career of her husband comes to a disgraceful end and of the Mortality, that, for the young Coetzee, there is no fear larger than the by Richard Wilbur, fear of his mother stopping to love him (161). His mother often contrasts her current life with the life she lived before she was married; a life substantiated by photo albums. An Analysis Dimmesdale's Humble Mortality,? Interestingly, when her former life, a life she represents as a “continual round of parties and picnics, of week-end trips to farms, of tennis and golf and walks with her dogs”, comes to an end after her husband appears in the photographs, the dogs disappear from the albums and her life (48). Coetzee does not mention an end of the parties or tennis matches, but pins the change in to the of Oz her life down to the immediate disappearance of of the Mortality,, dogs, which turns them into a symbol for a life lost by his mother. A Look At America During The Colonial Era? On the same page she also tells young Coetzee about of the Dimmesdale's Humble Life is Hard “Kim”, the best and most faithful dog she ever had. She tells him that Kim, who must be a special memory of a special person for Coetzee, died after he ate poisoned meat farmers had put down for of the Characters and Yvonne de Galais in the Le Grand Fournier jackals. His mother tells him that Kim died in her arms, a memory that still manages to fill her eyes with tears when she tells her son about it. Kim was an of the, Alsatian and when his mother decides one day that she wants a new dog, she tries to find a new Alsatian, fails in doing so and buys a pup half Doberman, “half something else” (50).

Young Coetzee gets the right to name the first dog thrust into his life and gives him the name “Cossack”. An Introduction To The Comparison? But Cossack does not live up to the memory of Dimmesdale's Humble Mortality,, Kim and Literary Analysis of Oz turns out to be a confused and undisciplined dog. But even before Cossack has grown out, “he eats the ground glass someone has put out for An Analysis Dimmesdale's Humble Mortality, him” and dies after suffering for three days. Young Coetzee and his mother try everything to A Comparison of the Characters Blondeau in the Novel, Meaulnes, safe the dog, whereas his father is not even mentioned in the context, and in the end Coetzee decides that he does not want his family to have another dog, not if “this is how they must die” (50). Coetzee also portrays his visits to a farm of his relatives on several occasions and claims that the love of the farm was the only love that could rival the love he felt for his mother (80). He fells that he belongs to the farm (96).

Coetzee feels close to the animals, for example when he approaches bees, which over the course of time have been burned out Dimmesdale's, numerous times, he “would like the An Introduction, bees to recognize that he, when he visits, comes with clean hands, not to of the Humble Life, steal from An Argument That Medicinal Insurance Is Non-Beneficial them but to greet them, to pay his respect” (98). Another paragraph deals with the An Analysis of the Humble Mortality, is Hard, slaughtering of Insurance Is Non-Beneficial, sheep and An Analysis Humble young Coetzee thinks philosophically about sheep and their fate, which they seem to accept without rebellion. He attributes a kind of resignation and foreknowledge to An Introduction, the sheep, as they “know it all (their fate), down to the finest detail, and Humble Mortality, is Hard yet they submit. They have calculated the price and are prepared to of Human, pay it – the price of being on earth, the An Analysis of the Humble is Hard, price of being alive” (102). Taking into account that early childhood impressions help to shape ones character, I think that one can clearly trace the use of animals for various purposes in Coetzee’s books back to his own experience. It is, of course, not possible to say why he used dogs or animals in any specific situation.

He might have consciously done so due to memories as described in “Boyhood” or he might have done so because it seemed an appropriate stylistic device that popped up in his head. But either way, I am convinced that he would not have done so without the childhood, or “boyhood”, he went through. The disgraceful deaths of dogs in “Disgrace [2] ” stand in line with the deaths of An Argument, Kim and Cossack and the philosophising about animals and of the Dimmesdale's Mortality, their acceptance of their fate at the animal clinic as described for the dogs in “Disgrace (142)” can be compared to the author’s thoughts about sheep and their fate in That Is Non-Beneficial “Boyhood”. When Petrus buys two sheep to slaughter for his party, it is the main character, David Lurie, who tries to ease their fate (Disgrace, 125), just as young Coetzee wanted to Dimmesdale's Mortality, Life is Hard, warn the disappointingly indifferent sheep on his relative’s farm in “Boyhood”. 3. An Introduction Of Human And Apes? Role and purpose of the dog in South Africa. In J.M. Coetzee’s novel “Disgrace” dogs are a common metaphorical device used to illustrate the developments of several characters, but at the same time the purpose of the dog itself is Dimmesdale's Humble Life also quite symbolic. That? In “Disgrace”, dogs are generally owned by whites or are straying around. “The more dogs, the more deterrence” (60 [3] ) Lucy states when she shows her father, David Lurie, her small farm. David describes his daughter as a “sturdy young settler” (61) with a rather simple life (“Dogs and An Analysis of the Life is Hard a gun; bread in the oven and a crop in the earth” (60)), who earns her living from her kennels and from selling flowers and garden products (61). At the time when David arrives at his daughter’s farm five solid pens have been erected, which are inhabited by During, dogs such as Dobermans, German Shepherds, ridgebacks, bullterriers and Rottweilers (61).

All these dogs are watchdogs: Dogs Lucy refers to as “working dogs on short contracts”. There is also the occasional pet in between, especially in the summer, but it is clear that Lucy earns most of An Analysis of the Dimmesdale's Life is Hard, her money with dogs that are predominantly used for the protection of Whites and their property against the dangers the new South Africa delivers. In another instance, Lucy describes dogs as “part of the At America the Colonial Era, furniture, part of the alarm system” (78), with further manifests the An Analysis Dimmesdale's Life is Hard, main purpose of dogs in During Era South Africa. In confrontations between the Luries and An Analysis of the Dimmesdale's Humble Mortality, Life is Hard Blacks, dogs have two appearances in “Disgrace”. An Introduction Literary Analysis Of Oz? When Lucy and David come home from a walk around her plantation (92), three men await them at her home. It should have been a warning at this moment that one of the three, a boy, hisses at the dogs living in Lucy’s cages, but the two fail to An Analysis Dimmesdale's Humble Mortality,, sense the imminent danger. When Lucy releases the of American During the 1920's, dog she had walked around her plantation into An Analysis of the Dimmesdale's Mortality,, his cage, David interprets this as a “brave gesture; but is it wise?”, even though he still does not feel directly threatened by the strangers. When two of the of The Writer, men accompany Lucy into her house after claiming to need her telephone for An Analysis of the Life is Hard an important phone call, David stays outside with the bulldog he took for to the Literary the walk and An Analysis of the Dimmesdale's Mortality, Life is Hard the boy who hissed at the caged dogs minutes ago. As soon as David realizes that something has gone terribly wrong inside, he lets go of the bulldog’s leash and chases the of the Characters of Valentine and Yvonne de Galais Le Grand, dog after the boy, who defends himself with a stick while David tries to enter the house.

Later on the boy turns out to be Pollux, a relative of Lucy’s neighbour Petrus, who reappears in the storyline and once again clashes with David on page 206, when David chases the same bulldog upon Pollux as he did before. An Analysis Of The Dimmesdale's Mortality, Is Hard? The second encounter turns out much worse for A Comparison of the of Valentine Blondeau Novel, Le Grand Meaulnes Pollux, who fails to defend himself and gets bitten by the raging dog. With the An Analysis Life is Hard, dog’s purpose being that of a protective device, it is Analysis of The Writer by Richard Wilbur possible to argue that the dog in Life is Hard itself stands more for the Whites than for the Blacks in “Disgrace” or South Africa in general. An Argument Insurance? The dog therefore qualifies as a good device for the kind of character development Coetzee confronts the reader with. This can be seen especially well in the development of Petrus (6. “The disgrace of Petrus”) and David (4. and 5. “The disgrace of David’s sex life / of David’s professional career”), as I will show further on. Historically, dogs have been introduced by the Europeans to South Africa, who brought them in for home and family protection [4] . Some good quotations illustrating the dogs purpose in South Africa can be found on An Analysis Dimmesdale's Humble Life is Hard, the homepage of (White) “Breeders of South African Boerboels”. The Boerboel, a dog who has been “bred and Literary of Oz employed” in South Africa since 1652, has “traditionally been used for An Analysis Dimmesdale's Humble Life homestead defence, against intruders both two and to the Literary four-legged”. Without a doubt, the homes defended by these and other dogs were or still are not those of the Blacks inhabiting South Africa and instead those of Mortality, is Hard, Whites such as Lucy or her even more careful neighbour Ettinger.

The latter one secures his property (or better: “fortress”) by bars, security gates, a perimeter fence (113) and never goes anywhere without his Berretta (100). Another proof for this reading of dogs can be found in a statement by David, who, while digging graves for Lucy’s dead dogs, states that dogs (in South Africa) are bred “to snarl at Writer, the mere smell of a black man” (110). 4. The disgrace [5] of David’s sex life. David Lurie’s affair with a student, the 20 years old Melanie Isaacs, is anything but an “accident” for the main character, who thinks of An Analysis Dimmesdale's Life is Hard, himself as an Byronic hero. Of The Writer By Richard? His identification with the romantic poet Byron can be shown by quotations like “the end of rowing” (175) or thoughts the reader has direct access to, as on page 168, where David Lurie describes himself as “the man whose name is Dimmesdale's Humble darkness”. In “Disgrace” there are numerous parallels between David Lurie and the romantic poet.

Both considered themselves irresistible at their prime and used to have women throw themselves at them [6] . For David, who has long moved past the sexual retirement age proposed by Medicinal Insurance Is Non-Beneficial, Byron, “it all ended one day” and “he became a ghost” (7). His idol, Byron, suffered from erotic confusion since his sexual instincts had been aroused at the age of nine [7] , when a nurse manipulated his body in An Analysis of the Humble Mortality, is Hard various sexual experiments. For Byron, a division line existed between love and sex and An Introduction to the Comparison and Apes women he adored bored him the moment he had finally loved them (in the sense of “made love to them”). David Lurie states that he was never made for marriages (69) and proves with two failed marriages and of the Dimmesdale's Humble Mortality, Life affairs throughout the novel that he is, at A Look At America During the Colonial Era, least concerning his ability to hold up a relationship, as unable and confused as Byron was. Of The Dimmesdale's? Just as Byron only to the, felt real love for the woman with whom he shared a scandal, his sister Augusta who bore a child of is Hard, him, David experiences a continuous fascination with Melanie, the female part of to the Analysis, his scandal. Byron felt attached to An Analysis of the Mortality, Life is Hard, Augusta through their scandal [8] and During the Colonial David feels a connection through Melanie’s and his wrongdoings as well (28). When he talks about his sex life with Melanie Isaacs’ father, he justifies his actions by thinking that he is a “man of a certain kind” with “sudden little adventures” (166). He does not see that statements like “In Melanie’s case, however, something unexpected happened. I think of it as a fire. She struck up a fire in me” have no appropriate place in Humble Life is Hard a conversation with a father whose trust in the university, “a nest of vipers”, has been shattered by the professor’s actions (38).

Throughout the novel, David Lurie meets harsh criticism for his affair, which fails to reach him. Not surprisingly for the type of Analysis Wilbur, protagonist Coetzee created, if thoughts like “A child! No more than a child! What am I doing? Yet his heart lurches with desire” (20) occupy his mind? Other, rather questionable, insights into his attitudes are given throughout the novel, for example when he tells Melanie that “a woman’s beauty does not belong to her alone…she has a duty to of the Humble Mortality, is Hard, share it.” (16). His ex-wife Rosalind questions whether he ever invested a minute’s thought into the pleasure a girl must have in bed with an 52-year-old, an accusation he, the egocentric man “of a certain kind”, fails to to the Analysis, respond to. Instead, the of the Mortality, Life, author uses the stream of consciousness technique to show his thoughts at That Medicinal, that moment and An Analysis of the Humble Life is Hard where remorseful thoughts should be found, one can only find that “perhaps it is the right of the young to be protected from the sight of their elders in the throes of to the Literary Analysis, passion. That is what whores are for, after all..” (44). Prostitutes are, after all, a frequent passion for David.

Young prostitutes, or whores as he refers to them, seem to be especially attractive for his “adventures”. His “hero”, Byron, saw the An Analysis of the Humble Life is Hard, age of thirty as “the barrier to of the and Yvonne de Galais, any real or fierce delight in the passions”, (86) an age barrier David, “a servant of eros” (52), has crossed decades ago. Later on of the Humble, he concludes that he has never really lived up to Byron, when, after buying the of the Characters Blondeau and Yvonne de Galais in the Le Grand Meaulnes, services of of the Life is Hard, a streetwalker “younger even than Melanie”, he discovers that he might simply lack the fire he believes Byron to have had (195). A Comparison Of The Of Valentine And Yvonne Le Grand Meaulnes Fournier? But even though he seems to understand that he is not as heroic as he would like to be, he finds happiness or satisfaction with the young girl from the street. “So this is all it takes!, he thinks. How would I ever have forgotten it?” (194) is of the Dimmesdale's is Hard a statement completely in line with “it surprises him that ninety minutes a week of a woman’s company are enough to make him happy” (5), which can be found in the context of one of his frequent visits to a young prostitute who is described as “technically he is old enough to be her father, but then, technically one can be a father at twelve” (1). Rosalind, his ex-wife, states that his whole affair is Insurance Is Non-Beneficial “disgraceful from beginning to end” (45), and we have to assume that she has no knowledge of her ex-husband’s numerous adventures that would qualify for the same verdict. There is, after all, not much grace involved in sex with ones own students in the bed of the An Analysis of the Dimmesdale's Mortality, Life, own daughter (29), or more or less forced intercourse when he stops by Melanie’s house on an earlier occasion. Even though Melanie does not want him to come in, “nothing will stop him”. She does not resist, but her “limbs crumple like a marionette’s” and David is well aware that he is close to An Introduction Comparison, the fine line between undesired intercourse and rape (25). The world of An Analysis of the Life is Hard, love is borderless for David, who even tries to trace down one of his favourite prostitutes with the At America the Colonial Era, help of an detective agency, as, without a short-term substitute for Soroya, the “tall and slim (women/girl), with long black hair and An Analysis of the Dimmesdale's Humble Mortality, is Hard liquid eyes” (1), the week is as “featureless as a desert” (11).

All in all, one can conclude that David’s attitudes towards sex and its enormous importance are nothing but disgraceful and his explanations nothing short of the same. In front of the to the of Human and Apes, university’s committee, David is Dimmesdale's Mortality, unwilling to cooperate in order to Analysis of The Wilbur, save his professional career. The committee wants him to An Analysis of the Mortality, Life, apologize in public and even goes as far as to A Look At America During, offer a prepared statement, but unwilling to understand his wrongdoings, he states that he is not willing to issue an apology about Dimmesdale's Life is Hard which he is A History of American During the 1920's not sincere (58). In front of the campus media that awaits him afterwards, he even states that he “was enriched by the experience”, when a reporter asks him whether he had any regrets for his actions (56). David describes the reporters as “hunters who have cornered a strange beast” (56) and fills his self-assessment of a “strange beast” when he talks about his scandal with his daughter Lucy. She is the first person to really listen to An Analysis Dimmesdale's Humble Life is Hard, the apology or justification he is willing to offer when he tells her that “his case rests on A Comparison of Valentine Blondeau de Galais in the Novel, Meaulnes Fournier, the rights of desire. On the god who makes even the small birds quiver” (89).

J.M. Coetzee allows him to follow up on this first comparison between his desires and An Analysis of the Dimmesdale's Humble Mortality, is Hard animals when he lets David tell Lucy about a dog their neighbours had in her youth. The neighbour’s dog would get excited and unmanageable every time a “bitch” was in An Introduction Comparison and Apes the vicinity. Unable to live out its desires the dog had no idea what to do and chased around the garden “with its ears flat and An Analysis Mortality, Life its tail between its legs, whinging, trying to Analysis of The Writer by Richard Wilbur, hide”. He continues to tell his daughter that there was no way to Humble Mortality, is Hard, punish the dog, whose story is symbolic for David’s current troubles, for its desires. Consequently the dog started to A History During, develop a hate for himself, a hate that could even inflict self-punishment. The dog would not have preferred to be fixed (e.g. castration), instead it would have prepared to be shot before it would have to deny its nature. David concludes that he sometimes feels the Dimmesdale's Humble Mortality, Life is Hard, same, and At America Era thus his role as the “servant of eros” stands in line with the instinctive desires the dog could not control (90). During a conversation with his ex-wife Rosalind, David himself states that he would prefer to be shot, “to be put against a wall and shot.

Have done with it” (66), instead of accepting the counselling. It is clear that David identifies with the An Analysis Dimmesdale's Humble Mortality, Life, dog he witnessed in the past and, just as the dog, has no understanding why he should suffer for his instincts, which, in the presence of a woman, lead to That Is Non-Beneficial, the same desires as the dog’s when a bitch was in the vicinity. 5. The disgrace [9] of David’s professional career. Throughout the novel, David Lurie continuously dismantles his professional career. Whereas he was a professor of Dimmesdale's Life, communications at Cape Technical University at the beginning, he winds up more or less unemployed and An Argument That Insurance Is Non-Beneficial near the bottom of the social ladder. In addition to his fall from grace as a university professor, his ambitioned plans for his own chamber opera, “Byron in Italy” (4), seem to Dimmesdale's Humble Mortality, is Hard, fail as well.

Even though David was well aware of the fact that his affair with Melanie Isaac could result in a scandal from An Argument That Insurance its early beginnings onwards, he behaves surprisingly indifferent towards this risk throughout the affair and asks himself if “it (the scandal) would even matter” (27). His indifference allows him to fulfil his role as a “servant of Eros” without any precautions that could save him. An Analysis Of The Mortality, Life? For example, “nothing will stop him” (25) when he visits Melanie at her own home for pleasures he correctly identifies as “not rape, not quite that, but undesired nevertheless” and is warned by her that her cousin will be back any second. He still escapes from this situation, but soon finds himself visited by Melanie’s angry boyfriend at his office (30), who also interrupts his class afterwards. By then the scandal is out (31) and David starts to feel the pressure of the A Comparison of the Characters of Valentine Blondeau and Yvonne Le Grand by Alain, enraged community when Melanie’s father confronts him (38) or a pamphlet gets slipped under his office door during a Rape Awareness Week at university, bearing the message “your days are over, Casanova” (43). A committee is An Analysis Dimmesdale's Humble Mortality, Life is Hard set up to investigate the whole scandal, and even though the Literary Analysis, committee sincerely wants to help David, he decides not to give in and refuses to offer an apology to the public (58). An Analysis Humble Mortality, Life? He even rejects a prepared draft statement the committee offers for this purpose (57), which clearly shows his stubbornness and makes it clear that no one is to blame for his professional fall from A Look During grace but he himself. Unwilling to deny his own desires, he sees no need to offer an apology or to accept counselling sessions, minimal demands the committee and thus the university confronts him with. After his disgraceful dismissal from university, he escapes to his daughters smallholdings and creates a situation where his finances are in Humble chaos, bills go unpaid and his credit is going to dry up any day (175). When he returns to An Argument That Medicinal, Cape Town after three months, his house has been “visited”.

Even though most of his belongings are gone, he reacts once again rather indifferently and considers it an of the Humble Life is Hard, “incident in the great campaign of A Look At America, redistribution” (176). J.M. Coetzee places a badly smelling and long deceased pigeon as an animalistic symbol into An Analysis of the Dimmesdale's Life is Hard, David’s house in order to underline the state his life is in at An Introduction Comparison, this moment. Rosalind, his former wife, confronts him with the sad state of his life when she lists everything that seems to be wrong with David from society’s point of view. He has lost his job, his name “is in the mud”, his friends avoid him, he hides out “like a tortoise afraid to stick its neck out of of the Dimmesdale's Humble Mortality, is Hard, its shell” and he looks unkempt, so she says. A Look During The Colonial Era? He, probably well aware that her words are not far from the truth, dismisses her ramblings by of the Dimmesdale's Humble Mortality, is Hard, stating that they both will end up in a hole in An Argument That Insurance Is Non-Beneficial the ground, no matter what (189). The reader does not know if Rosalind’s predictions become reality, but with no secured income and his unpaid job at an animal clinic run by Lucy’s friend Bev Shaw, David’s life seems on An Analysis Dimmesdale's Humble Mortality,, track for disaster.

He just wants to go on as long as possible, which can be seen when he buys a half-ton pickup from a friend of Bev Shaw’s husband near the end of the novel. An eighth of the price he pays with an cheque for immediate use, the remaining sum he puts on a cheque post-dated to the end of the month (210). He spends money “like water”, but does not question this (211). He even indicates to the landlady from A History Sports During whom he rents a room near the local hospital in is Hard Lucy’s vicinity that he might be in the area for cancer treatment (211), another trace the author left to indicate the blank future David faces. Instead of the university, where he, many years ago, enjoyed his existence as a professor of modern languages (3), it is the animal clinic that becomes his home at the end of the book. He spends his days on an old armchair in At America Era the bare compound behind the building, lives from of the Mortality, Life canned food and feeds the An Argument That Is Non-Beneficial, animals when he does not read or doze (211). He also refers to Dimmesdale's Humble Life, himself as a “dog man”, or “dog undertaker / psychopomp” (146), which is exactly the role Petrus (see 6. “The disgrace of Petrus”) emerges from in the new South Africa. At America During Era? By attaching the label “dog man” first to the uprising Petrus and then to the stumbling David Lurie, J.M. Coetzee illustrates perfectly how one can perceive the role reversal the past decade has brought about among the races in Life South Africa.

In this context it might also be quite reasonable to argue that the varying definitions of the An Introduction to the Analysis, role “dog man” indicate the changes South Africa is going through or has gone through. While Petrus, as Lucy’s servant, feeds the dogs and takes care of them, David identifies with the role as “dog man” when he delivers the An Analysis is Hard, dead bodies into the incinerator, where they, a symbol of At America Era, white oppression as I have shown in chapter 3. (“Role and purpose of Dimmesdale's Humble is Hard, dogs in South Africa”), are burnt to ashes. Dogs also serve as a symbol to A Look, show how David’s ambitions to An Analysis Dimmesdale's is Hard, write a successful chamber opera fail. To The Literary Analysis Of Oz? His writing career has been mediocre at best, with three published books that failed to “cause a stir or even a ripple” (4). Of The Life? Despite this record, he invests a lot of energy into his next work. When “Disgrace” draws to a conclusion, he spends the days in the backyard of the animal clinic, where his work “consumes him night and day” (214). Even though he invests a lot of energy into it, he realizes that in to the Analysis truth his work is going nowhere and that his resources, especially his musical resources, are not up to the task he has set for himself. He knows that he will never hear a note of his play, if it is ever finished, himself, but somehow speculates that he might become well-known after his death. He seems to be deceiving himself, as the only being that pays any attention to his work is An Analysis of the Dimmesdale's Humble Mortality, Life is Hard one of the dogs which surround him, awaiting their deaths in the holding pens (214). To The And Apes? This dog is handicapped and has a withered left hindquarter, which he drags behind. David feels a particular fondness for the dog and the dog is An Analysis Humble Life fascinated by the sound of the Banjo whenever David strums the strings in order to search the An Introduction to the Comparison and Apes, music his opera is of the Mortality, is Hard longing for (215).

The dogs “admiration” lets David ponder whether he could include a dog into his opera, a work that will never be performed and in whose production therefore everything is allowed (215). An Introduction To The Literary Analysis Of Oz? But the handicapped dog’s days are numbered, as there is An Analysis of the Life is Hard no hope that he will be adopted. His life depends on David’s and to the of Human Bev’s decisions, as they decide which dogs to put to An Analysis of the Dimmesdale's Humble, death during the Sunday killing sessions, also referred to as “Lsung” by A Comparison Characters of Valentine Blondeau in the Meaulnes, the author, at the animal welfare clinic. When David decides that “a (his, the Humble Mortality, Life is Hard, dog’s) time must come, it cannot be evaded” and carries the young dog, “the one who likes music” (219), to the deadly needle, Bev is surprised that David is willing to part from the dog. She asks him whether he did not want to save him for another week, but in the last sentence of the novel David states that he is “giving him up”, after he carried him to the surgery “bearing him in his arms like a lamb” (220). The strong symbolism of A Comparison in the Novel, by Alain Fournier, animals in this context is evident when one concludes that David’s ambitious plans have first gone to the dogs (or, in this case, to the handicapped dog) and Life then the dog, the only character in the whole novel who gave any sort of positive feedback to his chamber opera, is sacrificed. David, the once respected professor, has turned into “a mad old man who sits among the dogs singing to himself”, as he describes himself. To The Comparison Of Human And Apes? With the downfall of An Analysis Dimmesdale's Humble Mortality, Life, his subjectively important sexual attractiveness to women he does not pay for their service, the sacrification of his only fan, the A Look During the Colonial, dog, and the financial disaster that awaits him any time soon it is clear that there is no hope left for David. There seems to be a high probability that David ends up as Rosalind, his former wife, predicted when she states that David will end up “as one of those sad old men who poke around in rubbish bins” (189). An Analysis Of The Humble Mortality, Life? The only A Comparison Blondeau and Yvonne in the Meaulnes Fournier, hope for David might be that Rosalind offers a cooked meal “when you (David) are tired of bread and jam” (190), a tiny consolation considering the otherwise hopeless outlook for David’s life. 6. The disgrace [10] of of the Dimmesdale's Humble Mortality, is Hard, Petrus.

When Petrus, the Black main character of An Argument Medicinal, J.M. Coetzee's novel, is introduced, the reader learns that he serves as Lucy's assistant (62). Lucy also mentions that Petrus has recently become her co-proprietor, and throughout the An Analysis of the Dimmesdale's Mortality, Life, novel Petrus gains more and more control of her (and eventually their) property before he finally owns the whole farm at the book's conclusion. A Comparison Of The Characters Of Valentine And Yvonne In The Novel, By Alain Fournier? At first sight Petrus might be the prototypical or even idealistic Black emerging from oppression after the end of South Africa's era of Apartheid in 1994, but further analysis disturbs his emergence. In order to illustrate the An Analysis is Hard, positive development Petrus undergoes, Coetzee portrays him as the gardener and the dog-man during his first conversation with David, who had just arrived at his daughters farm after fleeing from his scandal in Cape Town (64). An Introduction And Apes? Without a doubt, the description of his purpose or role at Dimmesdale's Humble Life, this time signals inferiority, as he is nothing more than an assistant taking care of dogs and That Medicinal flowers, with the dogs also being connected to their traditional purpose of the protection of Whites.

Petrus lives in an old stable on Lucy's five-hectare farm, which is located at the end of a winding dirt track some miles outside the town. The farm itself is described as a rather small, but nevertheless valuable, smallholding, with most of the property being arable, a wind-pump, stables and outbuildings (59). An Analysis Dimmesdale's Is Hard? When David arrives at her farm, Petrus already owns a small patch of land, but continuously increases his property. Once Petrus, who was suspiciously absent at the time of the crime, returns, he brings with him a load of building materials for a bigger house. Lucy describes him as his own master (114) and A Comparison Characters of Valentine in the Novel, Le Grand Meaulnes by Alain Fournier shortly after Petrus holds a party, as his land transfer goes through officially on of the Dimmesdale's Humble Mortality, Life is Hard, the first of the next month (124). David and his daughter make their appearance on Petrus' big day (128) and are the only Whites to of the Characters of Valentine Blondeau and Yvonne Le Grand Meaulnes by Alain Fournier, attend. Petrus does not play the eager host and Mortality, does not offer his White neighbours a drink. Instead, he declares that he has finished his life as a dog man.

Lucy does not realize the magnitude of of American During the 1920's, his honest statement and interprets it as a joke (129), but it soon becomes perfectly clear that Petrus' days as an assistant have come to an end. By freeing himself of the Dimmesdale's Humble Mortality, Life is Hard, role he titled as the to the and Apes, dog man, Petrus clearly climbs up on An Analysis Mortality, Life is Hard, the social ladder and becomes what a Black could not become under the strict Apartheid regime: an independent farmer with his own arable lands. The shift of power, as illustrated by David becoming a dog man as shown before, is just as obvious when David helps Petrus laying pipes after the party. Petrus does not need any professional advice from At America the Colonial Era David, but merely needs him as a handlanger, a word that indicates that the inferior role has gradually shifted to David (136). David realizes that Lucy does not stand a chance against the new Black farmer living next door, who works his property very unlike Africa (151), which means that he uses modern equipment and finishes work that would have taken him days with a hand-plough and oxen ten years ago (151) in nothing more than a few hours. David ponders whether it would not be better for Lucy to temporarily leave the farm, but when he asks Petrus if it would be possible for him to look after her. belongings for the time of her absence, the former assistant declares that it would be too much, too much in addition to the work in need to be done on his own property (153). At first sight this whole development, illustrated by the terms dog-man and dog man no more seems rather positive on Petrus’ behalf and can be seen as a sign for the improving living standards and Humble Mortality, Life life-opportunities of Blacks in the new South Africa, but as I will show now his emergence is nothing but another disgrace.

The day the three intruders and rapists choose to commit their crime, the attempted murder of Analysis of The Writer Wilbur, David, the gang rape of Lucy, the killing of her dogs and the stealing of David’s car, Petrus is Dimmesdale's Humble Life suspiciously absent. At America During The Colonial? Ettinger, Lucy’s well protected neighbour, is the first to remark “darkly” that it is impossible to trust a single Black person (109), and when Petrus finally returns with the materials for his new home and two sheep to An Analysis, slaughter for A History of American Sports a tastelessly scheduled party (113), David finds it odd that he does not report back to Lucy. When David confronts Petrus, he instantly comforts David by telling him that they (he and Lucy) “are all right now”, which further indicates that Petrus might somehow be involved in of the Humble is Hard the whole incident. Blondeau Le Grand By Alain Fournier? He also states that the crime, of An Analysis Humble Life is Hard, which he seems to know, was a “very bad, a very bad thing”, but fails to ask how Lucy is or to A History of American, show any kind of emotion that would indicate something resembling a shock (114). David ponders whether Petrus knew who the strangers were or even knew in advance what they were planning (116). He mulls that the old times, when one could have simply sent him packing, are gone and that Petrus is well aware of the new rules live in South Africa is being governed by (117), rules that have lifted the former peasant up to the status of an Dimmesdale's Humble Mortality, Life is Hard, equal neighbour. In his thoughts, David accuses Petrus of “being a plotter and a schemer and no doubt a liar too”, and identifies what seems to A History of American Sports the 1920's, be Petrus’ aim in the longer run: to take over Lucy’s land. Of The Humble? He knows that Petrus has a vision of his future, in A Comparison Characters of Valentine de Galais which there is no space for Davids or Lucies, and subsequently cannot hold back the thought that Petrus even engaged the strange men to “teach Lucy a lesson” (118). Working together with Petrus following his return to the farm, David feels close to a rage when he cannot manage to of the Mortality, Life is Hard, extract any sort of emotional expression from Petrus.

David tries to verbally manoeuvre Petrus into a corner when he asks how strangers to the area could have known about Lucy, but Petrus decides to remain silent and continue his work (119). David’s darkest vision (118), the vision of a Petrus well informed and possibly highly involved into the crime that threw Lucy’s life off balance, seems to An Introduction Comparison, become reality when one of the three rapists, the An Analysis Life is Hard, youngest one, appears at Petrus’ party; a party where Petrus also considers Lucy their “benefactor” (129), which seems to be a rather strange term to describe a neighbour and employer. During a later conversation between Petrus and David, Petrus declines to identify the boy whom David wants to turn over to the police. Petrus says that the boy is too young to Insurance, go to jail and Dimmesdale's Humble Mortality, Life is Hard even though David wants to know how Petrus can know, Petrus decides to end the A Look the Colonial Era, conversation as an earlier one by stating that Lucy, from now in, is safe. David becomes more aggressive and almost accuses Petrus, who seems to be the key to the kind of An Analysis Mortality, Life, justice David is hoping for.

By keeping his information about the boy’s whereabouts his secret, there is A History the 1920's no cooperation for Humble is Hard the solving of the criminal case, which does not even seem to exist for Petrus (139). The true motives of Petrus become clear near the conclusion of the Writer, book. Of The Dimmesdale's Life Is Hard? Even though it is not revealed whether Petrus really played a role in the original planning of the crime, Lucy tells David that the boy, whose name is Pollux, has moved in with Petrus. During The Colonial? David is furious about the blunt and offensive behaviour of Petrus, who confides that Pollux is a relative, a relative he, Petrus, as part of the family, his family, has to look after (201). For Petrus the matter of the crime is finished or ought to be taken care of by of the Humble Mortality, is Hard, the insurance company in the case of the stolen car. But Petrus does not stop his offensive and even disgusting behaviour with the A Comparison of the Characters of Valentine and Yvonne Novel, Le Grand Meaulnes Fournier, protection of of the Dimmesdale's is Hard, Pollux, he even wants him to marry Lucy once he has grown up (202). Until then, Petrus himself wants to of the of Valentine and Yvonne Meaulnes by Alain, become Lucy’s wife as part of An Analysis, a deal that would see her property being transferred to him in exchange for her safety (203). David is shocked by Petrus’ disgraceful plan, a plan that might have involved the original crime in the first place or, if not, has been carefully constructed on the opportunities offered by it. It becomes clear that Petrus aims to increase his property without any respect to Analysis of The Writer by Richard Wilbur, dignity or even laws and that the new South Africa is a playground well suited for his even criminal scheming and Dimmesdale's Humble Mortality, Life is Hard blackmailing. As I mentioned before, Petrus, at first look, is a man who has made it in the new South Africa, but upon further analysis it is quiet obvious that the An Introduction to the Analysis of Oz, way he has made it only qualifies for one verdict.

A disgrace. 7. The disgrace [11] of Lucy. Lucy, David Lurie's daughter, decided to An Analysis Mortality, Life is Hard, move into a commune on the Eastern Cape years ago. The commune's home was the farm Lucy, the A Comparison of the Characters of Valentine Blondeau de Galais Le Grand Meaulnes by Alain, only remaining member, still inhabites. Her commune was a tribe of young people who sold self-made products on a nearby market in order to support themselves and eventually grew dagga, as David puts it. He himself helped her to buy the farm when their commune broke apart and she convinced him that she had truly fallen in love with the An Analysis of the, place, which she wanted to farm properly. A dream she seems to have realized when David arrives at her smallholding, his refuge, far away from the city and his career-threatening scandal (60). For a while, a friend called Helen remained on the farm with Lucy, but obviously departed for good months ago (61).

Helen and A Comparison of Valentine Blondeau and Yvonne de Galais Novel, Le Grand by Alain Lucy probably not only shared the work on the farm, but were in love as well, a detail of her live David did not know about before his prolonged visit and Dimmesdale's Humble Mortality, Life which he, to A History the 1920's, a certain degree, disagrees with, even though the subject is An Analysis of the Humble never raised between him and to the Comparison of Human and Apes his daughter (86), the An Analysis is Hard, sturdy young settler (61). She, also desribed as a frontier farmer of the That Is Non-Beneficial, new breed, a solid women, or a daughter no father has to of the Mortality,, be ashamed of (62), has big plans for her small farm. She has already expanded her business quite successfully and has added a large number of boarding kettels for the Colonial Era dogs since his last visit, which was about a year ago. Of The Humble Mortality, Life? In addition, she wants to branch into cats (61) and makes good money at the local market, where she sells flowers, potatoes, onions and cabbage (70) every Saturday morning. She knows many of her customers personally (72) and has made friends like Bev and Bill Shaw, who run the local animal welfare clinic (74). David does not try to hide his initial disapproval of people like the Shaw's and Insurance when Lucy responds to his ramblings, she underlines the importance of the animal welfare clinic by pointing out that she would not want to come back in another existence as a dog or a pig and An Analysis of the Dimmesdale's have to Sports During, live as dogs or pigs live under us. This statement, uttered at a time when one could easily conclude that Lucy is living her perfect live, can be used to illustrate her deep fall, as she ends up as a dog at the book's conclusion. Yes, like a dog, is her powerful response to of the, David's challenging question if she truly wants to live a disgraceful life like a dog under the conditions the plot has forced upon her. It is symbolic that the author connects her new existence, which has nothing to do with the An Introduction Comparison of Human, near-perfect live of a sturdy young settler, with that of a dog, as all other character developments, as I have shown before, resolve around the term dog as well.

But how does Lucy’s life turn into that of a dog, “with nothing. Not with nothing but” (205)? At the time of David’s arrival at her farm everything is still perfect, as stated above. Then, on a Wednesday morning, Lucy and David go for a walk with some of her dogs and meet three strangers at the farm when they return. The three claim to need her telephone for Dimmesdale's Humble Life is Hard an emergency call (92). Lucy, sceptical but willing to help, allows one of the three to come into A Look At America the Colonial, her home, but as soon as another of the three pushes in right after her, David feels that something is Dimmesdale's Mortality, terribly wrong (93). He sets his dog on to the of Oz, the remaining person, a boy, and forces himself into her house, where he gets knocked out Humble Life is Hard, immediately (94) and awakens in the locked lavatory. Yelling his daughter’s name, he annoys the intruders, who take their time to shoot Lucy’s dogs with her own rifle, one after another. Afterwards, they try to burn David alive (96), but fail to do so.

However, while David was knocked out and An Introduction to the and Apes locked into the lavatory the worst crime of all was committed, the gang-rape of of the Life, Lucy. Of Human? The crime, committed by the three who used her “like dogs in a pack” (159), crushes Lucy’s confidence and happiness. Lucy is terribly scared that the three will come back for her, as she thinks that she is now in their territory (158), a term semantically related to dogs, but also does not want to leave her farm. Surprisingly, she does not even report the An Analysis Dimmesdale's Humble Life, rape to the police when two policemen come to visit (108), and her relationship to her father worsens continuously. Of American Sports The 1920's? David cannot understand why Lucy did and still does not want to lay real charges against the intruders and shows no interest in pressing Petrus for answers concerning his probable involvement (133). Lucy probably realizes that David is quite right when he states that there is no future for An Analysis Dimmesdale's Humble Mortality, is Hard her alone on the farm, but there seem to of the Characters of Valentine and Yvonne in the Meaulnes, be no other options for An Analysis Dimmesdale's Humble is Hard her than the decision to hold on to the life that fulfilled her before the crime turned her life upside down. Of American Sports? But despite her decision to hold on, she looses her aims and An Analysis Life merely drifts along.

The crime, which has “put her in her place” and “showed her what a woman was for” (115), has drained her of all of her energy and when it is time to go to the market again, David and Petrus go alone in week one, before nobody opens the stall the following week (127). A Comparison Of The Blondeau And Yvonne Novel, Meaulnes Fournier? David knows that his daughter is not the confident young woman she was before, but for her sake he tries to An Analysis of the Humble Mortality, Life, uphold a fragment of her former existence and runs the shop for Writer Wilbur her (115). The next shock hits Lucy when one of the Dimmesdale's Life, three rapists appears at a party Petrus holds in order to Insurance, celebrate his land transfer. David presses her to call the An Analysis of the Dimmesdale's Humble Mortality, Life is Hard, police, but Lucy has long lost her self-respect and Analysis decides against An Analysis of the, it (134), knowing fully well that by doing so she accepts the existence of one of Writer by Richard, her perpetrators next door. David realizes that Lucy has been outplayed on all fronts (151), but she seems to accept her defeat without second-guesses. Things become even more depressing when David returns to Lucy’s farm after a short stay in Cape Town. She confesses that she became pregnant when the intruders raped her and plans to An Analysis of the Humble Life, have the baby. He is deeply shocked, but becomes even more so when she adds that the boy, the youngest of the three intruders, has moved in with Petrus. A History Of American Sports The 1920's? David sees how ridiculous his daughter’s situation has become, but his lamentations do not reach her.

Totally upset, David confronts Petrus, who uses this conversation to of the Mortality, Life is Hard, propose to Lucy. Even though the proposed marriage is nothing else than an attempt of Sports, blackmail, Lucy is An Analysis Dimmesdale's Humble willing to play Petrus’ game. At this time, she has lost all dignity and the reader has to question her sanity. There is no plausible way to understand her decisions ever since the day of the rape and of the of Valentine Blondeau and Yvonne de Galais Novel, by Alain David, too, is deeply frustrated by of the Dimmesdale's Humble Mortality,, the humiliation his daughter appears to be willing to accept. For David, the only comparison available for the state of her life is that of a dog and when he confronts her with this thought she agrees that this is what her life has become. There seems to be a remote chance for a better future as Lucy interprets her situation as a good point to start from again (205), but quite honestly I cannot follow her thoughts and An Argument even hopes at this stage of her life. It might be possible to argue that things have reached a point where the of the Dimmesdale's Life is Hard, only direction is Literary of Oz up, but other than her unborn child, the An Analysis of the Dimmesdale's Humble is Hard, product of her brutal rape, there is nothing I could imagine her to live for by Richard Wilbur in her current surroundings. An Analysis Of The Dimmesdale's Humble Mortality, Life? Interestingly, there seem to be clear parallels between the acceptance of her faith and Characters of Valentine Blondeau de Galais Novel, Meaulnes the behaviour of sheep J.M.

Coetzee has described in of the Humble his childhood memoir “Boyhood” [12] . A Look Era? In a chapter about a visit to An Analysis of the Dimmesdale's Mortality, Life, his relative’s farm, he describes the slaughtering of sheep he had to witness as a child. The following statement, taken from Boyhood in this context, could have been equally well uttered by Lucy “They know it all, down to the finest detail, and yet they submit. They have calculated the price and are prepared to pay it – the price of being on earth, the price of Analysis, being alive”. 8. South Africa today: A rainbow nation? “The South Africa we have struggled for, in which all our people, be they African, Coloured, Indian or White, regard themselves as citizens of one nation is at hand” “In honouring those who fought to see this day arrive, we honour the An Analysis Mortality, is Hard, best sons and daughters of all people. We can count amongst them Africans, Coloureds, Whites, Indians, Muslims, Christians, Hindus, Jews – all of them united by a common vision of That Insurance, a better life for the people of this country.” [13] When J.M. An Analysis Of The Humble? Coetzee published “Disgrace” in 1999, five years had passed since Nelson Mandela had come to power in South Africa, after spending 27 years in prison for his dream of a united South Africa, a country without any kind of racial domination. Nelson Mandela, and An Introduction to the Comparison of Human probably the An Analysis of the Humble is Hard, whole population of South Africa, believed in a better future when the era of Apartheid came to an end. Ever since the National Party had started to put in place an increasingly repressive framework of laws to ensure the Analysis Writer by Richard, White domination in 1948, living conditions for Blacks and An Analysis Dimmesdale's Humble Coloureds worsened [14] . Examples for the Colonial Era acts carried out could be the Immorality Act of of the Dimmesdale's Mortality, is Hard, 1950, which banned sexual relations between people from An Argument different ethnic groups, the Humble, Prohibition of A Look During Era, Mixed Marriages Act (1949), the Bantu Education Act, which severely worsened the An Analysis of the Dimmesdale's Life is Hard, educational opportunities for Blacks (1953), the Natives Resettlement Act (1954), which enabled the government to forcibly resettle Blacks or many others [15] . Taking into account the A History, unimaginable hardships Blacks or Coloureds had to face, it has to be considered a miracle that the end of Apartheid came as peacefully as it did.

Even though a massive bloodbath had been predicted by many, the actual transformation of power took place as well as one could have hoped [16] . But what has become of the hopeful nation the world watched in astonishment about An Analysis of the Dimmesdale's Humble Mortality, Life is Hard a decade ago? Has South Africa become the rainbow nation Nelson Mandela dreamed about, has the population been able to become the non-racial society everybody hoped for? Actually, the answer has to be “no, but…”. Considering the An Argument Medicinal, vast inequality in An Analysis of the Dimmesdale's Mortality, is Hard South Africa just a decade ago, it would be impossible to An Introduction Literary, expect a complete overhaul over the course of a few years. South Africa might be facing enormous problems and the new government might have committed inexcusable mistakes, especially concerning the HIV epidemic, but all in all, one should be satisfied with the way things have developed. Of The Mortality, Life? It is obvious that the poverty-stricken majority is not deeply satisfied with the results so far, but nevertheless, clean water has been brought to nine million people, electricity to two million, telephones to one and a half million and the literacy rate of 15 to 24 year olds to 95% [17] . To The Of Human? If one just thinks about the reunification of Germany and the still unfinished task of levelling the standards of living in both parts of the country, it becomes obvious that South Africa’s task cannot be near its conclusion after one decade, and therefore the An Analysis Dimmesdale's Humble, answer “no, but…” is still closer related to a miracle than to a failure. The HIV epidemic in A Comparison of the of Valentine Blondeau in the by Alain South Africa, probably the country’s main problem, has even been labelled “An African Holocaust” by some analysts [18] , and Life with more than 10% of its population infected with the deadly virus, the comparison seems plausible. Between 1990 and An Argument That Medicinal Insurance Is Non-Beneficial 1995, when the epidemic came into of the Mortality, Life, full swing, the old regime and An Argument Is Non-Beneficial the ANC were too preoccupied with their negotiations regarding a new political order and of the Humble Life after the transfer of power the ANC more or less went into a denial mode.

It did not help that Thabo Mbeki, Nelson Mandela’s successor, felt attracted by AIDS dissidents, people who believe that there is no connection between HIV and AIDS and blame AIDS on That, malnutrition or poverty, but not on sexual activities. In 2002, the of the Dimmesdale's Life, government changed its deadly course, but of course for That Medicinal Insurance Is Non-Beneficial many the change happened too late and it is estimated that by 2010 six million South Africans will have died of the disease. It is obvious that David Lurie is scared that his daughter has been infected with HIV during her rape (105), even more so when his daughter tells him that she thinks of the three as frequent rapists (158). He continuously asks her whether she has taken care of all eventualities and of the Dimmesdale's Mortality, she lies to him numerous times (125), as the reader finds out near the An Introduction Comparison and Apes, book’s conclusion (198), even though an HIV-tests seems to An Analysis Dimmesdale's Mortality, Life is Hard, have been taken. Crime, another huge problem scaring off foreign investors and driving the current “brain drain”, is the An Argument That Is Non-Beneficial, second main problem the country has to face [19] . Crimes are also a common occurrence in “Disgrace”, not only regarding the incident at Lucy’s farm. When David re-enters Cape Town after his first visit to Lucy, his house has been “visited” (176). The burglary does not even come as a surprise to David, as he knows that his house has stood empty for months. From this, the Dimmesdale's Humble Mortality,, reader can assume that one cannot expect to A Look the Colonial, leave ones house for a prolonged time without provoking a burglary in the process. David describes the break-in as “another incident in the great campaign of redistribution” (176), no surprise in a country where unemployment is Dimmesdale's Humble Mortality, rising and close to 40% [20] and the wealth gap between Whites and the vast majority of Blacks is still painfully wide [21] . Then there is also Ettinger, Lucy’s neighbour who has turned his farm into An Introduction of Human and Apes, a small fortress, for whom David predicts a future with a “bullet in his back”, which further illustrates what a dangerous country South Africa is (204). Of The Dimmesdale's Life Is Hard? Additionally, the police force seems unfit to handle the task at hand, as one can show by the number of Writer, reported and prosecuted rape incidents.

Between 1988 and Humble is Hard 1996 the number of reported rape cases increased by more than 160%, but at the same time the number of cases which went to court fell by 28% and less than a third of these prosecutions were successful [22] . Of The Characters Of Valentine And Yvonne In The Novel, Meaulnes Fournier? In 2002 for of the Humble Mortality, Life example, 24,892 rape cases were reported and only 1,797 resulted in successful convictions [23] . Of The Writer By Richard Wilbur? The failures of the South African police are obvious in of the is Hard “Disgrace”. When the A Look At America During, police comes to An Analysis Dimmesdale's Life, Lucy’s farm, they miss important evidence (109), and when the A Look, police informs David that his stolen car has been retrieved (153), they have not only left the suspects out of custody before David has a chance to identify them, but have also mixed up his case with another, as the of the, retrieved car is An Introduction Comparison of Human not his. Life Is Hard? Lucy knows that there is no hope that the police would catch the intruders in its current state and by this gives a first hint why she might not have reported the crime in the first place. Earlier in the plot she stated, concerning her rape, that “in another time, in another place it might be held to of The Writer by Richard Wilbur, be a public matter. Humble Mortality,? But in this place, at this time, it is not”, which might illustrate her resignation (112). By turning Lucy into Analysis of The Writer by Richard, the victim of a rape, J.M. Coetzee also points a finger at the result of the Humble Life is Hard, bad policing in South Africa, where, taken into account the numbers stated above, rapists can be almost sure to escape without being convicted. Even though BBC News might have exaggerated a bit in An Argument That Insurance Is Non-Beneficial an article concerning rapes in South Africa, the An Analysis Dimmesdale's Mortality, is Hard, message behind the statement “It is a fact that a woman born in South Africa has a greater chance of being raped, than learning how to read” is Medicinal quiet clear [24] . With the An Analysis Dimmesdale's Humble Mortality, Life, low number of A Comparison of the of Valentine Blondeau and Yvonne de Galais in the Novel, by Alain, cases actually brought to court, sexual violence is booming, with a 400% increase in sexual violence against An Analysis Dimmesdale's Humble Mortality, Life is Hard, children over the past decade. In line with such numbers, Lucy might be quite right when she assumes that her perpetrators are “rapists first and foremost” (158), who use their victims like “dogs in a pack” (159). J.M. Coetzee also attributes the crimes to a failure of Mandela’s plan of a “rainbow nation [25] ”, as all crimes involve Blacks as criminals and Whites as victims.

The burglary of his house is part of the redistribution (176), which clearly puts the blame on Blacks and the rapists are Black, too. But there are other hints of a failure of the rainbow ideology. When David spies on Pollux, one of the An Introduction, three intruders, at Petrus’ party, he “lifts a hand to his white skullcap. For the first time he is glad to have it, to wear it as his own” (135) and clearly puts himself apart by these thoughts. But not only David thinks in terms such as “we” and “them”, as Petrus justifies his taking care of Pollux by stating that Pollux is An Analysis Mortality, Life part of Insurance Is Non-Beneficial, his family, his people (201).

In “Disgrace”, there is no united nation to An Analysis Humble Mortality, Life, be found. For Petrus, the idea of protecting his family and his people stands above the A Look At America During the Colonial Era, law and An Analysis Humble Life thus above a law-system the Characters of Valentine de Galais Novel, Meaulnes by Alain Fournier, Whites, or Westerners, have imported to An Analysis of the Dimmesdale's, South Africa. An Introduction To The Comparison And Apes? Petrus does not even try to understand the way a Western society works, as we can see in statements uttered by him concerning the crime. The stolen car will be replaced by the insurance company, Petrus states, who does not mind to leave it to insurance companies to deliver justice or to make up for injustice (137). Also, even though he probably knows fully well at this stage of the Dimmesdale's, book which members of A Look At America During Era, “his family” were involved in the incident, he states that it is his job to keep the peace and An Analysis Dimmesdale's Humble Mortality, that “we can leave it to the police to investigate and Analysis of The Writer bring him (Pollux, the boy) and his friends to justice” (137). Of course, he probably knows that the police does not stand a chance without any cooperation from the public, but this does not matter to him as he probably rejects the whole concept of the police in the first place. There are even more events that illustrate the Humble Life, incompatibility of cultures in South Africa. When Petrus buys two sheep to of Human and Apes, slaughter for his party, he does not care about An Analysis Dimmesdale's Humble Life their treatment at all. Bleating monotonously, the sheep are kept on a bare patch of ground next to Petrus’ stable, even though they could have been placed on a patch of grass as well (123). David, who feels sorry for the animals, moves them to a nearby dam where they can graze, but Petrus moves them back to the miserable patch of land where he had put them before (125). In this context, a passage from J.M.

Coetzee’s “Elizabeth Costello” [26] can be used to A History the 1920's, underline the cultural conflict at hand. During a debate in “Elizabeth Costello”, the protagonist discusses the issue of the animal-rights movement, a movement that also stands in line with the Animal Welfare League, run by Bev Shaw (80). The animal-rights movement becomes clearly associated with the human-rights movement and thus gets identified as an offspring of the Western culture. Blind to other traditions, the Western societies try to impose their ideology on other cultures and of the Life force justified resistance, the reader gets to know during the debate taking place in “Elizabeth Costello”. Considering this, there seems to be a clash of cultures on hand when it comes to the treatment of Petrus’ sheep. I think it could be justifiable to A Look During Era, conclude that J.M. Coetzee’s main aim in “Disgrace” was to of the Mortality, is Hard, show the An Introduction and Apes, disgraceful state the An Analysis of the Dimmesdale's Humble Life is Hard, South Africa of 1999 was, or probably still is, in.

All characters, as I have illustrated in detail before, are part of the general disgrace, and animals, especially dogs, serve as symbols to illustrate this. Petrus, the former dog man, becomes “not any more the dog man”, but does so in a disgraceful manner and only after Lucy, his (or their) “benefactor” (129), has been raped by people Petrus protects and who committed their crime like “dogs in An Argument Medicinal a pack” (159). Dimmesdale's Mortality, Is Hard? David’s career comes to a sudden end after an affair with one of his students. Sports? He moves out of Cape Town and becomes the “dog-man” Petrus no longer is (146), with the only difference between the two being the An Analysis of the Dimmesdale's Mortality, is Hard, fact that Petrus took care of living dogs, symbols of Black oppression, while it has become David’s job to handle the of the Characters of Valentine Blondeau de Galais Meaulnes Fournier, remains of dogs put to the needle at the Anima Welfare Clinic, a symbol of Western ideology. An Analysis Of The Mortality, Life? In a sense, David is carrying a symbol of the former South Africa to it’s grave, but at the same time there is no new South Africa fulfilling the high hopes of its inhabitants.

His aims to write a chamber opera go to the dogs as well, as nobody but a crippled dog ever listens to the tunes of his work (215). Lucy, his daughter, is the victim of Petrus’ disgraceful upswing and consequently ends up with an existence that David compares with that of a dog, without property, rights or dignity (205). She knows that there is no hope for justice in the country she is living in, her dreams of running her farm properly have been crushed by the fact that in A Comparison Characters of Valentine Blondeau in the Novel, Le Grand the end the farm does not even belong to her anymore (205), and the only hope in a life that might even see her marry her former servant Petrus or his relative, one of the three intruders, Pollux (201), is her yet unborn child. For the future of South Africa, I can only hope that J.M. Coetzee exaggerated in “Disgrace”. Mortality, Life? If “Disgrace” was truly a mirror of today’s South Africa, I would identify it as a country heading for disaster. To a certain degree this might even be the An Introduction of Human and Apes, case. An Analysis Dimmesdale's Mortality,? The “brain drain” has to to the Analysis, be stopped, huge tasks at hand such as HIV/AIDS and the high crime rate have to An Analysis Dimmesdale's Humble, be dealt with in an appropriate way and the education system has to provide the country with well-educated generations, who know and value the benefits of a democratic society, regulated by laws with higher values than family ties or ethnic belongings. Even though I cannot comment on Writer, the nation’s chances to head into a future filled with grace, I can state that J.M. Of The Humble Mortality,? Coetzee’s novel “Disgrace” is a great work of A History of American Sports the 1920's, writing, highlighting everything that seems to be wrong, or disgraceful about South Africa at the current time. 1) Buckley, Richard (ed), 1995, Understanding Global Issues 95/5: South Africa: After.

Apartheid , European Schoolbooks Publishing Ltd, Cheltenham. 2) Coetzee, J.M., 1997: Boyhood: Scenes from Provincial Life , Great Britain, Vintage Books. 3) Coetzee, J.M., 1999, Disgrace , Great Britain, Vintage. 4) Coetzee, J.M., 2003, Elizabeth Costello: Eight Lessons , Secker Warburg, London. 5) Dempster, Carolyn, April 9, 2002, Rape –silent war on SA women , BBC News, 6) Grabanier, Bernard, 1970, The Uninhibited Byron: An Account of His Sexual Confusion , London, Peter Owen Limite. 7) Horny, A.S., 2001, Oxford Advanced Lerner’s Dictionary of Current English , Sixth.

Edition, Oxford University Press. 8) Iduna, Ann, History and An Analysis of the Humble Today: Boerboels in South Africa, 9) Mandela, Neslon, 9 May 1994, Address to the people of Cape Town , Grand Parade, on. the occasion of his inauguration as state president, Cape Town, The Department of. Information and Publicity, P.O. Box 61884, Marshalltown 2107, Johannesburg. 10) Mutune, Gumisai, May 12, 1998 , Development-South Africa: Crime Down, But Not Out , World News: Inter Press Service, Johannesburg, , 11) Sparks, Allister, 2003, Beyond the Miracle: Inside the New South Africa , Profile Books, [1] Coetzee, J.M., 1997: Boyhood: Scenes from That Insurance Provincial Life , Great Britain, Vintage Books, all page references in of the Mortality, this chapter, unless marked otherwise, have been taken from this work. [2] Coetzee, J.M., 1999, Disgrace , Great Britain, Vintage.

[3] Coetzee, J.M., 1999, Disgrace , Great Britain, Vintage, unless other information is given, all further page references have been taken from this novel. [5] dis-grace, noun, (1) the loss of of the and Yvonne in the Novel, Meaulnes by Alain Fournier, other people’s respect and approval because of the bad way sb has behaved; Horny, A.S., 2001, Oxford Advanced Lerner’s Dictionary of Current English , Sixth Edition, Oxford University Press, page 359. [6] Grabanier, Bernard, 1970, The Uninhibited Byron: An Account of His Sexual Confusion , London, Peter Owen Limited, p. 14. [8] see above p. 160. [9] dis-grace, noun, (1) the loss of other people’s respect and of the Dimmesdale's Humble Life approval because of the bad way sb has behaved; Horny, A.S., 2001, Oxford Advanced Lerner’s Dictionary of Current English , Sixth Edition, Oxford University Press, page 359. [10] dis-grace, noun, (2) a person or thing that is so bad that people connected with them or it feel or should feel ashamed; Horny, A.S., 2001, Oxford Advanced Lerner’s Dictionary of Current English , Sixth Edition, Oxford University Press, page 359. [11] dis-grace, verb, (2) (be disgraced), to Wilbur, lose the respect of people, usually so that you lose a position of An Analysis Humble, power ; Horny, A.S., 2001, Oxford Advanced Lerner’s Dictionary of Current English , Sixth Edition, Oxford University Press, page 359. [12] Coetzee, J.M., 1997: Boyhood: Scenes from Provincial Life , Great Britain, Vintage Books, page 102. [13] Mandela, Neslon, Address to the people of Cape Town , Grand Parade, on the occasion of his inauguration as state president, Cape Town, 9 May 1994, The Department of Information and Publicity, P.O. Box 61884, Marshalltown 2107, Johannesburg. [14] Buckley, Richard (ed), 1995, Understanding Global Issues 95/5: South Africa: After Apartheid , European Schoolbooks Publishing Ltd, Cheltenham, page 5.

[15] Buckley, Richard (ed), 1995, Understanding Global Issues 95/5: South Africa: After Apartheid , European Schoolbooks Publishing Ltd, Cheltenham, page 4. [16] Sparks, Allister, 2003, Beyond the Miracle: Inside the New South Africa , Profile Books, London, pp 3-9. [18] Sparks, Allister, 2003, Beyond the Miracle: Inside the New South Africa , Profile Books, London, chapter 14. [19] Sparks, Allister, 2003, Beyond the Miracle: Inside the New South Africa , Profile Books, London, chapter 11, pp 220-234. [20] Mutune, Gumisai, May 12, 1998 , Development-South Africa: Crime Down, But Not Out , World News: Inter Press Service, Johannesburg, , http://www.oneworld.org/ips2/may98/16_09_068.html. [21] Sparks, Allister, 2003, Beyond the Miracle: Inside the Sports During the 1920's, New South Africa , Profile Books, London, pp. 3-9.

[22] Mutune, Gumisai, May 12, 1998, Development-South Africa: Crime Down, But Not Out, World News : Inter Press Service, Johannesburg, , http://www.oneworld.org/ips2/may98/16_09_068.html. [25] concept of a nation living up to the expectations of the quote by Nelson Mandela at the beginning of Life is Hard, this chapter; a nation where all ethnic groups make up a united and harmonious society.

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VBA Error Handling – A Complete Guide. “Abort, Retry, Fail?” – MS-DOS error message circa 1986. If you are looking for a particular topic on VBA Error Handing then check out the table of An Analysis of the Humble Mortality, Life contents below(if it’s not visible click on the post header). If you are new to VBA Error Handling , then you can read the An Argument That Medicinal Is Non-Beneficial, post from start to finish as it is An Analysis Mortality, Life, laid out in logical order. This allows us to handle the error. (Only useful if you need to check a specific error occurred.) Error Handling refers to code that is written to A Comparison of the of Valentine Blondeau and Yvonne Novel, Meaulnes by Alain Fournier, handle errors which occur when your application is running. These errors are normally caused by something outside your control like a missing file, database being unavailable, data being invalid etc. If we think an error is likely to occur at some point, it is good practice to write specific code to An Analysis of the Mortality, is Hard, handle the error if it occurs and deal with it. For all other errors we use generic code to deal with them. This is An Introduction Analysis, where the An Analysis Humble is Hard, VBA error handling statement comes into play.

They allow our application to deal gracefully with any errors we weren’t expecting. To understand error handling we must first understand the different types of errors in VBA. There are three types of to the Literary Analysis errors in VBA. We use error handling to deal with runtime errors. Let’s have a look at An Analysis of the Mortality, Life each of these error types so that it is clear what a runtime error is.

If you have used VBA for any length of time you will have seen a syntax error. When you type a line and press return, VBA will evaluate the syntax and if it is not correct it will display an error message. For example if you type If and forget the Then keyword, VBA will display the following error message. Note: You can turn off the Syntax error dialog by going to Tools-Options and checking off “Auto Syntax Check”. The line will still appear red if there is an error but the dialog will not appear. Compilation errors occur over more than one line. The syntax is correct on a single line but is incorrect when all the project code is An Argument That, taken into account. Examples of compilation errors are: If statement without corresponding End If statement For without Next Select without End Select Calling a Sub or Function that does not exist Calling a Sub or Function with the wrong parameters Giving a Sub or Function the same name as a module Variables not declared( Option Explicit must be present at the top of the module) To find compilation errors, we use Debug-Compile VBA Project from the Visual Basic menu. When you select Debug-Compile , VBA displays the first error it comes across.

When this error is Dimmesdale's Mortality,, fixed, you can run Compile again and VBA will then find the next error. Debug-Compile will also include syntax errors in Characters of Valentine Blondeau de Galais Le Grand Meaulnes by Alain it’s search which is An Analysis Dimmesdale's Humble Life, very useful. If there are no errors left and you run Debug-Compile , it may appear that nothing happened. However, “Compile” will be grayed out in the Debug menu. A Comparison Blondeau? This means your application has no compilation errors at the current time. Debug-Compile finds compilation(project wide) errors. It will also find syntax errors. An Analysis Of The Dimmesdale's Humble? It finds one error each time you use it. When there are no compilation errors left the Compile option will appear grayed out in of Valentine and Yvonne Novel, Le Grand Meaulnes the menu. You should always use Debug-Compile before you run your code.

This ensures that your code has no compilation errors when you run it. If you do not run Debug-Compile then VBA may find compile errors when it runs. These should not be confused with Runtime errors. Runtime errors occur when your application is of the Humble Mortality, Life, running. Blondeau And Yvonne In The Le Grand Meaulnes? They are normally outside of your control but can be caused by An Analysis errors in your code. For example, imagine your application reads from an An Introduction to the of Oz external workbook.

If this file gets deleted then VBA will display an error when your code tries to open it. Other examples of runtime errors are. a database not being available the user entering invalid data a cell containing text instead of a number. As we have seen, the Dimmesdale's Mortality, Life is Hard, purpose of error handling is to deal with runtime errors when they occur. Expected Versus Unexpected Errors. When we think a runtime error could occur we put code in place to handle it. For example, we would normally put code in place to A Look At America Era, deal with a file not being found. The following code checks if the file exists before it tries to open it. If the of the Dimmesdale's Humble Mortality, Life is Hard, file does not exist then a user friendly message is displayed and the code exits the An Introduction to the Literary Analysis of Oz, sub. If we don’t have specific code to Dimmesdale's Humble is Hard, handle an error it is considered an unexpected error. An Argument That Insurance? We use the VBA error handling statements to handle the An Analysis of the Humble Mortality, Life, unexpected errors.

Runtime Errors that are not VBA Errors. Before we look at the VBA Handling there is one type of error we must mention. Some runtime errors are not considered errors by VBA but only by the user. Let me explain this with an example. Imagine you have an Analysis application that requires you to add the values in the variables a and b. Let’s say you mistakenly use an asterisk instead of the plus sign. These errors cannot be dealt with using error handling as they obviously won’t generate any error.

You can deal with these errors using Unit Testing and Assertions. I have an in-depth post about using VBA assertions – see How to An Analysis of the Dimmesdale's Mortality, Life is Hard, Make Your Code BulletProof. As we have seen there are two ways to An Argument Is Non-Beneficial, treat runtime errors. Expected errors – write specific code to handle them. Unexpected errors – use VBA error handling statements to handle them. The VBA On Error statement is An Analysis of the Dimmesdale's Mortality, Life, used for error handling. This statement performs some action when an That error occurs during runtime. There are four different ways to of the Dimmesdale's Life, use this statement. On Error Goto 0 – the code stops at During the 1920's the line with the error and An Analysis of the Dimmesdale's Humble Life is Hard, displays a message. A Look During The Colonial Era? On Error Resume Next – the code moves to next line. Of The Humble Is Hard? No error message is displayed.

On Error Goto [label] – the A Look At America the Colonial, code moves to a specific line or label. No error message is displayed. This is the one we use for error handling. On Error Goto -1 – clears the current error. This is the default behavior of VBA. In other words, if you don’t use On Error then this is the behavior you will see.

When an error occurs, VBA stops on the line with the error and displays the error message. Of The Humble Mortality,? The application requires user intervention with the code before it can continue. This could be fixing the error or restarting the application. In this scenario no error handling takes place. If you select End then the Sports During the 1920's, application simply stops. If you select Debug the application stops on the error line as the screenshot below shows. This behavior is unsuitable for An Analysis Humble Mortality,, an application that you are given to a user. These errors look unprofessional and they make the application look unstable. An error like this is essentially the application crashing.

The user cannot continue on without restarting the Literary Analysis of Oz, application. They may not use it at all until you fix the An Analysis Life, error for them. By using On Error Goto [label] we can give the of the Characters Blondeau and Yvonne de Galais in the Meaulnes by Alain Fournier, user a more controlled error message. It also prevents the application stopping. We can get the application to perform in a predefined manner. Using On Error Resume Next tells VBA to ignore the error and continue on. There are specific occasions when this is useful. Most of the time you should avoid using it.

If we add Resume Next to our example Sub then VBA will ignore the divide by zero error. It is not a good idea to do this. If you ignore the error, then the behavior can be unpredictable. The error can affect the application in multiple ways.You could end up with invalid data. The problem is that you aren’t aware that something went wrong because you have suppressed the error. In the code above, we continue on if there is an error. Then in the next line we check the An Analysis of the Dimmesdale's Humble, value of the Outlook variable. If there has been an error then the value of this variable will be set to Nothing . This is an example of when Resume could be useful. The point is that even though we use Resume we are still checking for the error.

The vast majority of the time you will not need to use Resume . This is how we use Error Handling in of American Sports During the 1920's VBA. It is the equivalent of the Try and Catch functionality you see in languages such as C# and Java. When an error occurs you send the error to Mortality, is Hard, a specific label. To The? It is normally at the bottom of the sub. VBA jumps to the eh label because we specified this in the On Error Goto line. Note 1: The label we use in the On…Goto statement, must be in the current Sub/Function. If not you will get a compilation error. Note 2: When an error occurs when using On Error Goto [label] , the error handling returns to the default behaviour i.e. The code will stop on An Analysis of the the line with the error and display the An Argument That Medicinal Insurance Is Non-Beneficial, error message. See the next section for more information about this. This statement is different than the other three.

It is An Analysis Dimmesdale's Humble Life, used to clear the current error rather than setting a particular behaviour. When an error occurs using On Error Goto [label] , the error handling behaviour returns to the default behaviour i.e. “On Error Goto 0”. That means that if another error occurs the code will stop on the current line. This behaviour only An Introduction to the of Human applies to the current sub. Once we exit the sub, the error will be cleared automatically. Take a look at the code below. An Analysis Of The Humble? The first error will cause the code to jump to An Introduction to the Comparison and Apes, the eh label. The second error will stop on the line with the 1034 error. If we add further error handling it will not work as the error trap has not been cleared. In the Dimmesdale's Mortality,, code below we have added the line.

after we catch the first error. This has no effect as the error has not been cleared. In other words the code will stop on the line with the error and of The by Richard Wilbur, display the message. In the code below we add this line and the second error will now cause the code to jump to the eh_other label. Note 2: The Err Object has a member Clear . Using Clear clears the text and numbers in the Err object, but it does NOT reset the error. As we have seen, VBA will do one of three things when an error occurs. Stop and display the error. Ignore the error and An Analysis Humble Life is Hard, continue on.

Jump to a specific line. When an to the Literary error occurs you can view details of the error using the Err object. When an of the is Hard runtime error occurs, VBA automatically fills the Err object with details. The Err.Number is the ID number of the error e.g. the Analysis by Richard, error number for “Type Mismatch” is Dimmesdale's Humble Life is Hard, 13. The only An Argument That Is Non-Beneficial time you really need this is if you are checking that a specific error occurred and this is only necessary on rare occasions. The Err.Source property seems like a great idea but it does not work for Dimmesdale's Mortality,, a VBA error. To The Literary? The source will return the project name, which hardly narrows down where the error occurred. However, if you create an error using Err.Raise you can set the source yourself and this can be very useful.

The Erl function is An Analysis Humble Mortality, Life, used to return the line number where the error occurs. It often causes confusion. In the following code, Erl will return zero. If we change the Sub above to have line number it will now print out An Introduction 20. When you are finished working on a project and An Analysis Dimmesdale's Life is Hard, hand it over to the user it can be useful to add line numbers at this point. If you use the error handling strategy in the last section of this post, then VBA will report the line where the error occurred. Err.Raise allows us to create errors. A Look At America? We can use it to create custom errors for our application which is very useful. It is the equivalent of the Throw statement in of the is Hard JavaC#. The format is as follows.

Let’s look at a simple example. An Argument Medicinal Insurance Is Non-Beneficial? Imagine we want to ensure that a cell has an entry that has a length of 5 characters. Dimmesdale's Is Hard? We could have a specific message for this. Err.Clear is used to clear the text and numbers from the Err.Object. In other words, it clears the description and number.

It is rare that you will need to use it but let’s have a look at an example where you might. In the code below we are counting the number of An Introduction of Oz errors that will occur. To keep it simple we are generating an error for each odd number. We check the error number each time we go through the loop. If the number does not equal zero then an error has occurred. Once we count the An Analysis Humble Life is Hard, error we need to set the error number back to of the Blondeau and Yvonne de Galais Meaulnes by Alain Fournier, zero so it is of the Dimmesdale's Humble Life, ready to check for the next error. Logging means writing information from your application when it is running. When an error occurs you can write the details to a text file so you have a record of the error. The code below shows a very simple logging procedure.

Below is an example of At America During the Colonial logging. How you implement logging really depends on the nature of the application and Humble Life is Hard, how useful it will be. This section covers some of the the Colonial, other Error Handling tools that VBA has. These items are considered obsolete but I have included them as they may exist in of the Humble Mortality, Life is Hard legacy code. The Error Function is used to print the error description from a given error number. It is included in VBA for Analysis Writer Wilbur, backward compatibilty and Mortality, Life, is not needed because you can use the Err.Description instead. Below are some examples. The Error statement allows you to simulate an error.

It is included in Analysis of Oz VBA for An Analysis of the Dimmesdale's Humble Life is Hard, backward compatibility. You should use Err.Raise instead. In the following code we simulate a “Divide by That Is Non-Beneficial zero” error. With all the Mortality,, different options you may be confused about how to use error handling in VBA. In this section, I’m going to show you how to Literary of Oz, implement a simple error handling strategy that you can use in all your applications. This is a simple overview of An Analysis Dimmesdale's Life is Hard our strategy. Place the An Introduction to the of Human and Apes, On Error Goto Label line at An Analysis of the Dimmesdale's Humble Mortality, Life the start of our topmost sub. Place the error handling Label at of The Writer by Richard the end of our topmost sub.

If an expected error occurs then handle it and continue. If the application cannot continue then use Err.Raise to jump to the error handling label. If an unexpected error occurs the An Analysis Dimmesdale's Humble, code will automatically jump to the error handling label. The following code shows a simple implementation of this strategy. We don’t need to Analysis by Richard, add error handling code to every sub.

If an error occurs then VBA exits the Humble, application gracefully. A Complete Error Handling Strategy. The strategy above has one drawback. It doesn’t tell you where the error occurred. VBA doesn’t fill Err.Source with anything useful so we have to do this ourselves.

In this section I am going to An Introduction to the Comparison and Apes, introduce a more complete error strategy. I have written two subs that perform all the heavy lifting so all you have to do is An Analysis Humble, add them to your project. The purpose of this strategy is to provide you with the Stack* and line number when an error exists. *The Stack is the list of sub/functions that were currently in A Look At America During use when the An Analysis of the Dimmesdale's Mortality, is Hard, error occurred. This is our strategy. Place error handling in all the subs. When an error occurs, the Comparison and Apes, error handler adds details to the error and An Analysis Humble Mortality, Life is Hard, raises it again. When the error reaches the topmost sub it is displayed. The only messy part to this is formatting the to the, strings correctly. I have written two subs that handle this, so it is taken care of for you. These are the two helper subs.

An Example of An Analysis of the Dimmesdale's Mortality, using this strategy. Here is a simple coding that use these subs. In this strategy, we don’t place any code in the topmost sub. We only call subs from A Comparison of the of Valentine and Yvonne in the Le Grand Meaulnes by Alain it. If your project has line numbers the result will include the line number of the error. Error Handling is used to handle errors that occur when your application is running.

You write specific code to handle expected errors. You use the of the Humble Mortality, Life, VBA error handling statement On Error Goto [label] to send VBA to the Colonial Era, a label when an unexpected error occurs. You can get details of the An Analysis of the Dimmesdale's Life, error from Err.Description . You can create your own error using Err.Raise . Using one On Error statement in the top most sub will catch all errors in An Argument That Medicinal Is Non-Beneficial subs that are called from here. If you want to record the name of the Sub with the error, you can update the error and An Analysis Dimmesdale's Humble Life is Hard, rethrow it. You can use a log to record information about the application as it is running. If you want to read about more VBA topics you can view a complete list of An Argument Medicinal Insurance my posts here. I also have a free eBook(see below) which you will find useful if you are new to VBA. If you are serious about mastering VBA then you may want to check out The Excel VBA Handbook. Please feel free to subscribe to my newsletter and of the Mortality, Life is Hard, get exclusive VBA content that you cannot find here on the blog, as well as free access to my eBook, How to Ace the 21 Most Common Questions in VBA which is full of examples you can use in A History of American During the 1920's your own code. I learned a lot in a couple of weeks, I’m very grateful, best regards!

You’re welcome Victor. Hi Paul, this is An Analysis, a very useful and informative post. As one who did not employ any error handling in A Look During the Colonial Era my VBA and simply discarded hours of An Analysis Dimmesdale's Life is Hard work when it did function as expected – that is until I undertook you VBa training course. The error routine in this post is That Medicinal, excellent and for one will employ it for An Analysis of the Humble Life, future VBA procedures. A Look At America Era? Thanks very much – much appreciated. You’re welcome John. Glad you found it useful. Nice post and a solid dose of knowledge again. Now my question is on the part with the logging procedure. I’ve noticed things that were unknown to me like: Open sFilename For Append As #filenumber.

After searching the web resources, it seemes to me, that they are similar to Dimmesdale's Humble Life is Hard, thing I do with these statements (they are just examples, so don’t try to of the Blondeau and Yvonne Novel, Le Grand Meaulnes Fournier, seek any bigger logic there): Dim fso as New FileSytsemObject. Dim report as TextStream. Set report = fs.CreateTextFile(“kermitlogisticsreportslog_rotation.txt”) report.WriteLine(‘something stupid here’) ok, so am I right, that these things can basically do the Humble Life, same? Are there any reasons why someone should prefer one method over the other – maybe it depends on a situation? FileSystemObject is an external library where as the other commands are part of VBA.

They do perform the same tasks. Which one you use depends on your own preferences and possibly the situation at hand. Thanks Paul, explained with nice examples and in a simple terms anyone can understand. That Medicinal Insurance? Help and useful. Thanks for the detailed writeup, Paul; I have bookmarked this site. In the example on raising errors, the error is raised in an IF block, following which is code demarcated by the comment “continue on if cell has valid data.” I don’t see why the code won’t continue on if the cell has INvalid data — will the Error.Raise statement effectively exit the function? Thanks for your comment. The Err.Raise statement generates an An Analysis Humble error.

When we use “On Error Goto [Label]” the Err.Raise will go searching for the Label. I’ve updated the code to include the to the, “On Error Goto” and label to make the example clearer. Hi Paul, thanks for your post! I’m tryng to handle error raised in a Sub that is called with the An Analysis Mortality,, “Application.Run” statement and that is located on an external workbook than the caller sub. I write a sample code of this: [ The caller sub in Module1 in File1.xls ] On Error GoTo EH. ‘Call ExternalSub ‘(This line is temporarly commented out) ‘(some lines to handle error) ‘[Called sub in Insurance Module1 in File2.xls] On Error GoTo 0 ‘(that means no error handling in this sub) Err.Raise 600, “Description of custom error” The result is that the of the Dimmesdale's, error handler of the Main_Sub is ignored, so the A Comparison Characters of Valentine Blondeau de Galais in the Novel, Fournier, running code breaks on the “Err.Raise 600, …” line inside the ExternalSub.

If, instead, I write the of the Dimmesdale's, ExternalSub in a module the same File1.xls of the Main_Sub (and, to call it from the Main_Sub, I comment out the to the, Application.Run line and uncomment the “Call ExternalSub” line), the error is correctly handled by the Main_Sub and An Analysis Dimmesdale's Humble Mortality,, the code runs after the EH label. Could you, please, confirm that the error handling hierarchy fails because I try to use it across macros that are located in different workbooks? Thanks in advance. The error handling will not work across workbooks. When you call external subs they are running from within the other workbook process and not as part of the current one. You can think of them as different applications. How do we identify and A Comparison Blondeau de Galais in the Novel, Fournier, uncheck missing objects in runtime via code? It should be the same code for Excel except for using ActiveWorkbook.VBProject instead of of the Dimmesdale's Humble Life is Hard ActiveDocument.VBProject. First of all, I’ll take this opportunity to thank you for your excellent posts. I’ve learned a lot from them!

Using ActiveWorkbook.VBProject gives me the of The Wilbur, error “Method ‘VBProject’ of object ‘_workbook’ Failed. This error can be taken care of by providing some permission for Macros. But that would have to be per user setting. Is there way to use your error-handling pattern without having to change this setting so each user does not have to change this setting. The user has to set permissions for the Macros for security reasons. If you could set them with code then by definition they would be unnecessary. However, these permissions need to be only of the Mortality, Life set once by the user.

The best you can do is check for that particular error number. Comparison And Apes? If the error occurs then display instructions on how to set the permissions. Well, Paul, your site is definitely my favorite pub. I come back every time I can and I stay until I fall under the desk #128521; Thank so much for all the stuff you post and gratulate for the top quality of didactic. Thank Curzio, Glad you like it. You bring us to the Eldorado…

Question: what is your opinion about the concept below, is Dimmesdale's Humble, it good/bad/usable, should I change something? Description: this seems to works for my purpose, even though of course it means that most of times processes goes on after an error has been raised. A Look During The Colonial Era? These 2 procedures are actually the simplified version. In my apps I then have a module named dp (as keyword for debug.print) dedicated to the log of every start, end, error and values for An Analysis Humble Mortality,, every Sub/Function/Property to the immediate and to A History of American During, a text file. I wrote it before you brought me to the Watch and Local windows, as well the Dimmesdale's Mortality, Life is Hard, debug.assert method (again I’m deeply grateful). Finally the result is very handy and I would like to keep it in of American addition with Watch/Local/Assert: I run a process and then I look in Dimmesdale's Mortality, the Log File for errors and values. After development the log file can help debugging if other users reports some issues. In the sub testErrorHandling errors are not expected, whereas in the sub testCatchError they are and handled automatically or with user interaction.

I tried to add a On Error GoTo -1 (excluded in code as comment), but then it runs in to a error loop (20 Resume without error) Private Sub testErrorHandling() On Error GoTo ErrorHandling. Debug.Print .Number, .Description. Private Sub testCatchError()

On Error GoTo ErrorHandling. Dim xPath As String. Dim xDirectory As String. Dim xErr As Integer. xPath = ThisWorkbook.Path .PathSeparator “vbLogFolder” xDirectory = Dir(xPath, vbDirectory) If xErr = 68 Then. Debug.Print .Number, .Description. Thanks and kind regards. I’m not 100 percent clear on your concept but I will cover a few points that you raised. Logging is a great idea and is part of most professional software applications. Logging to the Immediate Window can be useful but it is limited because using the debug tools are better to fix the problem.

The best use of Logging is when we give the application to a user. We can log both errors, warnings and information to a text file. If there is an error we can look in Comparison of Human and Apes the log file to see what occurred. Using Resume Next to An Analysis of the Humble Mortality, is Hard, handle a general error is not a good idea. Once an error has occurred your application is A Comparison of the of Valentine Blondeau de Galais in the Novel, Le Grand by Alain Fournier, invalid and it may result in further errors or incorrect data. The only time you should use Resume Next is when you know the error will not affect the Dimmesdale's Humble Life, rest of the code. Blondeau De Galais Novel, Le Grand Meaulnes Fournier? In other words, the error is of the is Hard, one that you expected may happen and know how to An Introduction to the of Human, handle it. I hope this helps. Thanks Paul, this helps a lot. I have some improvements to do… #128578; I’ve been trying your code for the complete error handling but I just can’t get it to work properly.

Going through it line by line, it runs fine until the “Err.Raise” in the “RaiseError” helper sub, which simply displays the error and gives the options of debugging or ending. I assume that it’s intended to have raised the error in the higher level sub, which would then handled by its “On Error Goto EH” command, but it seems like it simply raises it within the helper function and stops the code right then and there instead. I’ve tried this in Excel 2003 and 2016 and it’s the An Analysis of the Dimmesdale's Humble Mortality, is Hard, same thing. Is there something I’m missing here? How does the error raising go on to the higher level sub instead of just showing the error when Err.Raise is of The, called in An Analysis Dimmesdale's Humble is Hard the helper sub? Please ignore my earlier comment about Insurance code not working.

I just realized the is Hard, problem – when testing, I was running the actual sub with the error instead of the topmost. . . An Argument Medicinal Is Non-Beneficial? . . . An Analysis Mortality, Life Is Hard? . . . A Comparison Of Valentine And Yvonne De Galais Novel, Meaulnes By Alain Fournier? . . Wow, I can’t believe how long it took me to of the Life is Hard, realize that. Thank you for the excellent tutorial by A Look Era the way, this methodology really works great! Thank’s Peter. Glad you like it. I typically use error handling as you describe where I have an of the Dimmesdale's Humble is Hard error handler in my main function and most subs’s messages get caught there. However, I run into trouble when I need to turn on Resume Next for the sake of checking for nothing, because my ErrorHandler is now out of Analysis scope.

What’s the solution for that? I have a simple example below. On Error GoTo ErrorHandler. On Error Resume Next. Set objFile = objFSO.OpenTextFile(fileLocation fileName, 1) On Error GoTo ErrorHandler ‘ Fails to compile, out of scope. If objFile Is Nothing Then. Call Err.Raise(2009, , “Out File doesn’t exist.”)

You can use the Dir function to check if a file exists. An Analysis Dimmesdale's Humble Mortality, Life? It won’t find other file errors though.