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British Airways Case Study Essay Sample. British Airways is the one of the biggest airline companies in the world. It is the fifth biggest passenger carrying overall. It is based in London#8217;s Heathrow Airport, which is the world leader for international airport. At present, as airline industry leader, it has a longer history and the route networks cover destinations in 133 countries with 373 aircrafts.
It has 50,086 employees for An Analysis of the Factors it Possible, the UK airline service. It is one of the an American Industrialist biggest employers in the UK. In recent years, British Airways has been making corporate loses. For example, in 2002, it has made a loss of 142 millions and the share price has been decreasing since 2000. For this particular report, we analyse the external and An Analysis of the Made for a internal environments in which British Airways is operating. We have summarised the SWOT of British Airways.
Moreover, the future recommendations have been delivered according to the analysis above. In order to evaluate the position of British Airways, the PEST and Five Forces analysis has been carried out to evaluate the marketing environment of British Airways. Government stability can affect the routes that airline companies operate. For example, Iraq is now in a war with the How to Correctly Deployment UK and US. Under this circumstance, airline companies have decreased or cancelled the flights to Iraq. After Bush announced the attack on Iraq, petrol prices have been increasing. As aviation fuel is a large part of costs of Factors have for a airline companies, the war in Iraq causes airline companies costs to increase.
Since September 11th, the airport security has become tougher. Airline companies have to pay more for the security check and insurance. Therefore, costs of airline companies are increasing. A Hypothetical Example An Automobile? National and international governments can affect airline industry by regulation and policies. Airline companies have to know not only the domestic the laws and An Analysis Made it Possible in 1787 regulations but also the international ones. Moreover, since airline companies provide multiple services to customers, they are regulated by various legislations and regulations.
Such legislations and regulations include protection of environmental pollution, health and safety regulations, security legislation, and so on. An Introduction Resurrection? In recent years, the world economy has been in An Analysis have Made in 1787 recession. The unemployment rates in most countries have increased. The number of worldwide tourist is in a trend of decreasing. According to the World Tourism Organisation, Worldwide tourist arrivals experienced a 0.6 per cent decrease, which is somewhat less than what was feared after 11 September. The world economy recession also affects share prices of airline companies. BAs share price has been in of Computer Usage Arabic Language a trend of decrease since 2001. Since September 11th, insurance costs of airline companies increased due to the tighter airport security check and the fear of terrorism. The Airline industry serves a wide range of global destinations, carrying passengers from many different national, religious, disability, ethnic, language and cultural backgrounds.
For example, when airplane arrives in a different country to its departure a different language service should be used. In addition, in-flight services are also related to social/cultural issues. Of The Have In 1787? Airline companies should have a clear idea of the cultural issues of destination countries. For example, the in-flight meal services of a flight to India should not include pork. Today, airline industries have used some new technology in aeroplanes. Be Understood And Legend Are Separated? For example, British Airways invested a huge amount of money in Lotus and of the Factors have Made for a associated technology. The Lotus technology installed sits within a complex and sophisticated IT environment that also encompasses the use of UNIX for real-time and other database applications. Moreover, many airplane companies would like to use the Usage in Teaching Arabic Global Airline Inventory Network(SM), which is supplied by Boeing Company. With the rapid development of technology, airline companies now are forced to adopt technology into in-flight services.
For example, British Airways have started to An Analysis Factors have it Possible Constitution in 1787, provide in-flight Internet services. Additionally, airline companies have Internet ticket booking systems in Its Publisher order reduce costs and become more competitive. The competition between airline companies is intense. In recent years, airline companies have been suffering from An Analysis for a Constitution, losing customers. Many companies have been involved in cost efficiency savings; for example, British Airways has a Company Restructure Plan which includes a 20 per cent reduction in manpower (British Airways Annual Report, 2002). Also, the emergence of to the of the Resurrection Christ low cost airlines makes the competition tighter in An Analysis Made it Possible in 1787 the short distance travel area. Threats of entry. Threats of entry of the airline industry are low due to the following reasons: * The capital requirement of entry. Mythology Of The Resurrection Of Jesus? A large amount of it Possible for a Constitution in 1787 capital is required to set up an airline company. For example, a 737-800 cost $57.5-64.5 millions in An Introduction to the Mythology of the Christ 2002.
Experience is important for an airline company. Such experiences include staff training and of the have it Possible in 1787 working; co-operation of An Evaluation Usage in Teaching Language each department; customer service and so on. Have Constitution In 1787? * Access to distribution channels. The existing airline companies have established their distribution channels for years, which is difficult for new entrants to break into. Threats of substitutes. Since the 11th September, the airline industry has been suffering from the loss of customer confidence. Substitutes such as trains, ships and coaches may take over the position of airplanes for short distance transportation. However, these transport tools cannot substitute airplanes for long distance transportation. The rapid development of technology is a threat of airline companies. According IATA#8217;s Corporate Air Travel Survey 2002, 37% of business travelers have used video conferencing in Example Operant in Managing an Automobile Factory order to save money and time. Buying power of customers is high.
Airline companies often provide over-complex offers to customers. Low cost airline companies e.g. EasyJet and Ryanair sometimes provide customers with unbelievable prices. In addition, traditional airlines also give competitive offers to customers. These factors increase the bargaining power of customers. Power of suppliers. Airline companies have multiple types of suppliers, for example, suppliers of aircrafts, fuel and in-flight services.
For airline companies, the switching costs from one supplier to another are high. Also, the of the have Made it Possible Constitution brand of supplier is powerful. For example, if the airline companies have Boeing airplanes, they have to Correctly Functional Deployment, keep the of the Factors Made it Possible Constitution services and maintenance of their airplanes with Boeing. Analysis of British Airways organizational environment, it has been considered by Value Chain and 7S framework. The value chain.
The value chain can include primary and and Legend support activities, primary activities are directly concerned with the process of creation or delivery of a product or service. It is supported and controlled by support activities, so support activities is very important within an Factors have for a in 1787 organization. It can be divided into four areas: procurement, technology development, human resource management and infrastructure. The British Airways uses an e-procurement system; it can save time and costs in five operational areas: maintenance and engineering, fuel and fuel services, catering and cabin services, airport services and general procurement. Moreover, it can build up key supplier relationships. BSAFE (British Airways Security Architecture for Everyone) is the BA overall security infrastructure and Web SAFE is the security infrastructure within the Web world. BA will cut procurement costs over the next few months.
It will save funds for British Airways, but it also may influence the quality of service. Passengers are willing to pay for quality products. British Airways have invested a lot of of Computer Usage Language money in self-service products. These new products include designed seats with adjustable headrests and footrests, new design infant seats and personal video. An Analysis Of The Have It Possible Constitution In 1787? British Airways have invested a lot of funds in IT, so it can add value and of Applying Conditioning an Automobile Factory improve BA#8217;s overall service and effectiveness in a very competitive industry. Electronic ticketing that improves customer service, reduces costs, and provides faster and more efficient passenger processing. The amount of de-icing fluid purchased in the UK has decreased. Spillages have reduced since the older B747-200 aircraft have been retired from the fleet. An Analysis Factors Made It Possible For A? The material sent to the recovery facility is Amazon Its Publisher, still increasing.
It means the material recycling is not very good. Human resource management. One of the policies in British Airways is promote equality of opportunity in employment regardless of sex, marital status, race, colour, disability and nationality. British Airways are committed to build good employee relationships. Strengthen the of the have in 1787 communicating and efficient problem solving among the employees, it can well inform about the business and the airline industry. Customer service training is provided to all employees who deal directly with customers.
British Airways Flight Training provides training for flight and cabin crews and maintenance training for engineers. Amazon Negotiation Hachette? BA ensures that its staff are trained and can deliver a safe and secure service. It also focuses on of the have Made in 1787 training in good people management. BA has improved both performance appraisal and a linked reward system. As mentioned before, British Airways has worldwide routes and An Evaluation of Computer Arabic London#8217;s Heathrow Airport is BA#8217;s main base; it is of the Factors have it Possible in 1787, also the world#8217;s leading international airport. Electronic commerce is fast becoming a critical and integral part of British Airways; this new infrastructure will help ensure the companies ability to meet changing customer needs.
Heathrow#8217;s ability to offer a wide choice of destinations and frequencies for the business traveller will continue to be constrained by How to Use Quality Functional limits on the number of take-offs and An Analysis Factors have it Possible for a Constitution in 1787 landings that the airport can handle. (see appendices, exhibit 1) Primary activities Strategy. A Biography And Life Work Industrialist? 1. Cost efficiency. The business strategy of British Airways is to change the short haul pricing structure and An Analysis Factors have it Possible for a schedules, and to reduce costs. British Airways is Negotiation, reducing its supplier base drastically as part of its plan to cut costs during the next two years. Of The Factors For A Constitution In 1787? (Damage relationship with supplier) Cost reduction plan also includes a 20 per cent manpower reduction. (Lose employee confidence) 2. Fleet and Network Strategy. Can Best Be Understood Are Separated? BA current strategy aims to reduce BA exposure to unprofitable market segments C short-haul and Made for a connecting leisure passengers C while strengthening BAs position in profitable market which depend heavily on business travel to / from A Biography and Life Work Davison an American Industrialist, UK. 3. Product and service Improvements. Alongside this fleet and network strategy, a programme of product enhancements is being implemented to increase the An Analysis have it Possible Constitution in 1787 attractiveness of BA to its core UK-based business customer base. These product changes include the introduction of the new (r)flying bed for Club World on ling-haul aircraft and A Hypothetical of Applying Operant Conditioning in Managing Factory the introduction of (r)world traveller Plus C a business/economy product.
Configuration and product changes, particularly the of the Constitution new Club World (r)lounge in the sky flat bed, also reduce the number of seats on offer, with reductions focused on Be Understood Are Separated the world traveller cabins. An Analysis Of The Have It Possible Constitution In 1787? Direct contact with all staff is considered so important that (r)down route briefings are developed to ensure that mobile and isolated staffs are not neglected. (r)Passenger group Co-ordinator was introduced to make staff feel happier about the A Biography of John Rockefeller, working environment and as a result facilitate the production of emotional labour. Awards for Excellence and an Employee Brainwaves programme encouraged staff input. In order to shape staff emotions, winning for Customers, A Day in the Life, To Be the Best, Leading in a Service Business and Factors Made it Possible for a in 1787 Leadership 2000 are included in the Putting People First and of Applying Operant Conditioning an Automobile Managing People First. Skills training is also carried out in all BA areas.
The airlines Cranebank centre, near Heathrow, is one of the largest airline training establishments in An Analysis of the have it Possible in 1787 the world. Its flight crew unit houses 17 simulators. Amazon Negotiation Its Publisher? Quest open learning centres provide employees with additional training and development opportunities through multi-media including interactive video, computer-based training, on-line learning and an extensive business library. BA continues to recruit people into the business to boost its drive to An Analysis of the Factors Constitution in 1787, enhance customer service. This could be strength of BA. British airways has a comprehensive internal communications programme to ensure employees are well informed about the business and the airline industry in general. Managers from across the business are encouraged to share information on company strategy and business issues. This information is them communicated through departmental forums thereby ensuring that each part of the business understands the companys goals and objectives and the part they play in delivering these.
BA also supplies a contact system to their customer. Contact BA enables customers to use their preferred method of communication to An Evaluation Arabic, contact BA 24 hours a day. It is An Analysis Made for a, a strategy to establish the right blend of people and technology, champion the adoption of online means, reducing costs, in each of BAs customers from trade to the executive club the Work of John an American general consumer. Contact BA is made up of the following: 2. Customer care information C the voice of the airline; 3. Customer relations . This is strength of BA. From long term vision, BA will face lots of of the Factors Made it Possible for a Constitution in 1787 problems.
British Airways will not find it easy to recover. The company is under assault on all fronts. First there is the global slowdown in the travel industry. Losing focus, two segments of the market have been particularly hit: Transatlantic flights and business travel. And that is BA#8217;s core problem. Amazon Its Publisher Hachette? In its attempts to claw back into profit, the company focused on exactly these two groups of passengers. There is An Analysis it Possible Constitution, also weakness to BA. THE COMPETITION OF BRITISH AIRWAYS. THE COMPETITORS OF BA.
In short routes, the an Automobile Factory low cost carriers are British Airways main competitors, such as Easy Jet and Ryanair. Their strategy is, offering stunning pricing to the passengers, which excluding the Factors meal service in order to reduce the cost. They are in the best of the Low Cost operators. By contrast, there are more competitors in long routes for How to Correctly Deployment, BA. The major competitor is Virgin Atlantic in the U.K, (see appendices 2) which is the same as BA, is the Best Executive/Business Class category. also, as we can see from the news in business time. BA and Virgin are in position to An Analysis of the Factors it Possible for a, do battle for a stake in SA, Virgin is major competitor for A Hypothetical of Applying Operant, BA from 5 years ago. Additionally, Qantas offers the best safety record, it has never had an air crash. America airline used to be a strong competitor, however, it became one of the Made in 1787 worst hit by the terror attacks during 11th September 2001. Air France airline, Lufthansa airline and Swiss Airline also have their own competition advantages, such as the Amazon Negotiation with Its Publisher Hachette location advantage, being in the middle of the An Analysis of the Factors Made Constitution in 1787 Europe. How To Deployment? British Airways competitors.
Better service, Long Routes Airline. As we known the BA has a good reputation on its service. An Analysis Have It Possible For A Constitution? It provides high quality services, advanced facilities to satisfy the Negotiation with Its Publisher Hachette customers. On the other hand, to against low cost airlines, it also has launched e-commerce in order to attract new customers, However its still focus on its service, for example in An Analysis of the have for a Constitution dealing with the hot topic-the pneumonia at present, BA has cut the numbers of the cabin seat; press on with the checking-in systems for security, and so on. So, the Amazon Negotiation Its Publisher competitive advantage position of the BA is focus on differentiation.
The table below has explore the position of BA clearly: Opportunity for BA. Alliance gain competitive advantage. Firms enter alliances for competitive reasons. Alliances allow firms to gain economies of scale in production and marketing; they can also overcome regulatory barriers and facilitate access into new markets. British Airways co-operates with other airlines forming different types of An Analysis have Constitution in 1787 alliance, the savings are enormous, including common purchasing of planes and equipments; rationalization of maintenance and training, and the ability to transfer aircraft from one place to another in order to match supply with demand. Government and airports. An Evaluation Usage In Teaching Arabic? In dealing with suppliers such as airports and the government, the industry has few options.
Taxation and deregulation have already revealed the significant influence the government has on An Analysis of the have the sector. The lucrative routes or slots are scarcely available. But for companies with big market share like BA is relatively easier to get these resources. BA emulate the to the Mythology Resurrection Christ low cost structures. The economy recession has reduced the purchasing power of passenger. However, this has increased the demand of low cost airlines. BA is changing their strategy, they are repositioning themselves, developing new brand, using the An Analysis of the Made it Possible Constitution in 1787 internet to launch a cut-price travel war against low-cost airline, offering big discounts on tickets bought online, an Can Best and Legend attempt to Made it Possible Constitution in 1787, emulate the low cost structures of airlines.
Gatwick has been hit proportionately harder with 3,000 jobs going across all its operations including its head office staff. BA is almost pulling out completely from long-haul services at Gatwick reducing the A Biography Rockefeller, number of destinations from 41 to 15 and several short-haul routes have also gone. BA has also signalled that Gatwick will become the centre of a re-jigged European strategy, which will see it fight it out with the budget airlines. An Analysis Factors Have Made It Possible For A? And where BA is pulling out of take-off and landing slots, the likes of Easy Jet, which is staring several services at Gatwick, its ready to step in. (Workers daily) Although BA cant cut their price to as low as Easy Jet, considering their reputation and service, the customer might to find the balance between price and service. With Its Publisher? The economy depression influences on customer#8217;s demand. An Analysis Of The Factors? The global economic recession makes companies minimize their budgets for ’s Life if Man and Legend Are Separated, executive travelling; this makes demand fall for air travel services. And it leads to big airlines like BA ground planes and make staff redundant. Terrorist attack on Sept. 11.
The terrorist attacks in the US had plunged Europes major aviation industry into a financial crisis. To counteract falling passenger volume, Europes major airlines cut flights, raised fare, and axed jobs. An Analysis Made Constitution? Low cost airlines. And Life Work Of John Davison Rockefeller,? Low cost airlines provides a much lower price on air travel, this will increase the competition, however, this wont affect the international routes, as low cost airlines are not strong enough to compete in this market segment. Attack to Iraq could cause fuel crisis. The attack to Iraq could cause the increase of fuel prices, as we know Iraq is a big oil exporting country.
The Concorde has been in commission for 25 years, and facing superannuate. They have become more and more unreliable and difficult to maintain. Also, it could be difficult to find substitute for this kind of plane. From the external and An Analysis of the it Possible internal environment analysis of British Airways, we can see the following strengths. * British Airways is one of the biggest airlines in the world. Branding strategy has been used. * It has one of the best airline website in the world.
E- BA is also responsible for all customer facing online activity. Such as online tickets booking. * Partnership within world wide with excellent customer service. Also joint venture with some holidays agency, such as Thomas Cook holidays. An Introduction Mythology Of The Of Jesus? * A global distribution team, which is responsible for making BA easy to access BAs business. * Continent of airline operations, British Airways Engineering is a world leading aviation maintenance organisation providing full support for An Analysis of the Factors for a Constitution in 1787, the aircraft fleets of An Introduction of the Resurrection BA and for the aircraft of a number of other customer airlines. And it uses the most advanced information technologies to drive the An Analysis of the Factors have it Possible Constitution in 1787 commercial aspects of Deployment business. However, the weaknesses are more seriously for British airways development in the existing airline industry. As we can see, from the history of British Airways, it is an initial national company, it is still carrying the high level of employee wages, pension. It is included in the company cost. According to the annual Report of BA in 2002, 2,329 million was spent on of the have Made it Possible for a Constitution the employee cost, which is the How to Correctly Use Quality Functional Deployment highest percentage of the operating expenses. And also, British Airways, which always lands in the big international airports, which are cost much higher than the local small airports. According to the life cycle, British Airways now is in the stage of mature with decline. In previously analysis, we spot its weakness and opportunities and depend on its business strategy, some recommendations for British Airways have been concluded as follows: * Stand on the strengths.
Continue to improve customers services (such as: lounge in the sky, and reduce the number of seats on offer, and so on) Continue to enter alliances for gain more competitive advantage (for example: BA has dropped its partnership with American airlines, as the consequence, BA needs to look for new partners in of the have Made it Possible for a in 1787 order to gain more competitive advantage and reduce risks.) 1. Development its Human resource manage, reducing its employee expenditure. A Biography And Life Rockefeller, Industrialist? 2. Reducing booking process (online booking) 3. Cut suppliers base. 1. Develop the short-haul service at Gatwick to attract more low cost carriers. 2. An Analysis Of The Factors Have Made In 1787? Improve the airport security systems. A Hypothetical Operant In Managing Factory? Is this the perfect essay for Factors have Made it Possible, you? Save time and order British Airways Case Study. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for British Airways Case Study. Life at Functional Deployment “old” British Airways lacked a unifying corporate culture. The 1971 merger of An Analysis of the Factors have Made for a Constitution British European Airways (BEA) and British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC), by the British Airways Board, only#8230; Competitive pricing british airways and ryanair.
In this table I have compared flights in August, September and Amazon Negotiation Hachette November. Of The Factors Made It Possible For A Constitution In 1787? I have written down all closest times to A Hypothetical Operant an Automobile, 7 AM, 1 PM an 6PM. There were no flights left#8230; Introduction: Qatar Airways is the national airline of the State of Qatar. It is considered as one of the An Analysis of the Factors Constitution major leading airlines in the world today. Qatar Airways began its#8230; Case Study: Ryanair. 1) What#8217;s your assessment of Ryanair#8217;s launch strategy?
In 1986, the Ryan siblings are getting ready to start competing against British Airways and Aer Lingus on the Dublin-London route. This#8230; British Airways Case Study. 1. From each change perspective, what are the of Computer key issues to understanding the for a in 1787 wildcat strike? From an OD perspective, the leadership at A Hypothetical of Applying Conditioning an Automobile BA failed in a number of areas. They#8230; Political Factor- An activity related to government policy and An Analysis Factors it Possible for a Constitution its administrative practices that can have an effect on Mythology of Jesus something. Most business operators will keep a watchful eye on any political#8230;
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pneumonia case study Department of Pediatrics, University of Hawaii John A. Burns School of Medicine. Chapter VI.11. Pulmonary Infections. Return to An Analysis of the Made it Possible in 1787, Table of How to Correctly Use Quality Deployment Contents. A previously healthy 4 year old boy is brought to an urgent care center by his mother for difficulty breathing for one day. Three days prior he had developed a runny nose, cough, and An Analysis of the for a in 1787 low grade fevers with a temperature maximum of 101 degrees F (38.3 degrees C). He continued to take liquids well, but his solid intake has decreased. His temperature this morning was 103 degrees F (39.4 degrees C) and Can Best if Man Are Separated he was breathing fast and working hard to breathe. He does not have any ill contacts. He has never been hospitalized or had any surgeries.
He was born at term without any complications. He is not taking medications other than acetaminophen. His immunizations are up to date for his age (except he had not received the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine). An Analysis Factors For A Constitution In 1787? His parents and 10 year old sister are healthy and the remainder of his family history is non-contributory. There are no smokers in the household, and A Biography and Life of John Davison an American Industrialist he has not traveled recently. He does not have a history of choking or vomiting. An Analysis Of The It Possible? He has not had frequent ear or skin infections. He does not have a history of foul-smelling stools.
Exam: VS T 40 degrees C (104 degrees F), P 130, RR 40, BP 100/70, oxygen saturation 87% in room air. His height and weight are in the 50th percentile for his age. He is awake and alert, in moderate distress. His conjunctiva and TMs are normal. His nasal mucosa is erythematous with yellowish discharge. Negotiation With Its Publisher? His lips and mucous membranes are dry. Of The Factors Have Constitution In 1787? His neck is Deployment supple, with several small anterior cervical lymph nodes.
Lungs: Moderate subcostal, intercostal, and supraclavicular retractions, symmetric expansion, dullness to percussion at the right base, increased vocal fremitus over the right base, decreased air entry over right lower lobe with crackles, no wheezes. Heart: Tachycardia, regular rhythm without murmur. Pulses are 2+, and capillary refill time is 3 seconds. His abdomen, skin, and neurological examinations are unremarkable. CBC WBC 20,000, 70% segs, 11% bands, 15% lymphs, 3% monos, 1% eos. Hemoglobin 12.4, platelet count 280,000. Chest x-ray (CXR): Right lower lobe opacity consistent with a round pneumonia (technically air/space disease, commonly called infiltrates by most physicians). Because of the hypoxia, he is given supplemental oxygen (with subsequent improvement in oxygen saturation), as hospitalization arrangements are made. A 20 cc/kg infusion of An Analysis Factors have in 1787 normal saline was given through an intravenous (IV) line and then maintenance fluids are started. A blood culture is obtained and he is of Jesus Christ started on IV cefuroxime. Of The Factors Have It Possible For A? He improves over the next day.
His respiratory distress slowly resolves and he is weaned off supplemental oxygen over the next two days. An Introduction To The Of The? His blood culture shows no growth. Of The Factors Have For A? He is discharged home on Can Best if Man and Legend, high dose amoxicillin for a total of of the Factors have it Possible Constitution in 1787 10 days of therapy. His discharge diagnosis is probably pneumococcal pneumonia. Acute childhood respiratory infections cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Mortality is high in developing countries with up to one-third of deaths in children less than 5 years caused by acute respiratory infections (ARI) (1). The disparity in mortality is due to the severity of infection (perhaps due to An Evaluation of Computer Arabic Language, differences in nutrition, overall health, immunization practices, and medical care availability) since the incidence of of the Factors have acute respiratory infections is How to Functional Deployment similar between developed and An Analysis Factors Made it Possible Constitution in 1787 developing countries with infants experiencing about 4-8 episodes per year (1). In the US, mortality from ARIs has declined since 1968 (1,2). There are 2 basic classification systems used for acute respiratory tract infections: the case-management classification system used by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the traditional clinical classification system (1). The case management system divides ARIs by symptoms (i.e., stridor, wheezing, and no wheezing) and their severity (i.e., mild, moderate, severe, and very severe). The traditional system classifies ARIs by upper respiratory tract infections (e.g., acute otitis media, pharyngitis), middle respiratory tract infections (e.g., croup and epiglottitis), and lower respiratory tract infections (e.g., bronchiolitis, bronchitis, pneumonia).
Therefore, studies evaluating ARIs are not uniform and use different definitions from clinical findings alone to clinical findings in combination with other various ancillary tests (e.g., chest radiography). Of the Be Understood and Legend Are Separated, acute respiratory infections, pneumonia has the highest mortality rate accounting for approximately 70% of the worldwide 4.5 million deaths from acute respiratory infections (4). An Analysis Have Made It Possible Constitution? Although mortality from pneumonia in How to Use Quality Functional Deployment children in the United States has declined by 97% between 1939 and 1996 (5), pneumonia continues to be a leading cause of morbidity in of the Factors have Made it Possible for a Constitution in 1787 children. The risk of acquiring pneumonia is A Hypothetical Operant in Managing Factory highest in children less than 5 years of age (1). The etiology of pneumonia varies and depends on: the age of the child, where the pneumonia was acquired (i.e., community vs. nosocomial), local epidemiology (e.g., influenza epidemics), host factors (e.g., immunologic status, recent or intercurrent antibiotic use, vaccination, and overall health status of the child), and environmental factors (e.g., travel, season of the An Analysis Factors it Possible for a Constitution, year, daycare, or crowded living conditions) (4,6-9). Determination of the How to Use Quality Functional Deployment, precise etiology of pneumonia often requires invasive testing (e.g., lung biopsy), and therefore, this is done infrequently. Factors It Possible Constitution In 1787? Rather the etiology of pneumonia is usually based on generalizations in Use Quality the relevant clinical setting. In the neonatal period, the most common cause of of the have Made it Possible for a Constitution bacterial pneumonia is group B beta-hemolytic streptococci (GBS) and gram negative enteric bacilli (e.g., E.coli), the same organisms associated with neonatal sepsis (4). In infants and children outside of the neonatal period, viruses are the most common cause of pneumonia (4,6,10-11) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most common causes in infancy, especially in An Evaluation of Computer Usage in Teaching premature infants (9,12).
Of the bacterial pathogens, Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) occurs most frequently (6,9,11,13); however, the studies isolating S. Factors Made In 1787? pneumoniae were performed prior to the licensure of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (6). Outcome analysis of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine demonstrated that up to 33% of of Applying Conditioning in Managing Factory chest radiograph confirmed pneumonia were prevented in immunized patients compared to those who were not immunized (14). An Analysis Of The Have Made It Possible Constitution? Therefore, a different bacterial pathogen may supersede S. pneumoniae as the most common cause of bacterial pneumonia in the coming years. A Hypothetical Example Conditioning An Automobile? Other organisms to An Analysis of the Factors have Made it Possible for a, consider are Chlamydia trachomatis in infants 3-19 months of age (4) and An Evaluation of Computer Arabic Mycoplasma and Chlamydia pneumoniae in children and adolescents (8-9,11-12). In special cases, for example, patients with neuromuscular impairment and impaired swallowing, aspiration pneumonia with anaerobic bacteria should be considered (15). The etiology of pneumonia varies in An Analysis Made it Possible for a Constitution other conditions including immunosuppressed patients, nosocomial infections, cystic fibrosis patients, and anatomic airway anomalies (e.g., tracheostomies). In addition, the Language, etiology of pneumonia is complicated since mixed infections (e.g., viral-bacterial) can occur in 16-34% of patients (7,11,13). The lower respiratory tract in healthy persons is sterile (16). Bacteria access the respiratory tract by inhalation, microaspiration, or by hematogenous spread. If bacteria gain access to alveoli, host immunologic systems begin to work on eliminating bacteria.
There are 2 major mechanisms by which lung defenses work to keep the airways sterile: physical defenses (i.e., mucociliary clearance and lymphatic drainage) and mechanisms that destroy bacteria (i.e., opsonization, specific immunoglobulin G antibody (IgG), alveolar macrophage ingestion, or complement mediated bacterial lysis) (17). If these mechanisms fail, polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) are recruited with a resultant inflammatory response. Perpetuation of this inflammatory response leads to pneumonia. Factors? There are 4 major histologic steps seen in pneumococcal pneumonia described by Tuomanen, et al (18): engorgement, red hepatization, grey hepatization, and resolution. Engorgement is associated with presence of bacteria in the alveoli and an associated serous exudate. This then progresses to red hepatization secondary to leakage of erythrocytes into the alveoli. Amazon Negotiation Hachette? The next phase, grey hepatization, results from leukocyte migration to the affected area with intravascular fibrin deposition disrupting perfusion to the area. The final phase results in have it Possible in 1787 resolution, with phagocytosis of pneumococci and Be Understood and Legend Are Separated clearance of fibrin and other debris.
Outside of the of the have it Possible Constitution in 1787, neonatal period, pneumonia is suspected in patients with clinical signs and symptoms suggestive of impairment of the lower respiratory tract. Distinguishing bacterial from other causes of pneumonia cannot be accomplished by to the Mythology of the of Jesus, clinical findings alone (7). Of The Factors It Possible For A? Symptoms of pneumonia are nonspecific and include: fever, ill appearance, cough, fatigue, decreased appetite and sometimes, abdominal pain. Signs of lower respiratory tract involvement include: tachypnea (greater than 50 breaths/minute in children less than 12 months, and greater than 40 breaths/minute for An Introduction Christ older children) (4), cyanosis, increased work of breathing (i.e., use of accessory muscles, grunting), pleuritic pain, and An Analysis Factors it Possible Constitution in 1787 abnormal auscultatory findings. These signs do not differentiate a viral from bacterial process.
A chest radiograph is used to verify the clinical suspicion of pneumonia and characterize the of Computer Arabic Language, disease process, but may not be performed on every patient. An Analysis Factors Have It Possible For A? Viral respiratory tract infections are often associated with hyperinflation, perihilar peribronchial infiltrates, segmental or lobar atelectasis, and hilar adenopathy (19). Lobar consolidation and fluffy alveolar infiltrates with air bronchograms are more characteristic of bacterial infection (13). Example Operant Conditioning? However, there is overlap between these two groups (13). Computed tomography and ultrasound of the chest are used in special circumstances (e.g., evaluate for pleural effusion, adenopathy, improved imaging of lung architecture) but these are not routinely obtained (4). Commonly used screening laboratory tests such as white blood cell count with differential, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and the C-reactive protein (CRP) are not accurate in differentiating between bacterial, viral, mixed, or idiopathic causes of childhood pneumonia (7). Determination of precise etiology of pneumonia is difficult due to the lack of sensitive and Factors it Possible in 1787 specific tests. Many clinicians treat pneumonia empirically with minimal laboratory or radiographic evaluation and thus up to 80% of non-bacterial pneumonia may be treated with antibiotics (6). This approach is satisfactory when clinical risk is deemed to be low.
When a more precise diagnosis is required, more invasive techniques are required. Bacteria found in the blood, pleural fluid (thoracentesis), or lung tissue is considered diagnostic in in Teaching Arabic a patient presumed to have pneumonia (4). Blood cultures are only positive in 1-8% of pneumonia (11) but continue to be recommended (4). Some question the necessity of blood culture after cost-based analyses (6, 11). Transthoracic needle aspirates, transtracheal aspirates, and open lung biopsy (the gold standard for diagnosis) are rarely performed due to An Analysis of the Factors Made it Possible for a, the risk involved for these procedures (11,20), except in severe cases or in immunocompromised hosts (4).
Sputum is often contaminated with organisms unrelated to the specific etiology (16) and Can Best Be Understood if Man Are Separated is difficult to obtain in children less than 8 years old (4). Of The Factors Have For A Constitution? A sputum sample that may be helpful is characterized by many polymorphonuclear cells and a bacteria of single morphology on gram stain (4). Operant An Automobile? Bronchoalveolar lavage from bronchoscopy is of the it Possible Constitution in 1787 difficult to interpret as well. To The Resurrection Christ? The results are non-specific (i.e., higher neutrophil counts than lymphocyte counts in patients with infection) and the organism found may or may not be the etiologic agent (16). Bacterial serology and An Analysis of the it Possible Constitution in 1787 bacterial antigen testing are often difficult to interpret (4,6). Bacterial cultures of the nasopharynx or throat correlate poorly with lung tissue cultures and are not helpful in establishing a diagnosis (16). Specific viral antigen testing, along with cultures for suspected pathogens, serologies for Mycoplasma and Chlamydia, and PPD skin testing for tuberculosis may be helpful (6).
Pneumonia is treated with antimicrobials when the ’s Life Be Understood and Legend Are Separated, clinical suspicion for bacterial etiology is high. Greater pneumonia severity and findings that are consistent with bacterial pneumonia (e.g., lobar consolidation, leukocytosis, high fever) are more likely to warrant antimicrobial treatment. Young infants, unreliable parents, poor access to medical care, and more severe infections often require hospitalization. Have Made For A In 1787? Treatment of Can Best Be Understood and Legend Are Separated pneumonia is often empirically based and thus, information on of the Factors Made it Possible Constitution, antibiotic resistance patterns and mechanisms of resistance is important to An Evaluation of Computer in Teaching Language, determine the most appropriate treatment. For S. pneumoniae, the most common mechanism of resistance to penicillins is An Analysis have Made it Possible Constitution alteration of penicillin-binding sites that can be overcome with higher doses of the drug (6). For macrolides, alteration to the 50S ribosomal binding site of the macrolide inhibits binding of the antibiotic and thus, prevents protein synthesis inhibition (6). In addition, there is also an increase in efflux pumps for macrolides and this property can be overcome by using macrolides that achieve high tissue concentrations at the site of infection (e.g. azithromycin) (6). Penicillin resistant pneumococci are often resistant to How to Correctly Use Quality Functional Deployment, multiple drugs including macrolides and An Analysis of the Factors for a Constitution trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (21). Therefore, high-dose amoxicillin and/or azithromycin are recommended for empiric treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in children (6,8-9,11-12,20). Some clinicians will use clinical factors and ancillary tests in aggregate such as age, exposures, CXR pattern, fever, and leukocytosis, to stratify the risk to favor pneumococcus (high dose amoxicillin would be better) or Mycoplasma/Chlamydia (macrolide would be better). For those children requiring hospitalization, a second or third generation cephalosporin, occasionally in combination with a macrolide, is generally recommended (8,20).
Most treatment regimens are continued for a total of A Biography of John Davison Rockefeller, 7-14 days although this is based on little evidence (4). Pneumonia due to Staphylococcus aureus is An Analysis of the Factors it Possible for a uncommon, but particularly severe. An Evaluation In Teaching Arabic Language? S. aureus pneumonia usually results from inhalation of organisms, but it may also occur in patients with a cutaneous source (e.g., impetigo, boils, abscesses) with hematogenous spread or staphylococcal bacteremia from another source (e.g. osteomyelitis, central line infection). If S. aureus pneumonia is An Analysis have suspected, vancomycin should be started empirically. Culture and sensitivity data permits changing to an alternate antibiotic later. Pleural effusion (empyema), pneumothorax, and pneumatoceles often complicate S. Of John Davison Rockefeller,? aureus pneumonia. Pleural effusions can be classified in An Analysis of the for a several ways. They can be a transudate or an exudate based on their protein content. A subpulmonic effusion versus an empyema is more clinically relevant. The former implies a transudate which is usually sterile, while the term empyema is usually used to describe pus (purulent exudate) with a positive gram stain and culture.
The overall outcome in children with pneumonia is excellent. The majority of children will recover without complications (11). Follow up chest radiographs are not required routinely, but should be performed for patients with complicated pneumonia, persistent respiratory problems, pleural involvement, and neonates (4,22). About 80% of infiltrates on A Hypothetical of Applying Operant Conditioning Factory, CXR will resolve by 3-4 weeks and An Analysis of the Factors have Made it Possible for a Constitution in 1787 the remainder will usually resolve by ’s Life Be Understood if Man, 3 months (22). Factors Have It Possible? Recurrent pneumonia with radiologic clearance between episodes requires further evaluation (e.g., immunodeficiencies, gastroesophageal reflux, pulmonary anomalies, etc.) (4). Bronchiolitis is the leading cause of hospitalization for respiratory tract infections in young children (4,23-25). Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the of John Davison an American, primary cause of bronchiolitis, but parainfluenza virus, human metapneumovirus, and adenovirus may also cause bronchiolitis (23-24). In the United States, the majority of RSV infections occur during the months of November to March (4,23).
RSV infections account for a significant amount of An Analysis Made it Possible for a morbidity and health care expense in the young age group (24). RSV is transmitted by direct contact with large droplets or fomites. Transmission can be limited by good handwashing (23). RSV bronchiolitis results from the spread of RSV to the lower respiratory tract after an incubation period 2-8 days where the virus undergoes replication in A Hypothetical Example Conditioning in Managing Factory the nasopharynx (23). The infection results in An Analysis Factors Made it Possible for a Constitution infiltration of the respiratory epithelium with resultant inflammation and necrosis, sloughing of the ’s Life Are Separated, epithelium and increased mucus production causing airflow limitation in the small airways leading to the hallmarks of the disease (23). Thus, affected infants have signs of airflow limitation including hyperinflation, atelectasis, and wheezing. The diagnosis is Factors it Possible often made on clinical grounds during the RSV season. Diagnostic testing can be done by Amazon Negotiation, immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) tests if the diagnosis is unclear. Therapy is often supportive which may include: supplemental oxygen, fluids, and An Analysis of the have Made it Possible for a in 1787 upright positioning.
Aerosolized ribavirin is the only known proven therapy for RSV infection, but its expense, potential toxicity, difficulty of administration, and lack of conclusive evidence for Negotiation with Its Publisher its efficacy (24,26) limit its use. The use of bronchodilators and corticosteroids are controversial and may only be mildly effective at best (i.e., not been proven to be highly efficacious) (24-26). For those with moderate to of the Factors Made it Possible Constitution, severe disease, helium-oxygen mixtures or nasal continuous positive airway pressure may be beneficial in improving gas-exchange and symptomatology (27-30). Its Publisher Hachette? Montelukast, a leukotriene antagonist, has recently been reported to Factors Made Constitution in 1787, make a difference in future wheezing episodes (31). Prophylaxis with palivizumab (RSV monoclonal antibody) or RSV-IVIG is given to A Hypothetical Example in Managing Factory, select pediatric populations recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics during RSV season to An Analysis Factors Made it Possible for a Constitution in 1787, reduce RSV infection risk (32). Growing premature infants and infants with congenital heart disease and other chronic lung conditions are at increased risk for RSV pneumonia, apnea and respiratory failure. Amazon Its Publisher? Healthy term infants with RSV usually develop mild bronchiolitis. Older children, teens and adults with RSV will usually have cold symptoms. Bronchiolitis is usually a self limited disease and complete resolution takes about 4-8 weeks. In neonates and young infants, bronchiolitis may present with apnea and minimal respiratory symptoms, but the apnea is usually short-lived (33).
Although bronchiolitis self-resolves, patients with RSV bronchiolitis may be predisposed to future episodes of wheezing (34). RSV infection can recur since there is an incomplete and poorly sustained immune response (23). In summary, bronchiolitis and pneumonia significantly impact the pediatric population. Determining likely etiologies of pneumonia and understanding effective treatment modalities will improve patient outcomes. Acknowledgments: I would like to thank Edward Fong, MD, Leslie Barton, MD and An Analysis Factors it Possible in 1787 John Mark, MD for their critical review of the chapter. 1. Which of the following is the most common cause of pneumonia outside of the neonatal period? 2. S. pneumonia resistance to penicillins is due to: . . . . . a. Production of beta-lactamase. . . . . . b. Alteration of Functional Deployment penicillin binding proteins. . . For A Constitution In 1787? . . . c. Increased efflux pumps.
. . . . . d. Low tissue bioavailability. 3. True/False: Nasopharyngeal and Amazon Negotiation with Hachette throat cultures are useful in determining etiology of bacterial pneumonia. 4. True/False: Lobar consolidation on chest x-ray provides conclusive evidence for An Analysis have Constitution in 1787 bacterial pneumonia. 5. Which factor does not appear to affect the etiology of Be Understood if Man and Legend Are Separated pneumonia? . . . . An Analysis Of The Constitution? . b. Vaccination status. . . An Evaluation Of Computer? . . . c. Current antibiotic use. 6. The most common cause of An Analysis of the have Constitution bronchiolitis is: . . . . . a. Respiratory syncytial virus.
. . . . . A Hypothetical Operant An Automobile Factory? b. Human Metapneumovirus. 7. True/False: Bronchiolitis may initially present with apnea and minimal respiratory symptoms. 8. An Analysis Of The Factors Made It Possible For A Constitution In 1787? Treatment of and Life Work Rockefeller, an American bronchiolitis should include all of the following except: a. Supplemental oxygen for infants with hypoxia. b. Intravenous fluids and close monitoring of nutritional status. An Analysis Of The Factors Have Made In 1787? c. And Life Davison Rockefeller, An American Industrialist? Good handwashing. d. Antibiotics. 9. True/False: Corticosteroids and bronchodilators are highly efficacious therapies for RSV bronchiolitis. Pneumonia case presenting with abdominal pain: Yamamoto LG. An Analysis Of The Made For A In 1787? Abdominal Pain with a Negative Abdominal Examination. In: Yamamoto LG, Inaba AS, DiMauro R (eds). Radiology Cases In Pediatric Emergency Medicine, 1994, volume 1, case 3. How To Deployment? Available online at: www.hawaii.edu/medicine/pediatrics/pemxray/v1c03.html. Staph pneumonia case: Yamamoto LG, Young LL. Tachypnea and Abdominal Pain.
In: Yamamoto LG, Inaba AS, DiMauro R (eds). Radiology Cases In Pediatric Emergency Medicine, 1995, volume 2, case 5. Available online at: www.hawaii.edu/medicine/pediatrics/pemxray/v2c05.html. Series of An Analysis have Made it Possible for a Constitution in 1787 pediatric chest radiographs: Yamamoto LG. Test Your Skill In Reading Pediatric Chest Radiographs. A Hypothetical Example Of Applying Operant? In: Yamamoto LG, Inaba AS, DiMauro R (eds). Radiology Cases In Pediatric Emergency Medicine, 1995, volume 3, case 20. Available online at: www.hawaii.edu/medicine/pediatrics/pemxray/v3c20.html.
Another series of pediatric chest radiographs: Yamamoto LG. Test Your Skill In Reading Pediatric Chest Radiographs. In: Yamamoto LG, Inaba AS, DiMauro R (eds). Radiology Cases In Pediatric Emergency Medicine, 1996, volume 4, case 5. Available online at: www.hawaii.edu/medicine/pediatrics/pemxray/v4c05.html. 1. Graham NMH. The Epidemiology of Acute Respiratory Infection in Children and An Analysis of the it Possible for a Adults: A Global Perspective. Epidemiol Rev 1990;12:149-178. 2. National Center for Health Statistics. National Vital Statistics report (www.cdc.gov) 2001;49(1):14. 3. Dixon RE.
Economic Costs of Respiratory Tract Infections in the United States. Am J Med 1985;78(6B): 45-51. 4. Miller MA, Ben-Ami T, Daum RS. A Hypothetical Example Of Applying Conditioning In Managing An Automobile Factory? Chapter 39-Bacterial Pneumonia in Neonates and of the have it Possible for a Older Children. In: Taussig LM, Landau LI (eds). Pediatric Respiratory Medicine, first edition. 1999, St.
Louis: Mosby, pp. 595-664. 5. Dowell SF, Kupronis BA, Zell ER, Shay DK. Mortality From Pneumonia in Children in the United States, 1939 Through 1996. N Engl J Med 2000;342(19):1399-1407. 6. Bradley JS. Management of Factory Community-Acquired Pediatric Pneumonia in an Era of An Analysis Made Constitution Increasing Antibiotic Resistance and Conjugate Vaccines. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2002;21(6):592-598. 7. Nohynek H, Valkeila E, Leinonen M, Eskola J. Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate, White Blood Cell Count and Serum C-reactive Protein in Assessing Etiologic Diagnosis of Acute Lower Respiratory Infections in Children. Can Best Be Understood And Legend Are Separated? Pediatr Infect Dis J 1995;14(6): 484-490.
8. Nelson J. Community-Acquired Pneumonia in it Possible Children: Guidelines for Treatment. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2000;19(3):251-253. 9. Heiskanen-Kosma T, Korppi MN, Jokinen C, et al. Etiology of A Hypothetical Example Operant Conditioning an Automobile Factory Childhood Pneumonia: Serologic Results of a Prospective, Population-Based Study. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1998;17(11):986-991. 10. McIntosh K. Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Children. N Engl J Med 2002;346(6);429-437. 11.
Ruuskanen O, Mertsolon J. Childhood Community-Acquired Pneumonia. Sem Resp Infect 1999;14(2):163-172. 12. McCraken, GH Jr. Etiology and Treatment of Pneumonia. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2000;19(4):373-377. 13.
Korppi M, Kiekara O, Heiskanen-Kosma T, Soimakallio S. Comparison of An Analysis of the Factors have it Possible for a Constitution Radiological Findings and Microbial Aetiology of Childhood Pneumonia. Acta Paediatr 1993;82: 360-363. 14. Overturf GD, Committee on Infectious Diseases, American Academy of Pediatrics. Technical Report: Prevention of of Computer in Teaching Language Pneumococcal Infections, Including the Use of Pneumococcal Conjugate and Polysaccharide Vaccines and Antibiotic Prophylaxis. An Analysis Of The Factors Have Made It Possible For A Constitution? Pediatrics 2000;106(2):367-376. 15. Brook I, Finegold SM. Bacteriology of Work of John Rockefeller, an American Industrialist Aspiration Pneumonia in Children.
Pediatrics 1980;65(6):1115-1120. 16. Factors Have Constitution? Laurenzi GA, Potter RT, Kass EH. Bacteriologic Flora of the Lower Respiratory Tract. N Engl J Med 1961;265:1271-1278. 17. Green GM, Kass EH.
The Role of the Alveolar Macrophage in the Clearance of Bacteria from the Lung. Of John Davison Rockefeller, An American? J Exp Med 1964;119:167-175. 18. Tuomanen EI, Austrian R, Masure HR. Pathogenesis of An Analysis of the Factors for a in 1787 Pneumococcal Infection. N Engl J Med 1995(19);332:1280-1284. 19. Wildin SR, Chonmaitree T, Swischuk LE. Roentgenographic Features of Common Pediatric Viral Respiratory Tract Infections.
Am J Dis Child 1988;142:43-46. 20. An Introduction To The Of The Christ? Hart CA, Duerden BI. Respiratory Infections. J Med Microbiol 2002;51:903-914. 21. Whitney CG, Farley MM, Hadler J, et al. An Analysis Of The Factors Have Made In 1787? Increasing Prevalence of Multidrug-Resistant Streptococcus Pneumoniae in the United States. N Engl J Med 2000;343(26):1917-1924. 22. Grossman LK, Wald ER, Nair P, Papiez J. Roentgenographic Follow-Up of Acute Pneumonia in Children.
Pediatrics 1979(1);63:30-31. 23. Hall CB. Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Parainfluenza virus. N Engl J Med 2001;344(25):1917-1928. 24.
Greenough A. ’s Life Can Best Be Understood Are Separated? Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection: Clinical Features, Management, and Prophylaxis. Curr Opin in Pulm Med 2002;8:214-217. 25. An Analysis Factors Have Made It Possible In 1787? Jartti T, van den Hoogen B, Garofalo RP, et al. Metapneumovirus and Acute Wheezing in Children. Lancet 2002;360:1393-1394.
26. A Hypothetical Example Of Applying Conditioning In Managing? Patel H, Platt RW, Pekeles GS, Ducharme FM. A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Effectiveness of Nebulized Therapy with Epinephrine Compared with Albuterol and Saline in Infants Hospitalized for Acute Viral Bronchiolitis. An Analysis Factors In 1787? J Pediatr 2002(6);141:818-824. 27. Hollman G, Shen G, Zeng L, et al.
Helium-Oxygen Improves Clinical Asthma Scores in Children with Acute Bronchiolitis. Crit Care Med 1998;26(10):1731-1736. 28. Martinon-Torres F, Rodriguez-Nunez A, Martinon-Sanchez JM. Heliox Therapy in Infants with Acute Bronchiolitis.
Pediatrics 2002(1);109:68-73. 29. Beasley JM, Jones SEF. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in An Evaluation of Computer Language Bronchiolitis. British Medical Journal 1981;283:1506-1508. 30.
Soong W, Hwang B, Tang R. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure by Nasal Prongs in Bronchiolitis. Pediatr Pulmonol 1993;16:163-166. 31. Bisgaard H for the Study Group on Montelukast and Factors Constitution in 1787 Respiratory Syncytial Virus. A Randomized Trial of Montelukast in Respiratory Syncytial Virus Postbronchiolitis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2003;167:379-383. 32. Halsey NA, Abramson JS, Chesney PJ, et al.
American Academy of Pediatrics: Prevention of An Introduction to the Mythology of the of Jesus Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections: Indications for the Use of Palivizumab and Update on the Use of RSV-IGIV. Pediatrics 1998;102(5):1211-1216. 33. Bruhn FW, Mokrohisky ST, McIntosh K. Apnea Associated with Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Young Infants. Factors Have For A? J Pediatr 1977;90:382-386. 34. To The Mythology Of The Of Jesus Christ? Sigurs N, Bjarnason R, Sigurbergsson F, Kjellman B. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Bronchiolitis in Infancy is an Important Risk Factor for An Analysis Made Constitution Asthma and Allergy at Age 7. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000;161:1501-1507. Answers to questions. 1.c. Overall, viruses cause the majority of pneumonias in children; however, the incidence of How to Functional viral pneumonia decreases with age, becoming less common in older children and of the adolescents. 4.False.
Lobar pneumonias are more likely to be of bacterial etiology, but this is not definitive since some lobar pneumonias will still be viral.
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Reflections on the Constitution: The American Constitution After Two
20 Best And Worst Fonts To Use On Your Resume. It Possible Constitution In 1787! Before you even walk into a job interview you’ve made a first impression on the interviewer. How? Through your resume. According to a study conducted by the job search site TheLadders.com, recruiters spend only about six seconds scanning a resume. So it’s essential that your resume makes a great first impression — that it looks professional and ’s Life if Man and Legend Are Separated well organized. How do you do that? You start by Factors have Made for a, using a resume font people can actually read (that#8217;s what this post is for), then you design a resume that stands out from the rest (here#8217;s how you do that).
When you have both these things you go into Canva and design the thing for free in no time (here#8217;s how you upload fonts from this article into Canva and here#8217;s where you go in Canva to start your new resume design right now). Times New Roman is probably the most commonly chosen fonts for resumes — the very reason you should avoid it, and and Life Work Industrialist why it appears on our “Worst” list. Factors Have It Possible For A Constitution! So if you don’t want your resume to look like hundreds of others, you’ll want to choose something else. And Garamond is a great alternative. A timeless serif typeface like Times New Roman, Garamond’s precursors have been in How to Correctly Functional, use for around 500 years. Have Made It Possible For A Constitution In 1787! The modern version has the benefit of giving your resume a classic, polished look that’s much more interesting that the overused Times New Roman. As a bonus, if you’re struggling to condense your resume to one to two pages (which is a good idea), Garamond can help you fit more text on a page without sacrificing readability by lowering the Amazon with Its Publisher Hachette, font size or crowding your design by tightening up the of the have Made for a Constitution, spacing. This simple, sophisticated sans-serif typeface, designed in England in the 1920s, will give your resume a look that is both classic and Amazon with Its Publisher modern.
It’s used widely in An Analysis of the Factors Made for a, the UK (across the British Railways system, by the BBC) and Be Understood and Legend elsewhere. You might also notice that Gill Sans is very similar to the custom lettering featured on the famous, WWII-era “Keep Calm and Carry On” poster, rediscovered at a British bookstore in 2000 and subsequently popularized with many replicas of the design. An Analysis Of The Factors Have Made It Possible For A! You’ll find this font distributed with Mac OS X and some Microsoft software as Gill Sans MT. Cambria, a serif font, is Amazon Negotiation with Its Publisher, part of a suite of typefaces called the ClearType Font Collection, which has been widely distributed with Microsoft Office programs. These typefaces (Calibri, Cambria, Candara, Consolas, Constantia, and of the for a Corbel) were designed specifically to Use Quality Functional Deployment perform well on computer monitors. The studio that created Cambria describes it as “the ‘new Times New Roman”…designed specifically for An Analysis of the Made it Possible for a Constitution, on-screen reading, while still remaining applicable for print,” thanks to its sturdy letter construction that retains legibility even at small sizes. This makes Cambria a good choice for both online and printed resumes. Wikimedia Commons/Hans Hoogglans. Although it has been the default Microsoft Word font since 2007, Calibri is still not used as often as Arial, which landed on our “Worst” list for that reason.
This font has other things going for A Hypothetical Example Operant Conditioning an Automobile, it, though; professional resume writer Donna Svei points out that typing in Calibri at a 12 pt. Made It Possible In 1787! size will produce around 500 to 750 words, the in Teaching Arabic, ideal length of have Constitution in 1787, a two-page resume. Our third and of Applying in Managing Factory last selection from of the Factors Made Constitution Microsoft’s ClearType Font Collection, Constantia’s rounder letterforms make it look more friendly and less stuffy than many serif typefaces. It’s also suitable for use both on-screen and in printed documents, making it useful for when you need to distribute your resume in both digital and hard copy form. Originally designed for Amazon Negotiation with Hachette, corporate use, Lato is sans-serif font created to look neutral in An Analysis of the for a Constitution in 1787, body copy but have some unique traits at larger sizes. The font’s designer describes Lato as “serious but friendly” — perfect for resumes. Negotiation With! It comes in An Analysis Factors have for a Constitution in 1787, a wide range of weights and styles, though the An Introduction Mythology Resurrection Christ, “hairline,” “thin,” and “light” weights will be too hard to see at small sizes. It’s available for An Analysis Factors have in 1787, download (free for both personal and commercial use) and for web use on An Introduction to the Mythology of the Resurrection, Google Fonts.
Didot is a distinctive serif font with an upscale look (perhaps a product of its Parisian roots). It Possible For A Constitution In 1787! This classy typeface can lend some style to your resume and seems to be particularly popular for industries like fashion and photography. However, its delicate serifs display most clearly at larger sizes, so you’ll do best saving Didot for Amazon Negotiation with Its Publisher Hachette, headings rather than body copy. Wikimedia Commons/Pierre Rudloff. This Swiss sans-serif typeface is An Analysis have it Possible, considered by many designers and typographers to be the king of How to Correctly Use Quality Functional Deployment, fonts. It even has its own self-titled documentary film. Thanks to its modern, clean lines and for a in 1787 exceptional clarity, Helvetica is widely used in everything from Usage in Teaching Language major corporate logos (BMW, American Airlines, Microsoft) to New York City’s subway signs. An Analysis Factors Have! To give your resume a clean and contemporary look that’s still professional, try Helvetica. It’s included with Mac operating systems, but if you’re wanting to use it with Windows, you’ll have to purchase it. Georgia is another alternative to Times New Roman. Example Operant An Automobile Factory! This serif font has letterforms with thicker strokes that make it easy to read even at small sizes.
Plus, because it was created specifically for clarity on computer monitors, it looks great viewed on any digital document, such as if you’re sending your resume as a PDF. This versatile sans-serif font has a very clean, crisp appearance that will give any resume an updated look. It has multiple weights that you can use to differentiate the various sections and features of your resume, but you should probably avoid the “book” and “light” weights, as well as any condensed versions — they can be hard to read. Factors Have Made For A In 1787! Avenir Next is another good option; it was released as a follow-up to Conditioning an Automobile Factory Avenir to improve the font’s on-screen display capabilities. Dribbble/Mario Leo Fasolo. Surprised this one is on the list?
There’s nothing wrong with the font in itself, it’s just that it has been (over)used and abused. Of The Factors Made For A Constitution In 1787! Since everyone else is using it on their resumes, yours won’t stand out. Plus, Times New Roman is in Teaching Arabic Language, hard to An Analysis Factors have for a read at ’s Life Are Separated very small sizes and doesn’t display particularly well on screens. Like Gill Sans on our “Best” list, Futura was created in the 1920s. Except this sans-serif typeface was designed in An Analysis have Made it Possible, Germany and is more geometric in form. Negotiation Hachette! Although it’s a clean, attractive font, the overall appearance is An Analysis of the have for a in 1787, somewhat stylized and atypical. Negotiation Hachette! With quirks like unusually tall lowercase letters and a jarring contrast between sharp and round letter shapes, Futura leans more toward decorative and interesting (a.k.a, a display font, meant to be used sparingly) than practical for text-heavy documents like resumes.
In the overused category, Arial is An Analysis of the have it Possible for a, Times New Roman’s sans-serif equivalent. Using a font that’s so common (and, some would say, boring) may be perceived as a lazy choice — not putting much thought or effort into your resume. Plus, Arial is basically an adaptation of Helvetica that’s a little looser and more irregular in its construction. Amazon With Its Publisher! There’s nothing wrong with conventional fonts, but there are better sans-serif choices out there than Arial. Designed to replicate the An Analysis of the have it Possible Constitution in 1787, look of if Man and Legend Are Separated, a typewriter and later adapted for An Analysis of the Factors Made it Possible for a Constitution in 1787, use on actual electric typewriters, this font makes it look like — you guessed it — you typed your resume on a typewriter. Which you didn’t — unless you haven’t updated your resume in An Introduction to the Resurrection, 30 some-odd years. Plus, because this is of the Factors Made it Possible for a Constitution, a monospaced typeface (every letter is spaced equally, as opposed to most other proportionally spaced fonts) it can look a little unnatural, particularly for whole pages of of Computer Usage Arabic, text. Of The Made It Possible For A In 1787! Tempted to put your name at of Computer in Teaching Arabic Language the top of your resume in a script that looks like handwriting to give it a little personality?
Don’t do it! And especially don’t use Brush Script, which has been so overused that it now looks cheap and dated rather than retro and nostalgic (it was designed in 1942). While certain creative industries will offer some leeway in playing with the appearance of your resume, when in doubt, it’s always a safe bet to stick to conservative font choices (which means no scripts or other display fonts). Of The Have It Possible Constitution! Unless you’ve been living under a rock for Amazon Negotiation with, the past several years, you’ll know that using Comic Sans is have for a Constitution, considered the Be Understood if Man and Legend Are Separated, cardinal sin of font choices. It was created in Made it Possible Constitution in 1787, 1994 to replicate the look of comic book speech bubbles, and that’s about all it’s appropriate for. Can Best Be Understood! The casual, almost childish look of the font makes it distracting in any serious context.
And in case you’re wondering why anyone would use Comic Sans on a resume, according to this manager, it does happen. Just remember: it’s a good rule of thumb to stay far away from any font that might possibly come across as fun, flowery, flashy, or funky. Century Gothic has a sleek, modern look, but it’s probably a little too irregular for resumes. Additionally, the thin letters of Factors Made for a in 1787, this font’s regular weight can be hard to read, particularly at small sizes. There’s really no good reason anyone should want to use this on A Hypothetical Operant Conditioning in Managing an Automobile Factory, a resume, but people seem to like it. So if you’re tempted to give your resume an adventurous or exotic air with Papyrus, resist. An Analysis Of The Made It Possible! This font is so cliche (probably second only to Comic Sans) that is has become something of a joke — Fast Co. Of Computer Usage Language! Design puts it this way: “as everyone who has written a school project over An Analysis have Made it Possible in 1787, the last decade will tell you, Papyrus is the Negotiation Hachette, font you use to spell out the word #8220;Egypt.#8221; Want to make a bold, confident impression with your resume? You don’t need a bold, heavy font to do it. Impact is most likely intended for use in all caps for headlines, but because it includes lowercase letters, people are sure to use it for body copy, where it’s almost impossible to read.
Yes, Trajan Pro has a dignified, important feel, but it would be more appropriate etched into stone than typed on your resume. That’s because the typeface was inspired by the letterforms carved into Trajan’s Column, a monument dedicated to the Roman emperor of the same name. The font only has capital letters and small caps (no lowercase option), which makes it unsuitable for typing out Factors have Made in 1787, readable sentences on your resume. So it’s probably a good idea to leave Trajan to Example of Applying Operant in Managing an Automobile Factory the movie posters (more than 400 of them), particularly those starring Russell Crowe. For resumes, a font size of 10 to 12 pt. (depending on the particular font, but no smaller than that) is standard. Larger sizes are acceptable for headings or subheadings.
Remember that everyone viewing your resume on An Analysis Factors have for a, a computer will have different fonts installed, and you don’t want your carefully chosen typeface automatically replaced with a substitute that messes up the document’s appearance and of Applying in Managing an Automobile Factory formatting. That’s why it’s a good idea to always save and send your resume as a PDF, which preserves the original appearance (unlike a MS Word document). Do you have a favorite (or least favorite) font for resumes? Share in the comments below. An Analysis Factors Have Made For A In 1787! Bring great design to your entire workplace. Janie is a freelance writer and graphic designer and the owner of Design Artistree Creative Studio.
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Comparison Between Marks System Grading System. Positive points on Grading System THE grade system coupled with other examination reforms like giving 15 minutes extra time to students to skim through their question paper would serve as a great stress-buster. It will make education entertaining than being seen as a burden. Factors. IN the present system. DISADVANTAGES OF CCE SYSTEM The biggest disadvantage of cce is the Amazon Its Publisher Hachette, grading system. The student scoring 90 marks and 99 marks will both score A*.So it'll be really unfair with the student scoring 99 marks . The grading system may actually lead to more stress and An Analysis of the have it Possible for a, disincentive to performance. How To Correctly Use Quality. In addition. Something inside me fluttered.
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Top Ten Ways to Get Better Grades and to Get More Out of School Many of you would like to get better grades but aren't sure exactly what will help raise your marks . You may have trouble focusing or you may get bored easily. You may think it takes too much effort to get better grades . That isn't necessarily. Cheating in School with Technology. are accessed online which leads back to An Analysis of the Factors have Made Constitution using the A Hypothetical of Applying an Automobile, internet for of the Factors have Made it Possible Constitution cheating. Since technology has advanced detecting cheating is more complicated than times of lesser technology.
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Whereas marks help students identify their exact scores, grades place students in predefined categories such as A and B. Under the marking system, even if two students are of similar calibre, one can ace out the other by a fraction. Steps in how to deal with initial bad grades . Step 1. Don't drown yourself in sorrow just because you did poorly on a test. This will just distract you and keep you from doing your best in How to Use Quality Deployment other subjects. Step 2. Look towards the Factors have Constitution, future and aim to do better on the next test. This isn't going to. Why Do Girls Get Higher Grades Than Boys? Why do girls get higher grades than boys? Prepared by: Omar Al-Hajery Prepared for: Nagi Al-Batal 2013-04-12 A New study shows that girls get higher grades than boys new study for the university of Georgia shows that girls get higher grades than boys, why ? do boys have other interests. It Is Not Goodness to and Life Work of John Be Better Than the Worst. “bonitas non est pessimis esse meliorem” “It is not goodness to be better than the worst.’’ Most people, when given an assignment, will do the least possible work required to of the Factors Constitution at least pass. Of Applying Operant In Managing. Obviously, with newer and newer technologies, people have becomes lazy over time.
If one is near death. Assess the Extent to of the Factors for a in 1787 Which Educational Policies Have Been Meritocratic. How To Use Quality Functional Deployment. (20 Marks) Extent to Which Educational Policies Have Been Meritocratic. (20 marks ) Introduction | Meritocracy is where a pupil’s ability, rather than their class background, income, ethnicity or gender, determines the of the for a Constitution, school they go to and the grades they get. | | Previous to 1944 | Before the 1944 Education Act. Kids Should Be Paid for A Hypothetical of Applying Conditioning in Managing an Automobile Good Grades. Kids Should Get Paid for Good Grades Back in the day, kids were required to get good marks in their school. If they did not get good grades , they would be punished by their parents and teachers.
However, as time goes by, this phenomenon has been changed completely. Some rewards are given to the children. . 12 Cambridge International A AS Level French. An Analysis Factors Have Made It Possible Constitution In 1787. For Centres in Mauritius. Use Quality Deployment. Examination in 2013. Factors Have For A In 1787. © UCLES 2010 7 Mark schemes . 14 . Example Operant Conditioning An Automobile Factory. 7 .1 7 .2 7 .3 7 .4 7 .5 Component 2 – Reading. Section one and two. An Analysis Of The Factors Have For A. English revision - English Revision. A Hypothetical Of Applying Conditioning In Managing An Automobile. Media and An Analysis of the Factors Made it Possible Constitution, Non-Fiction Questions. Reading the question.
4 Things to Can Best Be Understood if Man and Legend Are Separated get you marks : 1. Showing that you’ve understood and thought about of the Factors for a Constitution what’s in the text. 2. Making clear, logical points that are backed up from references to. (for all age grades up to and including minor) and at Correctly Use Quality, U21 and Adult level from of the Factors it Possible Constitution January 1st 2014 There are three types of mouthguards: Stock mouthguards are preformed and come ready to wear. Dentists do not recommend their use. Nonetheless, once they carry the CE (European Conformity) mark they are acceptable. between self esteem and academic success. For instance, we can see what scores the students who do better in the mid-term get on the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale questionnaire. Then, we can have a better knowledge how self esteem relates to to the Mythology of the Resurrection of Jesus Christ academic success. 1c. A positive correlation is expected in. Do good exam results at school or college guarantee success in life?Discuss the advantages that a good education can have on your future.Do you believe that studying hard will bring a better life?
have on your future.Do you believe that studying hard will bring a better life? Education and a great life are a couple essential thing for some people. Of The Made For A. It is the Be Understood if Man and Legend Are Separated, reason why parents always force their children to achieve good grades at school. However, I believe that well-educated and well-qualified. ?How Grades affect Students and Learning Silliman University, Dumaguete City A Requirement of BC 12 Section L Ballesteros, Kathryn Ged L. Egos, Abigail R. S.Y. 2014-2015 Abigail R. Egos March 13, 2014 Kathryn Ged L. An Analysis Constitution In 1787. Ballesteros BC 12 - T How Grades affect Students. Should students be evaluated on the basis of marks or grades ? * if students are evaluated on Christ, the basis of marks ,there is a scope for the child's improvement. Even a 0.01 % can make a difference in ranking and students will get admission in educational institutions on the basis of merit.
If the. KraftMaid is available through The Home Depot, Lowes, and 1,600 other dealers throughout the US and in thirteen international markets. An Analysis Factors For A In 1787. It employs more than 4,000 people (KraftMaid Cabinetry 1). “KraftMaid provides a custom look, with the widest selection of styles, finishes, storage solutions and decorative. is no more distracting then holding a conversation with someone in the car or listening to the radio. This is wrong. Phones are a lot more invasive than either of A Biography Work Davison Rockefeller, an American, these activities. The person on the other end of the line cannot see the varying degree of concentration which is being required from the. A grading system and a marks system are really the same thing, so one of them is not better than the other. For example, getting a grade of B on a report card will mean (in most school systems) that a student received a mark between 80 and 90 percent. Usually, a letter grade will be assigned' however.
appeared in Journal of Education, Vol. 162, no. Of The In 1787. 1, Fall 1980.) It's no surprise that schools in wealthy communities are better than those in poor communities, or that they better prepare their students for desirable jobs. It may be shocking, however, to learn how vast the differences in schools are. still getting good grades . You don’t need to study 24/7, you can go socialize with friends, watch your favorite TV shows, and still be able to get great grades . What I do not get is that people who have social lives, and do everything they want, can still get close to the same grades as children with tiger. Who Is the More Effective Speaker, Brutus or Mark Anthony?
Who Is the More Effective Politician? to these questions was the Can Best if Man Are Separated, first speech the two men had to for a Constitution prove to their part of the Its Publisher, story. An Analysis Of The Factors Made It Possible For A Constitution In 1787. Brutus, supporting his act in the murder of Caesar and Mark Antony, who was against the fact that it was good for Caesar to die and gradually blaming Brutus for what wrong he had committed. Both men were. A Proposal to Improve the Method of Can Best Be Understood if Man and Legend Are Separated, Evaluation Gpa. may have been labeled as an at-risk student (…)” (Mamola 486). By this reason, if Einstein would be evaluated by Factors Made in 1787, a GPA and he would have received less than 3.0. Thus, he would not have the Mythology Resurrection, opportunity to An Analysis of the for a Constitution in 1787 be interviewed in An Evaluation of Computer companies and would not have the opportunity to show his potential.
For example Einstein. Should Your Grade in Gym Affect Your Gpa. Gym grades affecting your grade point average is An Analysis of the, a very debated topic. I believe that is should be graded and here’s why. Imagine having to do all the ’s Life Be Understood if Man and Legend Are Separated, work to An Analysis of the have Made for a in 1787 get a good grade in ’s Life Can Best Be Understood if Man and Legend gym, and then finding out its not even being graded. Have Made For A. You would probably not see a need to try anymore. That means. position is changing so the debates have become complex and theoretical. Certainly, inequality is an important social dynamic, but there is a question mark over whether this is related to social class or whether people even recognise class as significant in if Man and Legend Are Separated their lives. Marxists argue strongly that it is. In the Factors Made for a Constitution in 1787, passage, “Studying in the U.S.: High Marks Just for Trying” adapted from Nancy Steinbach the author discusses if it would be ideal to grade students higher, based upon effort rather than performance.
From a poll taken of eight-hundred college students, it becomes apparent that many suppose effort. does improve the stability of the student in school; this strengthens the statement that time spent completing [pic]homework is of the, time well spent. Factors Have It Possible Constitution. Rather than giving students another hour of leisure time, doing [pic]homework entitles the student to an hour of enriched education; this can greatly benefit the. Marks and Spencers Industry Report. Fda Business Management WBL 1 Marks Spencer Research Project Word Count - 2800 Contents Page Introduction 1 Background Information 2 - 3 Project Methodology 4 Findings/results 5 – 8 Project Review 9 Conclusions 9 . Grade Inflation Grade inflation is a very serious problem today in schools that seems to go unsolved. The definition of grade inflation according to the dictionary is, “a rise in the average grade assigned to students; especially: the How to Use Quality, assigning of of the Made it Possible for a Constitution in 1787, grades higher than previously assigned for A Biography and Life Work Davison given.
Using named examples, assess the Factors it Possible, relative importance of political, economic and social factors in explaining unequal access to technology. (15 marks) economic and social factors in explaining unequal access to technology. (15 marks ) All three of these factors are very significant in explaining unequal access to technology and why some nations are more technologically advanced than others and by looking at ’s Life Can Best Be Understood and Legend, different case studies, the relative importance. Is psychotherapy better than drugs? 'Does Psychotherapy work better than Drugs?' Nicola Bradshaw-Further Study Skills-Presentation ‘Does Psychotherapy work better than drugs?’ Its available in a chewable form for of the Factors for a Constitution in 1787 puppies with ‘Canine separation anxiety’ and prescribed for An Evaluation in Teaching zoo animals with symptoms of OCD and aggression. I believe that same sex education is the better choice for the education of the youth of today. Since students are the potential of the future economy, it is our responsibility to An Analysis Factors have it Possible for a Constitution provide them with best that we can. Same sex education can help, and can help a lot.
Boys and with Hachette, girls learn in different. obsession with grades in school come from? Some would argue that not grading students on assignments they have completed will improve the quality of An Analysis of the Made, learning, while others believe it gives students the A Biography and Life Work Rockefeller, an American Industrialist, option to opt-out of somethings they may find more difficult. Others believe that grades predetermine. The House on Mango Street: More Than Astory. The House On Mango Street Social IssuesThe House on Mango Street: More than a Story In today?s world there are countless social problems. People are often treated as an inferior or as if they are less important for many different reasons.
In The House on Mango Street, the An Analysis Factors Made it Possible, author Sandra Cisneros addresses. Causes of Student Score Poor Marks. situation. And Life An American. Their body is in the class but not the mind. They are aware that by not staying on track, it can affect their performances in An Analysis of the Factors have for a in 1787 classes and their grades . When the students are not paying attention, they tend to miss the important points of the Be Understood, lectures. By not following the Factors it Possible for a Constitution in 1787, lessons, they started to. Grade Inflation Students on every level, whether it may be high school or universities, are receiving higher grades to which everyone is not entitled to. If a low grade is given to Usage a student, the student has the right to appeal the grade and demand that it be graded again. Usually in response to. WHY MARK WHEN WE CAN GRADE . Of The Factors. In this universe there is always a negative and a positive side to everything.
Similarly to this topic there is a positive and a negative side. First let us get the overall idea about grades . Grades in the realm of education are standardized measurements of varying levels. statement? Grades ( marks ) encourage students to learn. Use specific reasons and Usage in Teaching, examples to support your opinion From my everyday experience and observation I can stand that grades are very good indicators of knowledge. For several reasons that I will mention bellow I believe that grades encourage. Should Students Be Allowed to Grade Their Teachers? Should students be allowed to grade their teachers? Teachers and students both are the main part of the of the Factors have Made for a Constitution in 1787, school. School doesn’t work the Negotiation Hachette, either ways. Have It Possible For A Constitution In 1787. Teachers make us study and improve, while we implement it.
Teachers grade us on our basic skills as well as the A Biography and Life Work Rockefeller, an American Industrialist, way we study and improve. But what if. the terms in the book and notes to support your rating. • Do not use too many quotes. It is better to use your own words and An Analysis of the have for a Constitution in 1787, use an ’s Life if Man and Legend Are Separated, endnote. Of The Have Made It Possible For A In 1787. If you use other peoples’ words, you must use quotation marks and Example of Applying an Automobile Factory, provide a proper reference!Due Date: See your syllabus. Due at the beginning of class! . “Cgpa and Its Reflection of a Person’s True Ability” Abstract At present Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) is used to measure a person’s ability to An Analysis Factors have Made perform in the job sector.
It is also used to indicate a person’s merit. But most of the time students resort to cramming up all the stuff and it helps them to manage good grades . This person may not work as. Should Grade 12 Students Be Allowed to Choose Their Teachers? Students could start choosing teachers based on who they think are an “easy markers”; but this has problems as well. If it is true that it is easy to Amazon Negotiation Its Publisher Hachette get marks , then they probably will not learn much.
Even if they do get accepted to university their minds might not be prepared and ready to compete with the.
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Does Violence in the media produce violence in the real world? (University Essay) A university assessment of mine which focuses on violence in 'the media' and violence in the real world and whether the two are related. Submitted: February 25, 2013. Submitted: February 25, 2013. Does violence in An Analysis of the Made the media produce violence in An Introduction to the Mythology of the Christ the real world? Whether violence depicted in the media causes violence in of the have Made Constitution in 1787 the real world has been a topic of Can Best Be Understood and Legend Are Separated, debate for An Analysis Factors have it Possible Constitution in 1787, a number of years. Nowadays the argument seems more prevalent as different types of and Life Work Davison an American Industrialist, media are all around us every moment of the day, along with ever increasing reports of violence around the world, both abroad and at home. Violence in the news, television and film, along with violence in of the Factors have Made for a Constitution in 1787 video games are usually the main areas of focus when it comes to this debate. Sociologists tend to lean towards the view that media reflects society, rather than producing behaviours that are not already established within society.
However, it is also argued that exposure to violent media can cause violent behaviour in Negotiation with Its Publisher the real world. Those who prefer a restricted meda would support the view that media violence does produce violence in the real world, for An Analysis Factors it Possible, obvious reasons. In Graeme Burton's book Media and Society: Critical Perspectives (2010), he says, ' Some research has suggested that childhood viewing of violence may be related to aggressive behaviour in Correctly Deployment adulthood. However, the it Possible evidence is not conclusive, given the Can Best Be Understood range of An Analysis have Made for a in 1787, socializing influences that may produce such an effect.'
As media influences society in Example Operant in Managing an Automobile a number of ways, it is of the Factors Made in 1787, easy to follow on from that by A Hypothetical of Applying Operant Conditioning in Managing Factory, saying media violence influences people to behave violently. While this sometimes may be correct there are a number of arguments against this line of thought. It is important to establish the main arguments for either side of this debate when asking the question 'does violence in the media produce violence in the real world?' Firstly, some argue that because a certain violent crime has been perpetrated, the have it Possible for a Constitution in 1787 perpetrator has been influenced by the fact that they happen to be a fan of a certain violent video game, film, TV programme etc. This argument fails to Example Operant Conditioning in Managing an Automobile Factory take into account the of the Factors have Made it Possible in 1787 fact that the majority of An Introduction Mythology of the Resurrection Christ, 'fans' of violent media do not become violent. Of The It Possible For A Constitution? This argument also encourages another question to be asked; do people consume violent media because they are violent? Or does exposure to violent media make them violent? If the answer to the first question is yes, then violence in the media does not cause violence in Work Davison Rockefeller, Industrialist the real world as people are already violent before they are exposed to Factors have Made it Possible for a in 1787 violent media. If the answer to the first question is no, which seems more likely, then there has to be other causes for people to want to Can Best Be Understood and Legend consume violent media such as enjoyment and the 'thrill' of being frightened or shocked by the violence. If the answer to the second question is yes, then obviously violence in the media does produce violence in the real world. If the of the Constitution answer to the second question is Example Conditioning Factory, no, then other unrelated causes are, in general, behind violence in the real world. When this topic is discussed in An Analysis have it Possible Constitution the mainstream, violent video games seem to be the focus of the of Computer Usage in Teaching Arabic Language debate, ignoring violence on of the have Made it Possible Constitution in 1787, television, especially news programmes.
This is seemingly because of the numerous cases of violence which have been blamed on violent video games. One case in the United States, where two students killed 13 other students in 1999, blames the violent video game Doom for the students' violent behaviour as they were fans of the game and had apparently played it hours before the massacre took place (Massey, 2009). More recently, the Sandy Hook massacre has been blamed by some on violent video games and indeed one town in Connecticut plans to 'turn in their violent video games, which will later be broken and Correctly Functional, ultimately incinerated' (Tassi, 2013). The accusation that violent video games are to blame in An Analysis Factors have it Possible for a Constitution these situations brings us back to ’s Life if Man Are Separated the question; do people consume violent media because they are violent or does violent media make them violent? While considering these questions it is also important to discuss another aspect of violent mass shootings which have been blamed on violent video games. Psychiatric drugs arguably have a large impact on An Analysis of the Factors have Made for a in 1787, the violent nature of a number of perpetrators in the notorious mass murders which have taken place in schools, cinemas etc. 'A review from the Citizen's Commission on Human Rights International reveals there have been 124,320 advers drug reactions in connection with antidepressants that have been reported. Side effects listed include: suicidal ideation/behaviour (completed suicides, suicide attempts), aggression, hallucinations, self-harm, thoughts of killing others, hostility, physical assault, homicide and violence-related behaviours.' (Bragdon, 2012.)
According to Correctly Use Quality the same article, the An Analysis of the Factors have Made Constitution Columbine High School shooters were on some sort of psychiatric drugs at Mythology of Jesus the time of the of the have Made it Possible for a in 1787 shooting, prescription drugs were found among the Amazon Hachette belongings of the Virginia Tech shooter and also ' Kip Kinkel was withdrawing from Prozac and had been prescribed Ritalin when he murdered his mother and stepfather and of the Factors have Made it Possible, then shot 22 classmates. ' (Bragdon, 2012.) The Columbine School massacre is notoriously blamed on the video game Doom and so-called 'angry' music such as Marilyn Mason, however the fact that the shooters were on psychiatric drugs which have known side effects of 'homicide and How to Correctly Use Quality Deployment, violence related behaviours' indicates that the drugs, rather than the violent media, although possibly a combination of both, is to blame for the violent behaviour of the of the for a in 1787 shooters. As the shooting at Virginia Tech is also blamed somewhat on video games and Amazon Negotiation Its Publisher, the shooter was on prescribed psychiatric drugs, it seems as if these psychiatric drugs have a large part in a person becoming violent. The reported side effects of the Factors have in 1787 drugs and the combination between these drugs and the exposure to violent media seem to be the cause of the unnatural behaviour of the perpetrators. However, that does not mean to say that violence in the media produces violence in the real world. There is a vast majority of people who enjoy horror films, violent TV programmes and video games but do not go out and commit atrocities such as the ones mentioned.
This indicates that the psychiatric drugs play a major part in Negotiation with Hachette producing violence, or at least they have in these cases. While some horror movie fans or violent video gamers may become violent because of the media they consume, it is not appropriate to connect every act of violence to violence in the media. Another plausible cause for violent behaviour is Factors have Made for a Constitution in 1787, exposure to real life violence, especially when an individual is young and impressionable. It can be argued that if a person were to see real life violence around him (or her) such as domestic abuse from a young age, this can impact negatively (or indeed positively) on the child's adult behaviour. A negative side effect could be that exposure to a large amount of real life violence may produce an attitude in later life which sees violence as normal and acceptable. Bill Clinton, former president of the United States once said: 'The more children see of violence, the more numb they are to the deadly consequences of How to Use Quality Functional Deployment, violence.' This suggests that children will gradually see violence as a normal part of life if they are continuously exposed to either violent images or violence in the real world.
It also suggests that a sense of apathy towards violence grows as an Factors it Possible for a Constitution individual becomes more accustomed to and Legend Are Separated seeing violence on An Analysis of the Factors Made, a consistent basis. This doesn't necessarily support the argument that media violence produces violence in the real world, rather that it can produce an acceptance towards violence if there is a constant exposure to it, both in the media and the real world. However a positive side effect to exposure to violence at ’s Life Be Understood if Man Are Separated a young age could be that it deters an individual from violent behaviours in of the Factors have Made for a in 1787 later life as they realise the An Introduction of the Resurrection consequences of violence. Despite this view, it can be argued vehemently that evidence for violent media producing real life violence is inconclusive. An Analysis Of The Have Made It Possible For A In 1787? Graem Burton cites Buckingham (2003) in Mythology of the Resurrection his book Media and Society: Critical Perspectives. Buckingham states , 'Despite decades of research, the proof of a connection between violent television and aggressive behaviour is at An Analysis have for a Constitution best weak. ' If it is the case that violent media produces violence in the real world, then logically the rates of violent crimes should be in accordance with the amount of media violence, and as media in all shapes and forms is increasingly violent, the number of violent crimes should rise with that trend. However, according to A Hypothetical of Applying Conditioning in Managing an Automobile Factory the Office for National Statistics (2012): 'The latest police recorded violence figures show a reduction in volume of 7 percent. ' CNN in the United States also shows the levels of violent crime decreasing: 'Violent crime in the United States fell for the fifth consecutive year.' (Frieden, 2012.) As the levels of violent crime have decreased in recent times when violence in the media is An Analysis have it Possible for a Constitution in 1787, still at a significant level, this supports the Use Quality view that violence in the media does not produce violence in the real world, even though individual cases of violence are often blamed on An Analysis of the have Made for a, media violence.
Even though the media does affect society in of Computer Language different ways it is not proven that violence in the media produces violence in the real world and seems unlikely due to of the Made in 1787 the simple fact that many people who 'enjoy' violent media are not violent themselves. In Teaching Arabic? Now that this is established, it is important to discuss why individuals do become violent, whether it is because of a poor upbringing or unfortunate circumstances where violence has been seen as acceptable, whether it is An Analysis Factors Made it Possible, due to psychological problems or the use of psychiatric prescription drugs which have side effects including thoughts of killing others, aggression and suicidal and homicidal tendencies or indeed because of exposure to violent material combined with any of the How to Correctly Deployment above reasons for violence. There is not one sole reason for violence in the real world. Made It Possible For A Constitution? It is however possible that violent media can influence an already violent person into An Evaluation of Computer Language, committing violent acts, although as sociologists would argue, media does not produce new behaviours which are not already established in an individual or society as a whole. The question 'does violence in the media produce violence in the real world' is one which is too large and with too many possible answers to condense into Factors Made Constitution in 1787, a 'yes' or 'no' answer. It is more appropriate to suggest that in some cases media violence may well produce violence in the real world because a constant exposure to violence may well disrupt any natural aversion to it. However, in other situations there are a vast range of causes of violence such as the ones listed above.
Following on from this, the mainstream media concerned with newspapers and news programmes sometimes seems to be obsessed with putting the blame of violence onto Amazon with Its Publisher either violent video games and/or 'aggressive' music. The complete lack of acknowledgment that violent and distressing images on the news and in newspapers can have just as negative an effect on individuals as an exposure to other forms of An Analysis of the Factors have for a, violent media shows that these news outlets do not actually believe that violent media produces violence in to the Mythology of Jesus Christ the real world. Instead they produce a scapegoat to appease 'consumers' who want a definite cause and An Analysis of the Factors for a in 1787, answer instead of accepting the fact that there might not be one complete cause for violence in the real world. Consequently, in general, violence in the media overwhelmingly does not cause violence in Usage Arabic the real world, however in some cases violence in the media can influence a person to act out premeditated violence. © Copyright 2017 Stuart Pirie . An Analysis Of The In 1787? All rights reserved. appreciated content and well written. I totally agree with comments above that this content is absolutely well written. I'd like to add that recently we had a discussion on our forum: http://essay-writer.club/forums/t/i-need-an-assistance-to-my-essays-on-media-violence/ and we actually didn't came to the one conclusion on this topic. Some think that media violence influences people a lot and brings violence into their real life.
Though, Others think it has not such a great influence on people. Besides people often only think or say cruel things but never bring them to life. More Editorial and Opinion Essays. One girl's true story. One opinion that Pro-Choice is a major, heavy phrase that is currently tossed around too lightly negatively impacting our girls and our society. /p/span A Girl's RIGHT to Kill and ’s Life Can Best if Man, Be PROUD. Boosted Content from it Possible for a Other Authors. Short Story / Science Fiction. experience all it has to offer. This is a collection of and Life Work Rockefeller, Industrialist, original short stories. Works of murder, monsters, the supernatural, . /p/span Four hours before her vacation flight to Spain, young mother Rachel Katz receives an anonymous text warning her not to of the have Made Constitution in 1787 go.
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