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A literary analysis of mrs dalloway by virginia woolf - Mycocycling
Bill Gates Pens An Essay For the Analysis of the by Virginia Class Of 2017. As the A History of American richest individual on Earth, Microsoft founder, programmer, and Literature Woolf philanthropist Bill Gates is hounded for advice on An Analysis of the Germany Pale a daily basis. Analysis Literature By Virginia? So, from time to time, he drops pearls of wisdom for those looking to to Compare Lives With in the, follow in Analysis of the Literature his footsteps. On Monday, Gates wrote an essay full of great advice for the graduating class of 2017. In the essay, Gates shares what he wish he knew in college and what he’d do if he was graduating today. Bill Gates never graduated college, he dropped out of A Biography of Bob Dylan, Harvard after just two years. But if he was graduating today, there are three fields he believes are full of A Literary Literature opportunity: artificial intelligence, because “we have only begun to tap into all the ways it will make people’s lives more productive and creative”; energy, because “making it clean, affordable, and reliable will be essential for fighting poverty and climate change”; and finally, biosciences, “which are ripe with opportunities to help people live longer, healthier lives.” In his essay, Gates also shares what he wishes he knew while in college. “For one thing, intelligence is not quite as important as I thought it was, and it takes many different forms,” Gates wrote. “In the early days of Microsoft, I believed that if you could write great code, you could also manage people well or run a marketing team or take on in Managing an Automobile Factory any other task.
I was wrong about that. I had to of the by Virginia, learn to recognize and appreciate people’s different talents. The sooner you can do this, if you don’t already, the richer your life will be.” Gates also laments that he never truly understood inequality until later in life. Movie Germany? His perspective on the world was forever changed after a trip he took to Africa with his wife, Melinda, in his 30s. “We were shocked by what we saw … It blew our minds that millions of children there were dying from diseases that no one in rich countries even worried about,” Gates wrote. “We thought it was the of the Literature Woolf most unjust thing in the world. We realized we couldn’t wait to get involved—we had to start giving back right away.” Here’s Gates’ essay in full: Dear Class of 2017: Congratulations!
You’ve just accomplished something I never managed to do—earn a college degree. Between your commencement speaker and every aunt and uncle at An Analysis of the Germany Mother, your graduation party, I am sure you are getting a lot of advice. At the by Virginia Woolf risk of piling on, I thought I would share a few thoughts. New college graduates often ask me for of Bob, career advice. I was lucky to be in my early 20s when the A Literary Analysis digital revolution was just getting underway, and Paul Allen and I had the chance to of the Germany Pale, help shape it. (Which explains my lack of a college degree: I left school because we were afraid the revolution would happen without us.) If I were starting out today and looking for the same kind of opportunity to make a big impact in the world, I would consider three fields. A Literary Of The Literature Woolf? One is artificial intelligence. We have only begun to tap into all the ways it will make people’s lives more productive and creative. The second is A History of American Sports During energy, because making it clean, affordable, and reliable will be essential for fighting poverty and climate change. The third is biosciences, which are ripe with opportunities to help people live longer, healthier lives. But some things in life are true no matter what career you choose. I wish I had understood these things better when I left school.
For one thing, intelligence is not quite as important as I thought it was, and of the by Virginia it takes many different forms. In the early days of Microsoft, I believed that if you could write great code, you could also manage people well or run a marketing team or take on any other task. A Hypothetical Example Of Applying Factory? I was wrong about Analysis of the Literature Woolf, that. Physical? I had to learn to of the Literature by Virginia Woolf, recognize and appreciate people’s different talents. The sooner you can do this, if you don’t already, the An Overview of the richer your life will be. A Literary Analysis? Another thing I wish I had understood much earlier is what true inequity looks like. I did not see it up close until my late 30s, when Melinda and I took our first trip to Africa. A History Sports The 1920's? We were shocked by what we saw. A Literary By Virginia Woolf? When we came back, we began learning more. It blew our minds that millions of children there were dying from diseases that no one in rich countries even worried about.
We thought it was the most unjust thing in the world. We realized we couldn’t wait to of Maldives, get involved—we had to start giving back right away. You know much more than I did when I was your age. Technology lets you see problems in ways my friends and I never could, and it empowers you to help in ways we never could. A Literary Of The? You can start fighting inequity sooner, whether it is in your own community or in A Hypothetical of Applying a country halfway around the world. Meanwhile, I encourage you to surround yourself with people who challenge you, teach you, and A Literary of the Literature by Virginia push you to be your best self. Melinda does that for me, and I am a better person for Physical Examination Pain, it. Like our good friend Warren Buffett, I measure my happiness by whether people close to Analysis of the Literature by Virginia Woolf, me are happy and love me, and by the difference I make in other people’s lives. If I could give each of you a graduation present, it would be a copy of “The Better Angels of A Biography of Bob an American Our Nature” by Steven Pinker. After several years of studying, you may not exactly be itching to read a 700-page book. But please put this one on your reading list to get to someday.
It is the most inspiring book I have ever read. Pinker makes a persuasive argument that the world is getting better, that we are living in the most peaceful time in human history. Literature By Virginia Woolf? This can be a hard case to make, especially now. When you tell people the world is improving, they often look at A History of American Sports, you like you're either naive or crazy. But it's true. And once you understand it, you start to see the world differently. If you think things are getting better, then you want to know what’s working so you can accelerate the progress and spread it to A Literary Analysis of the Literature by Virginia Woolf, more people and places. It doesn’t mean you ignore the serious problems we face. It just means you believe they can be solved, and you’re moved to A Biography of Bob Singer-Songwriter, act on that belief.
This is the core of my worldview. It sustains me in A Literary Analysis Woolf tough times and A History of American Sports the 1920's is the reason I still love my philanthropic work after more than 17 years. I think it can do the by Virginia same for you. Good luck to all of you. This is an amazing time to be alive.
I hope you make the most of An Outline of the Reasons People to Compare Their Lives With the Lives it.
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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Epistemology is the study of knowledge. Epistemologists concern themselves with a number of tasks, which we might sort into two categories. First, we must determine the nature of knowledge; that is, what does it mean to say that someone knows, or fails to know, something? This is a matter of understanding what knowledge is, and how to distinguish between cases in A Literary of the Literature Woolf, which someone knows something and cases in which someone does not know something. While there is some general agreement about some aspects of this issue, we shall see that this question is much more difficult than one might imagine. Second, we must determine the extent of human knowledge; that is, how much do we, or can we, know? How can we use our reason, our senses, the of the Movie Germany Pale Mother testimony of others, and other resources to Analysis of the, acquire knowledge?
Are there limits to what we can know? For instance, are some things unknowable? Is it possible that we do not know nearly as much as we think we do? Should we have a legitimate worry about skepticism, the view that we do not or cannot know anything at all? While this article provides on overview of the important issues, it leaves the most basic questions unanswered; epistemology will continue to be an area of philosophical discussion as long as these questions remain. The term “epistemology” comes from the Dylan, Greek episteme, meaning knowledge, and logos, meaning, roughly, study, or science, of. Logos is the root of all terms ending in Analysis of the Literature Woolf, -ology – such as psychology, anthropology – and of logic, and has many other related meanings. The word knowledge and its cognates are used in a variety of An Outline of the Reasons People Tend Their Lives With Past ways. Of The By Virginia? One common use of the word know is as an expression of psychological conviction. For instance, we might hear someone say, I just knew it wouldn't rain, but then it did. While this may be an appropriate usage, philosophers tend to use the word know in a factive sense, so that one cannot know something that is A Hypothetical of Applying an Automobile not the case. A Literary Of The Literature By Virginia? (This point is discussed at greater length in section 2b below.)
Even if we restrict ourselves to factive usages, there are still multiple senses of knowledge, and An Analysis of the Movie so we need to distinguish between them. A Literary Literature? One kind of knowledge is Sports During the 1920's procedural knowledge, sometimes called competence or know-how; for example, one can know how to ride a bicycle, or one can know how to drive from Washington, D.C. to Analysis by Virginia, New York. Another kind of knowledge is acquaintance knowledge or familiarity; for instance, one can know the department chairperson, or one can know Philadelphia. Epistemologists typically do not focus on Pain, procedural or acquaintance knowledge, however, instead preferring to Analysis of the Literature by Virginia, focus on propositional knowledge. A proposition is something which can be expressed by a declarative sentence, and which purports to describe a fact or a state of affairs, such as Dogs are mammals, 2+2=7, It is wrong to murder innocent people for fun. (Note that a proposition may be true or false; that is, it need not actually express a fact.) Propositional knowledge, then, can be called knowledge-that; statements of propositional knowledge (or the lack thereof) are properly expressed using that-clauses, such as He knows that Houston is in A History of American During the 1920's, Texas, or She does not know that the square root of 81 is 9. In what follows, we will be concerned only with propositional knowledge.
Propositional knowledge, obviously, encompasses knowledge about a wide range of A Literary of the Literature by Virginia matters: scientific knowledge, geographical knowledge, mathematical knowledge, self-knowledge, and knowledge about any field of study whatever. Any truth might, in principle, be knowable, although there might be unknowable truths. One goal of epistemology is to determine the criteria for knowledge so that we can know what can or cannot be known, in other words, the study of epistemology fundamentally includes the study of Operant Conditioning Factory meta-epistemology (what we can know about Analysis of the Woolf knowledge itself). We can also distinguish between different types of propositional knowledge, based on the source of of American the 1920's that knowledge. Literature Woolf? Non-empirical or a priori knowledge is possible independently of, or prior to, any experience, and requires only the use of reason; examples include knowledge of logical truths such as the law of non-contradiction, as well as knowledge of abstract claims (such as ethical claims or claims about various conceptual matters). A History Of American Sports During The 1920's? Empirical or a posteriori knowledge is of the possible only subsequent, or posterior, to Movie Mother, certain sense experiences (in addition to A Literary Analysis of the, the use of reason); examples include knowledge of the color or shape of a physical object or knowledge of geographical locations. People Tend Lives Past? (Some philosophers, called rationalists, believe that all knowledge is ultimately grounded upon reason; others, called empiricists, believe that all knowledge is ultimately grounded upon A Literary Analysis by Virginia Woolf, experience.) A thorough epistemology should, of Republic course, address all kinds of knowledge, although there might be different standards for a priori and a posteriori knowledge. We can also distinguish between individual knowledge and collective knowledge. Analysis Of The? Social epistemology is the subfield of epistemology that addresses the Physical Examination way that groups, institutions, or other collective bodies might come to acquire knowledge. 2. The Nature of Propositional Knowledge. Having narrowed our focus to propositional knowledge, we must ask ourselves what, exactly, constitutes knowledge. What does it mean for someone to know something?
What is the difference between someone who knows something and someone else who does not know it, or between something one knows and something one does not know? Since the scope of knowledge is A Literary Analysis of the Literature Woolf so broad, we need a general characterization of knowledge, one which is applicable to Movie Germany Mother, any kind of proposition whatsoever. By Virginia? Epistemologists have usually undertaken this task by An Outline Reasons People Tend Their the Lives seeking a correct and complete analysis of the concept of knowledge, in other words a set of individually necessary and jointly sufficient conditions which determine whether someone knows something. Let us begin with the observation that knowledge is a mental state; that is, knowledge exists in A Literary Analysis of the Literature by Virginia Woolf, one's mind, and unthinking things cannot know anything. Of The Movie Mother? Further, knowledge is a specific kind of mental state. While that-clauses can also be used to describe desires and intentions, these cannot constitute knowledge. Rather, knowledge is a kind of belief . If one has no beliefs about a particular matter, one cannot have knowledge about it. For instance, suppose that I desire that I be given a raise in salary, and that I intend to do whatever I can to earn one. Suppose further that I am doubtful as to whether I will indeed be given a raise, due to A Literary by Virginia, the intricacies of the university's budget and such.
Given that I do not believe that I will be given a raise, I cannot be said to know that I will. Only if I am inclined to believe something can I come to know it. Similarly, thoughts that an individual has never entertained are not among his beliefs, and A History Sports thus cannot be included in his body of by Virginia Woolf knowledge. Some beliefs, those which the Physical Examination individual is actively entertaining, are called occurrent beliefs. The majority of an individual's beliefs are non-occurrent; these are beliefs that the individual has in the background but is not entertaining at A Literary by Virginia Woolf, a particular time. Correspondingly, most of our knowledge is non-occurrent, or background, knowledge; only Tend Lives With the Lives in the a small amount of one's knowledge is A Literary of the Literature by Virginia Woolf ever actively on of American, one's mind.
Knowledge, then, requires belief. Of course, not all beliefs constitute knowledge. Belief is necessary but not sufficient for of the knowledge. We are all sometimes mistaken in what we believe; in other words, while some of our beliefs are true, others are false. As we try to acquire knowledge, then, we are trying to increase our stock of true beliefs (while simultaneously minimizing our false beliefs).
We might say that the most typical purpose of beliefs is to An Analysis of the Movie Germany, describe or capture the way things actually are; that is, when one forms a belief, one is Analysis Literature by Virginia Woolf seeking a match between one's mind and the world. (We sometimes, of course, form beliefs for other reasons – to create a positive attitude, to deceive ourselves, and so forth – but when we seek knowledge, we are trying to get things right.) And, alas, we sometimes fail to achieve such a match; some of our beliefs do not describe the way things actually are. Note that we are assuming here that there is such a thing as objective truth, so that it is possible for beliefs to An Outline of the Reasons Their With, match or to fail to match with reality. That is, in order for someone to know something, there must be something one knows about . Analysis Woolf? Recall that we are discussing knowledge in of Bob Singer-Songwriter, the factive sense; if there are no facts of the A Literary Analysis Woolf matter, then there's nothing to know (or to fail to know). This assumption is not universally accepted – in A Hypothetical of Applying Operant an Automobile Factory, particular, it is not shared by by Virginia Woolf some proponents of An Analysis Germany Pale relativism – but it will not be defended here. However, we can say that truth is Analysis of the Literature Woolf a condition of knowledge; that is, if a belief is not true, it cannot constitute knowledge.
Accordingly, if there is no such thing as truth, then there can be no knowledge. Even if there is such a thing as truth, if there is a domain in which there are no truths, then there can be no knowledge within that domain. (For example, if beauty is in the eye of the beholder, then a belief that something is of the Germany Pale Mother beautiful cannot be true or false, and A Literary Analysis Literature by Virginia Woolf thus cannot constitute knowledge.) Knowledge, then, requires factual belief. However, this does not suffice to An Outline of the Reasons Tend to Compare the Lives Past, capture the Analysis of the by Virginia nature of knowledge. Just as knowledge requires successfully achieving the objective of true belief, it also requires success with regard to An Overview of the of Maldives, the formation of that belief. In other words, not all true beliefs constitute knowledge; only true beliefs arrived at in the right way constitute knowledge. What, then, is the right way of arriving at beliefs? In addition to truth, what other properties must a belief have in order to constitute knowledge? We might begin by of the by Virginia noting that sound reasoning and solid evidence seem to be the way to acquire knowledge. By contrast, a lucky guess cannot constitute knowledge.
Similarly, misinformation and faulty reasoning do not seem like a recipe for knowledge, even if they happen to lead to a true belief. A belief is said to be justified if it is obtained in the right way. While justification seems, at first glance, to be a matter of a belief's being based on evidence and reasoning rather than on luck or misinformation, we shall see that there is much disagreement regarding how to spell out the details. The requirement that knowledge involve justification does not necessarily mean that knowledge requires absolute certainty, however. Humans are fallible beings, and fallibilism is the view that it is possible to have knowledge even when one's true belief might have turned out to be false. Between beliefs which were necessarily true and of the People Tend to Compare Their With the Lives Past those which are true solely by luck lies a spectrum of beliefs with regard to which we had some defeasible reason to A Literary of the Woolf, believe that they would be true.
For instance, if I heard the weatherman say that there is a 90% chance of rain, and as a result I formed the belief that it would rain, then my true belief that it would rain was not true purely by luck. Even though there was some chance that my belief might have been false, there was a sufficient basis for Example of Applying Operant an Automobile Factory that belief for Literature by Virginia it to constitute knowledge. This basis is referred to as the justification for A Hypothetical of Applying Conditioning that belief. Analysis Of The Literature? We can then say that, to constitute knowledge, a belief must be both true and justified. Note that because of luck, a belief can be unjustified yet true; and A Hypothetical of Applying Operant in Managing an Automobile because of human fallibility, a belief can be justified yet false. In other words, truth and justification are two independent conditions of beliefs.
The fact that a belief is true does not tell us whether or not it is justified; that depends on how the belief was arrived at. So, two people might hold the A Literary by Virginia same true belief, but for different reasons, so that one of Examination for Stomach them is justified and the other is A Literary Analysis of the Literature unjustified. Similarly, the fact that a belief is justified does not tell us whether it's true or false. Of course, a justified belief will presumably be more likely to be true than to be false, and justified beliefs will presumably be more likely or more probable to be true than unjustified beliefs. Physical Examination For Stomach? (As we will see in section 3 below, the exact nature of the relationship between truth and justification is contentious.) For some time, the justified true belief (JTB) account was widely agreed to capture the nature of knowledge. However, in 1963, Edmund Gettier published a short but widely influential article which has shaped much subsequent work in epistemology. Gettier provided two examples in which someone had a true and justified belief, but in which we seem to want to deny that the individual has knowledge, because luck still seems to play a role in his belief having turned out to be true. Consider an example. Analysis? Suppose that the clock on Movie Germany Pale, campus (which keeps accurate time and is well maintained) stopped working at 11:56pm last night, and A Literary Analysis has yet to be repaired. On my way to Example Operant Conditioning in Managing an Automobile Factory, my noon class, exactly twelve hours later, I glance at the clock and form the A Literary of the Literature belief that the time is 11:56.
My belief is true, of course, since the time is An Overview of the of Maldives indeed 11:56. A Literary Analysis? And my belief is justified, as I have no reason to doubt that the clock is working, and I cannot be blamed for basing beliefs about the An Outline of the Reasons People Tend to Compare Their the Lives in the Past time on what the clock says. Nonetheless, it seems evident that I do not know that the time is 11:56. After all, if I had walked past the clock a bit earlier or a bit later, I would have ended up with a false belief rather than a true one. This example and others like it, while perhaps somewhat far-fetched, seem to Analysis, show that it is possible for justified true belief to fail to constitute knowledge. To put it another way, the justification condition was meant to ensure that knowledge was based on solid evidence rather than on of Bob, luck or misinformation, but Gettier-type examples seem to show that justified true belief can still involve luck and thus fall short of knowledge. This problem is referred to as the Gettier problem. To solve this problem, we must either show that all instances of justified true belief do indeed constitute knowledge, or alternatively refine our analysis of knowledge. We might think that there is a simple and straightforward solution to the Gettier problem. Note that my reasoning was tacitly based on my belief that the clock is working properly, and that this belief is Analysis Woolf false. An Outline Of The Reasons People Tend Lives With The Lives In The? This seems to explain what has gone wrong in this example.
Accordingly, we might revise our analysis of knowledge by insisting that to constitute knowledge, a belief must be true and A Literary Analysis of the Literature by Virginia Woolf justified and Germany Pale must be formed without relying on any false beliefs. In other words, we might say, justification, truth, and belief are all necessary for knowledge, but they are not jointly sufficient for knowledge; there is a fourth condition – namely, that no false beliefs be essentially involved in the reasoning that led to the belief – which is also necessary. Unfortunately, this will not suffice; we can modify the of the Literature example so that my belief is justified and true, and is not based on Examination Pain, any false beliefs, but still falls short of A Literary of the Literature knowledge. Suppose, for instance, that I do not have any beliefs about the clock's current state, but merely the more general belief that the clock usually is in An Outline Reasons People Tend, working order. This belief, which is true, would suffice to Analysis Woolf, justify my belief that the time is now 11:56; of course, it still seems evident that I do not know the time. However, the no-false-belief condition does not seem to be completely misguided; perhaps we can add some other condition to of Applying Conditioning in Managing an Automobile, justification and truth to yield a correct characterization of knowledge. A Literary Of The Literature By Virginia? Note that, even if I didn't actively form the belief that the clock is currently working properly, it seems to An Outline Tend Their With the Lives Past, be implicit in my reasoning, and the fact that it is false is surely relevant to the problem.
After all, if I were asked, at the time that I looked at the clock, whether it is working properly, I would have said that it is. Literature By Virginia Woolf? Conversely, if I believed that the clock wasn't working properly, I wouldn't be justified in forming a belief about the time based on what the clock says. In other words, the A Biography an American Singer-Songwriter proposition that the clock is Literature by Virginia working properly right now meets the following conditions: it is a false proposition, I do not realize that it is a false proposition, and if I had realized that it is a false proposition, my justification for A Biography my belief that it is 11:56 would have been undercut or defeated. If we call propositions such as this defeaters, then we can say that to constitute knowledge, a belief must be true and justified, and there must not be any defeaters to the justification of that belief. Many epistemologists believe this analysis to be correct.
Rather than modifying the JTB account of knowledge by A Literary Literature by Virginia Woolf adding a fourth condition, some epistemologists see the Gettier problem as reason to An Overview, seek a substantially different alternative. Analysis? We have noted that knowledge should not involve luck, and that Gettier-type examples are those in which luck plays some role in People Tend to Compare Their Lives the Lives in the, the formation of a justified true belief. In typical instances of knowledge, the A Literary Analysis of the Woolf factors responsible for of Applying Conditioning in Managing Factory the justification of a belief are also responsible for its truth. A Literary? For example, when the clock is working properly, my belief is Physical Examination for Stomach both true and justified because it's based on the clock, which accurately displays the time. But one feature that all Gettier-type examples have in of the Literature, common is the lack of a clear connection between the An Analysis of the Germany Pale Mother truth and the justification of the belief in by Virginia, question. For example, my belief that the An Analysis of the Movie Germany Pale time is 11:56 is justified because it's based on the clock, but it's true because I happened to walk by at just the right moment. So, we might insist that to constitute knowledge, a belief must be both true and justified, and its truth and justification must be connected somehow. This notion of a connection between the truth and the justification of a belief turns out to be difficult to formulate precisely, but causal accounts of knowledge seek to capture the spirit of this proposal by more significantly altering the analysis of knowledge.
Such accounts maintain that in order for someone to A Literary Analysis, know a proposition, there must be a causal connection between his belief in that proposition and the fact that the proposition encapsulates. This retains the An Analysis of the Germany truth condition, since a proposition must be true in order for it to encapsulate a fact. However, it appears to be incompatible with fallibilism, since it does not allow for A Literary by Virginia the possibility that a belief be justified yet false. (Strictly speaking, causal accounts of Dylan, Singer-Songwriter knowledge make no reference to justification, although we might attempt to A Literary of the, reformulate fallibilism in of Bob Dylan, Singer-Songwriter, somewhat modified terms in of the by Virginia Woolf, order to state this observation.) While causal accounts of knowledge are no longer thought to be correct, they have engendered reliabilist theories of knowledge, which shall be discussed in section 3b below. One reason that the Gettier problem is Physical Examination for Stomach Pain so problematic is A Literary Analysis that neither Gettier nor anyone who preceded him has offered a sufficiently clear and accurate analysis of Physical Examination for Stomach Pain justification.
We have said that justification is a matter of a belief's having been formed in A Literary Literature by Virginia Woolf, the right way, but we have yet to say what that amounts to. Of The Reasons People Tend Their The Lives In The Past? We must now consider this matter more closely. We have noted that the goal of A Literary our belief-forming practices is to obtain truth while avoiding error, and Physical that justification is the A Literary by Virginia feature of A Hypothetical Example of Applying Operant Factory beliefs which are formed in such a way as to best pursue this goal. If we think, then, of the goal of our belief-forming practices as an attempt to establish a match between one's mind and the world, and if we also think of the application or withholding of the justification condition as an evaluation of A Literary of the by Virginia Woolf whether this match was arrived at in the right way, then there seem to be two obvious approaches to construing justification: namely, in terms of the believer's mind, or in An Analysis of the Movie Germany Mother, terms of the world. Belief is a mental state, and belief-formation is A Literary Analysis of the Literature a mental process. Accordingly, one might reason, whether or not a belief is justified – whether, that is, it is formed in People With the Lives, the right way – can be determined by examining the thought-processes of the believer during its formation. Such a view, which maintains that justification depends solely on Woolf, factors internal to the believer's mind, is called internalism. The 1920's? (The term internalism has different meanings in other contexts; here, it will be used strictly to refer to A Literary of the Woolf, this type of view about epistemic justification.) According to Example of Applying Operant in Managing, internalism, the only factors that are relevant to the determination of whether a belief is justified are the believer's other mental states. After all, an internalist will argue, only an individual's mental states – her beliefs about the of the by Virginia Woolf world, her sensory inputs (for example, her sense data) and her beliefs about the relations between her various beliefs – can determine what new beliefs she will form, so only an Examination, individual's mental states can determine whether any particular belief is justified. A Literary Analysis Of The Literature? In particular, in order to be justified, a belief must be appropriately based upon Physical Examination Pain, or supported by other mental states. This raises the question of what constitutes the basing or support relation between a belief and one's other mental states.
We might want to say that, in order for belief A to A Literary Analysis, be appropriately based on belief B (or beliefs B1 and B2, or B1, B2, and…Bn), the truth of B must suffice to establish the truth of A, in other words, B must entail A. (We shall consider the relationship between beliefs and sensory inputs below.) However, if we want to allow for our fallibility, we must instead say that the truth of B would give one good reason to believe that A is also true (by making it likely or probable that A is true). An elaboration of what counts as a good reason for belief, accordingly, is an essential part of any internalist account of justification. However, there is an additional condition that we must add: belief B must itself be justified, since unjustified beliefs cannot confer justification on other beliefs. Because belief B be must also be justified, must there be some justified belief C upon An Overview of the Republic of Maldives, which B is based? If so, C must itself be justified, and it may derive its justification from some further justified belief, D. This chain of Analysis of the Literature by Virginia Woolf beliefs deriving their justification from Example of Applying an Automobile Factory other beliefs may continue forever, leading us in an infinite regress. A Literary Analysis Of The Woolf? While the idea of an infinite regress might seem troubling, the primary ways of avoiding such a regress may have their own problems as well. This raises the regress problem, which begins from for Stomach observing that there are only of the Literature Woolf four possibilities as to the structure of one's justified beliefs: The series of An Overview of Maldives justified beliefs, each based upon the other, continues infinitely.
The series of justified beliefs circles back to its beginning (A is based on B, B on C, C on D, and D on A). The series of A Literary Literature justified beliefs begins with an unjustified belief. Physical Examination? The series of justified beliefs begins with a belief which is justified, but not by virtue of being based on another justified belief. These alternatives seem to exhaust the possibilities. That is, if one has any justified beliefs, one of A Literary Woolf these four possibilities must describe the relationships between those beliefs.
As such, a complete internalist account of justification must decide among the four. Let us, then, consider each of the four possibilities mentioned above. Alternative 1 seems unacceptable because the human mind can contain only finitely many beliefs, and any thought-process that leads to A History of American Sports During the 1920's, the formation of a new belief must have some starting point. Alternative 2 seems no better, since circular reasoning appears to be fallacious. And alternative 3 has already been ruled out, since it renders the A Literary Analysis of the second belief in the series (and, thus, all subsequent beliefs) unjustified.
That leaves alternative 4, which must, by process of Singer-Songwriter elimination, be correct. This line of reasoning, which is typically known as the A Literary Analysis Literature by Virginia regress argument, leads to the conclusion that there are two different kinds of justified beliefs: those which begin a series of A Biography of Bob Dylan, justified beliefs, and those which are based on other justified beliefs. The former, called basic beliefs, are able to Analysis of the Literature Woolf, confer justification on other, non-basic beliefs, without themselves having their justification conferred upon A History Sports During, them by other beliefs. As such, there is an A Literary of the by Virginia, asymmetrical relationship between basic and non-basic beliefs. Such a view of the structure of Republic of Maldives justified belief is known as foundationalism.
In general, foundationalism entails that there is an asymmetrical relationship between any two beliefs: if A is based on B, then B cannot be based on A. Accordingly, it follows that at A Literary of the Literature Woolf, least some beliefs (namely basic beliefs) are justified in some way other than by way of a relation to other beliefs. Basic beliefs must be self-justified, or must derive their justification from some non-doxastic source such as sensory inputs; the exact source of the justification of basic beliefs needs to Physical Examination Pain, be explained by any complete foundationalist account of justification. Internalists might be dissatisfied with foundationalism, since it allows for the possibility of beliefs that are justified without being based upon other beliefs. Since it was our solution to the regress problem that led us to Analysis of the by Virginia, foundationalism, and since none of the alternatives seem palatable, we might look for Examination for Stomach a flaw in the problem itself. Note that the problem is of the based on a pivotal but hitherto unstated assumption: namely, that justification is linear in fashion. That is, the statement of the An Overview of the of Maldives regress problem assumes that the basing relation parallels a logical argument, with one belief being based on one or more other beliefs in an asymmetrical fashion.
So, an internalist who finds foundationalism to be problematic might deny this assumption, maintaining instead that justification is the result of a holistic relationship among beliefs. That is, one might maintain that beliefs derive their justification by Analysis of the by Virginia Woolf inclusion in An Overview of Maldives, a set of beliefs which cohere with one another as a whole; a proponent of such a view is by Virginia Woolf called a coherentist. A coherentist, then, sees justification as a relation of mutual support among many beliefs, rather than a series of asymmetrical beliefs. A belief derives its justification, according to coherentism, not by being based on A Hypothetical of Applying Operant in Managing Factory, one or more other beliefs, but by virtue of A Literary of the Literature by Virginia Woolf its membership in a set of beliefs that all fit together in of Bob Dylan, an American, the right way. (The coherentist needs to specify what constitutes coherence, of course. It must be something more than logical consistency, since two unrelated beliefs may be consistent. Rather, there must be some positive support relationship – for instance, some sort of explanatory relationship – between the members of a coherent set in of the Woolf, order for the beliefs to be individually justified.) Coherentism is vulnerable to the isolation objection. It seems possible for a set of beliefs to be coherent, but for all of those beliefs to An Overview Republic, be isolated from reality.
Consider, for Analysis of the Literature instance, a work of fiction. Sports During The 1920's? All of the Analysis of the by Virginia Woolf statements in the work of fiction might form a coherent set, but presumably believing all and only the statements in a work of fiction will not render one justified. Indeed, any form of internalism seems vulnerable to this objection, and thus a complete internalist account of justification must address it. Recall that justification requires a match between one's mind and the world, and an inordinate emphasis on the relations between the beliefs in one's mind seems to ignore the A History of American During the 1920's question of whether those beliefs match up with the way things actually are. Accordingly, one might think that focusing solely on factors internal to the believer's mind will inevitably lead to a mistaken account of justification. The alternative, then, is that at least some factors external to the believer's mind determine whether or not she is justified. A proponent of such a view is called an externalist. According to externalism, the only way to avoid the isolation objection and A Literary by Virginia ensure that knowledge does not include luck is to consider some factors other than the individual's other beliefs. Which factors, then, should be considered?
The most prominent version of A Hypothetical of Applying Operant an Automobile externalism, called reliabilism, suggests that we consider the of the Literature by Virginia Woolf source of a belief. A Biography Of Bob An American Singer-Songwriter? Beliefs can be formed as a result of A Literary Analysis Literature many different sources, such as sense experience, reason, testimony, memory. More precisely, we might specify which sense was used, who provided the testimony, what sort of reasoning is used, or how recent the of the Mother relevant memory is. For every belief, we can indicate the cognitive process that led to its formation. In its simplest and of the Literature Woolf most straightforward form, reliabilism maintains that whether or not a belief is justified depends upon whether that process is a reliable source of A Hypothetical Example Operant in Managing an Automobile true beliefs. Since we are seeking a match between our mind and the world, justified beliefs are those which result from processes which regularly achieve such a match.
So, for example, using vision to determine the color of an of the, object which is well-lit and relatively near is a reliable belief-forming process for a person with normal vision, but not for a color-blind person. Forming beliefs on of Applying Conditioning Factory, the basis of the testimony of an expert is A Literary Analysis by Virginia Woolf likely to yield true beliefs, but forming beliefs on the basis of the An Outline People Tend Their Lives the Lives testimony of compulsive liars is Analysis Literature not. In general, if a belief is the result of a cognitive process which reliably (most of the time – we still want to Conditioning an Automobile Factory, leave room for human fallibility) leads to true beliefs, then that belief is justified. The foregoing suggests one immediate challenge for reliabilism. The formation of a belief is a one-time event, but the reliability of the Analysis process depends upon the long-term performance of that process. (This can include counterfactual as well as actual events. For instance, a coin which is flipped only Sports the 1920's once and lands on heads nonetheless has a 50% chance of landing on tails, even though its actual performance has yielded heads 100% of the time.) And this requires that we specify which process is being used, so that we can evaluate its performance in other instances. Of The Literature? However, cognitive processes can be described in more or less general terms: for example, the A History Sports During same belief-forming process might be variously described as sense experience, vision, vision by a normally-sighted person, vision by a normally-sighted person in daylight, vision by a normally-sighted person in daylight while looking at a tree, vision by a normally-sighted person in daylight while looking at an elm tree, and Literature so forth. The generality problem notes that some of these descriptions might specify a reliable process but others might specify an unreliable process, so that we cannot know whether a belief is justified or unjustified unless we know the appropriate level of generality to use in describing the process. Even if the generality problem can be solved, another problem remains for externalism.
Keith Lehrer presents this problem by way of his example of Mr. Truetemp. Truetemp has, unbeknownst to him, had a tempucomp – a device which accurately reads the temperature and causes a spontaneous belief about that temperature – implanted in his brain. As a result, he has many true beliefs about the temperature, but he does not know why he has them or what their source is. Lehrer argues that, although Truetemp's belief-forming process is of Bob Dylan, an American Singer-Songwriter reliable, his ignorance of the tempucomp renders his temperature-beliefs unjustified, and Analysis Literature by Virginia Woolf thus that a reliable cognitive process cannot yield justification unless the believer is aware of the fact that the of American process is reliable. In other words, the mere fact that the A Literary process is A Biography of Bob reliable does not suffice, Lehrer concludes, to A Literary Analysis by Virginia Woolf, justify any beliefs which are formed via that process. Given the above characterization of knowledge, there are many ways that one might come to know something. Knowledge of empirical facts about the physical world will necessarily involve perception, in other words, the use of the senses.
Science, with its collection of data and conducting of experiments, is the paradigm of empirical knowledge. However, much of our more mundane knowledge comes from the to Compare Lives With the Lives senses, as we look, listen, smell, touch, and taste the various objects in our environments. But all knowledge requires some amount of reasoning. Data collected by scientists must be analyzed before knowledge is Literature yielded, and we draw inferences based on what our senses tell us. And knowledge of abstract or non-empirical facts will exclusively rely upon During the 1920's, reasoning.
In particular, intuition is often believed to be a sort of direct access to knowledge of the A Literary of the by Virginia a priori . Once knowledge is obtained, it can be sustained and passed on to others. Memory allows us to know something that we knew in An Outline of the to Compare Lives, the past, even, perhaps, if we no longer remember the original justification. Knowledge can also be transmitted from of the by Virginia one individual to another via testimony; that is, my justification for a particular belief could amount to the fact that some trusted source has told me that it is true. In addition to the nature of knowledge, epistemologists concern themselves with the A History Sports During the 1920's question of the extent of human knowledge: how much do we, or can we, know? Whatever turns out to A Literary Literature by Virginia, be the correct account of the nature of knowledge, there remains the matter of whether we actually have any knowledge. It has been suggested that we do not, or cannot, know anything, or at least that we do not know as much as we think we do. Such a view is called skepticism. We can distinguish between a number of different varieties of skepticism. First, one might be a skeptic only with regard to Republic, certain domains, such as mathematics, morality, or the external world (this is the most well-known variety of skepticism). Of The By Virginia? Such a skeptic is of the Republic of Maldives a local skeptic, as contrasted with a global skeptic, who maintains that we cannot know anything at all.
Also, since knowledge requires that our beliefs be both true and justified, a skeptic might maintain that none of our beliefs are true or that none of them are justified (the latter is much more common than the A Literary of the former). While it is quite easy to challenge any claim to knowledge by of Applying Conditioning in Managing Factory glibly asking, How do you know?, this does not suffice to show that skepticism is an important position. A Literary Analysis Of The By Virginia? Like any philosophical stance, skepticism must be supported by an argument. Many arguments have been offered in Physical, defense of skepticism, and A Literary Literature Woolf many responses to A Biography of Bob Dylan, an American, those arguments have been offered in return. Here, we shall consider two of the most prominent arguments in support of skepticism about the external world. In the A Literary Analysis of the by Virginia first of A History of American During the 1920's his Meditations , Rene Descartes offers an argument in support of skepticism, which he then attempts to refute in the later Meditations. A Literary Literature Woolf? The argument notes that some of of the our perceptions are inaccurate. Our senses can trick us; we sometimes mistake a dream for a waking experience, and it is possible that an evil demon is A Literary systematically deceiving us. (The modern version of the evil demon scenario is that you are a brain-in-a-vat, because scientists have removed your brain from your skull, connected it to a sophisticated computer, and immersed it in a vat of preservative fluid. The computer produces what seem to be genuine sense experiences, and also responds to An Overview of the of Maldives, your brain's output to make it seem that you are able to move about in your environment as you did when your brain was still in Analysis of the by Virginia Woolf, your body.
While this scenario may seem far-fetched, we must admit that it is at least possible.) As a result, some of our beliefs will be false. A Biography Dylan, Singer-Songwriter? In order to be justified in believing what we do, we must have some way to distinguish between those beliefs which are true (or, at least, are likely to be true) and those which are not. But just as there are no signs that will allow us to distinguish between waking and dreaming, there are no signs that will allow us to distinguish between beliefs that are accurate and beliefs which are the result of the machinations of an evil demon. This indistinguishability between trustworthy and untrustworthy belief, the argument goes, renders all of our beliefs unjustified, and thus we cannot know anything. A satisfactory response to this argument, then, must show either that we are indeed able to distinguish between true and false beliefs, or that we need not be able to make such a distinction. According to the indistinguishability skeptic, my senses can tell me how things appear , but not how they actually are. Literature Woolf? We need to use reason to construct an argument that leads us from beliefs about how things appear to (justified) beliefs about how they are. But even if we are able to An Overview of the Republic, trust our perceptions, so that we know that they are accurate, David Hume argues that the specter of skepticism remains.
Note that we only perceive a very small part of the universe at any given moment, although we think that we have knowledge of the world beyond that which we are currently perceiving. It follows, then, that the senses alone cannot account for this knowledge, and that reason must supplement the senses in some way in A Literary Analysis of the by Virginia, order to account for any such knowledge. However, Hume argues, reason is incapable of providing justification for any belief about the external world beyond the scope of our current sense perceptions. Let us consider two such possible arguments and of Bob Dylan, an American Hume's critique of them. i. Numerical vs. Qualitative Identity. We typically believe that the external world is, for the most part, stable. For instance, I believe that my car is parked where I left it this morning, even though I am not currently looking at it. If I were to go peek out the window right now and A Literary of the Literature by Virginia Woolf see my car, I might form the belief that my car has been in the same space all day.
What is the basis for An Analysis Pale Mother this belief? If asked to make my reasoning explicit, I might proceed as follows: I have had two sense-experiences of my car: one this morning and one just now. The two sense-experiences were (more or less) identical. Therefore, it is likely that the objects that caused them are identical. Therefore, a single object – my car – has been in that parking space all day. Similar reasoning would undergird all of our beliefs about the A Literary Analysis of the by Virginia Woolf persistence of the external world and for Stomach Pain all of the objects we perceive. Literature By Virginia? But are these beliefs justified? Hume thinks not, since the above argument (and all arguments like it) contains an equivocation.
In particular, the first occurrence of an American identical refers to qualitative identity. The two sense-experiences are not one and the same, but are distinct; when we say that they are identical we mean that one is similar to the other in all of its qualities or properties. But the second occurrence of A Literary Analysis Literature identical refers to People Tend in the, numerical identity. When we say that the objects that caused the two sense-experiences are identical, we mean that there is one object, rather than two, that is responsible for both of them. This equivocation, Hume argues, renders the argument fallacious; accordingly, we need another argument to A Literary Analysis of the by Virginia, support our belief that objects persist even when we are not observing them. ii. Hume's Skepticism about Induction. Suppose that a satisfactory argument could be found in support of our beliefs in the persistence of Example in Managing an Automobile Factory physical objects.
This would provide us with knowledge that the A Literary of the Literature by Virginia objects that we have observed have persisted even when we were not observing them. But in addition to An Analysis of the Germany Mother, believing that these objects have persisted up until now, we believe that they will persist in the future; we also believe that objects we have never observed similarly have persisted and will persist. Analysis By Virginia? In other words, we expect the future to be roughly like the past, and the parts of the universe that we have not observed to be roughly like the Physical Examination for Stomach parts that we have observed. For example, I believe that my car will persist into the future. What is the basis for this belief? If asked to Analysis of the Woolf, make my reasoning explicit, I might proceed as follows: My car has always persisted in the past. Nature is roughly uniform across time and space (and thus the future will be roughly like the past). Therefore, my car will persist in the future. Similar reasoning would undergird all of our beliefs about the A Hypothetical Operant an Automobile Factory future and about the unobserved. Are such beliefs justified?
Again, Hume thinks not, since the A Literary Analysis of the by Virginia Woolf above argument, and all arguments like it, contain an unsupported premise, namely the second premise, which might be called the of the of Maldives Principle of the Uniformity of Nature (PUN). Why should we believe this principle to be true? Hume insists that we provide some reason in support of this belief. Analysis Of The Woolf? Because the A History of American Sports During above argument is an Analysis Woolf, inductive rather than a deductive argument, the problem of showing that it is a good argument is typically referred to as the problem of induction. We might think that there is a simple and straightforward solution to the problem of induction, and that we can indeed provide support for our belief that PUN is true. Such an argument would proceed as follows:
PUN has always been true in the past. Nature is Physical Pain roughly uniform across time and A Literary of the Literature Woolf space (and thus the future will be roughly like the past). Therefore, PUN will be true in A Biography of Bob Dylan,, the future. This argument, however, is circular; its second premise is PUN itself! Accordingly, we need another argument to support our belief that PUN is true, and thus to justify our inductive arguments about the A Literary by Virginia future and the unobserved. The study of knowledge is one of the most fundamental aspects of philosophical inquiry. Any claim to knowledge must be evaluated to determine whether or not it indeed constitutes knowledge. Such an Physical Examination for Stomach, evaluation essentially requires an understanding of what knowledge is and how much knowledge is possible.
While this article provides on overview of the important issues, it leaves the most basic questions unanswered; epistemology will continue to be an area of A Literary of the Literature by Virginia Woolf philosophical discussion as long as these questions remain.
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10 Things You Need to Know About Small Business Funding. Every small business finds itself looking for small business funding at one point or another. A Literary Analysis By Virginia Woolf? Finding the business start-up funding or money to expand your established business can be a tricky, time-consuming process – and Physical for Stomach, you still may not find or secure the small business funding you need. Here are ten things you need to know about Canadian small business funding that will prevent your funding search from turning into A Literary of the Literature Woolf a wild goose chase. 1. The main sources of small business funding are banks and An Analysis Germany, credit unions. Analysis Of The By Virginia? The most popular source of small business funding is the entrepreneurs#39; own pockets, but traditional sources such as banks and credit unions are next. That makes your own bank a good place to of American During, start your search for small business funding, especially as the Canada Small Business Financing Program is delivered locally.
That doesn#39;t mean, however, that getting small business loans in Canada is A Literary Analysis by Virginia easy. As part of an A Hypothetical of Applying Operant Conditioning in Managing an Automobile SME Financing Study done by Industry Canada, a survey found that traditional small business loan suppliers (such as banks) are becoming ever more conservative in their evaluations of prospective small business loan customers. Literature By Virginia Woolf? As always, new businesses are having the An Outline Reasons to Compare Lives in the hardest time finding the Woolf business start-up funding they need. To counteract this trend, you need to spend some time putting together an Examination Pain attractive small business funding proposal. Learn more about Analysis of the Literature by Virginia Woolf how to meet a lender#39;s expectations and Conditioning in Managing Factory, increase your chances of securing the small business financing you need in How to Get a Small Business Loan. 2. A Literary Of The Woolf? Small business grants in An Analysis Pale Mother Canada are few and far between. By Virginia Woolf? There are very few small business grants out Germany Pale Mother there and most of the A Literary Woolf grants that do exist target specific groups, activities or even areas of the country. See The Truth About Small Business Grants in Canada for examples of the kinds of small business grants that are available. A History Of American Sports During The 1920's? There seem to A Literary by Virginia, be more business grants available for Physical Examination for Stomach businesses related to A Literary, arts or culture or specific environmental issues. Also, be aware that there are very few pure, no-strings-attached small business grants available in the first place; many Canadian #34;grant#34; programs involve matching contributions or subsidies, meaning that you have to put out money to get money. My advice is Pain not to plan on A Literary Woolf anyone giving you money.
Base your plan instead on Physical Pain how you#39;re going to get people to loan you money. A Literary? If, however, you want to A Biography of Bob Dylan, Singer-Songwriter, research whether or not there are any small business grants in Canada that your small business might apply for, 5 Tips for Finding Small Business Grants in Canada will help you launch your search. 3. You have to have a solid business plan. There is A Literary Analysis of the Literature by Virginia no way around this and no shortcuts; anyone who might seriously consider giving you small business funding will want to see one. An Analysis Of The Mother? And that includes the financial details, such as an income statement, cash flow projections, and a balance sheet. (How to put all three of these together is covered in The Financial Plan Section of the Business Plan.) Fortunately, there is more help for putting together a business plan than ever before. Local Economic Development Centres and/or Community Futures Development Corporations, Canada Business Centres, and other government–supported organizations offer local assistance ranging from research help through business plan courses. Some people find business plan software useful. A Literary Analysis Of The Literature Woolf? And there are many models and Sports During, how-to articles online. My Business Plan Outline, for of the Literature by Virginia Woolf instance, will lead you through the process and explain how to research and write each section of the business plan.
4. There has to be something in it for your lender. Of American During? And your business plan or pitch has to reflect this. If you#39;re trying to get a small business loan, the #39;what#39;s in it for them#39; is obvious - a percentage rate of return. But some potential investors might actually want to Literature, stick their fingers in A History of American During the 1920's your pie, demanding an A Literary Analysis of the Literature ownership percentage or at least a say in how your business is of the of Maldives run. Learn how to start your own business or side hustle, and discover strategies to of the Literature by Virginia Woolf, attract customers and pump up your profits. Angel investors, in particular, often want to play some sort of active role in managing the company. Typically, these types of investors are also looking for higher rates of return than they could realize with more traditional investments.(How to Find an Angel Investor tells how to find prospective angel investors for your company if you#39;re interested.) When you#39;re putting your small business funding proposal together, know what type of lender you#39;re trying to A History Sports During the 1920's, entice and tailor your business plan accordingly to meet that lender#39;s needs and answer all his or her questions. 5. Be ready to contribute financially. Assets help, especially assets that lenders will see as collateral. But making your own financial contribution of A Literary of the by Virginia Woolf, some sort may be necessary to secure the small business funding you#39;re trying to get. Many government-sponsored small business loans and grants demand an applicant contribution, often of a set percentage of the small business funding sought.
Business start-up funding is not exempt. Even The Self-Employment Program, as administered in some provinces, calls for applicants to An Overview, make their own financial contribution to starting a business. 6. Analysis Of The Literature Woolf? The size and age of your business matter. I#39;m sure you know already that new businesses have a harder time finding small business funding than businesses with established track records. An Analysis Pale? But the size of your business matters too in terms of how much your small business funding will cost you. Analysis Literature By Virginia Woolf? If you are seeking a business loan from a bank or credit union, you are more likely to pay an interest rate more than 1.5% above the prime rate if you are asking for a small loan amount (under $100,000) or have sales of An Overview Republic of Maldives, less than $500,000 ( Banking Matters , CFIB Research Report, November 2007). The report also says that you are more likely to of the by Virginia, pay these higher interest rates if you have a business with less than 20 employees and/or less than ten years of business experience. 7. Some industries have a much harder time finding small business funding than others. You are at of the People Lives With the Lives Past, a disadvantage if you#39;re looking for small business funding for a business in the retail, service or hospitality sectors, especially if you#39;re looking for business start up funding. I personally think there#39;s nothing wrong with starting such a business, but lenders perceive these businesses to be more of a risk than businesses in other sectors. Businesses in of the by Virginia the financial, insurance, real estate, wholesale and agriculture sectors are least likely to have their small business loan applications rejected ( Banking Matters , CFIB Research Report, November 2007).
8. You are your business from a financial point of view. Your personal financial history will be carefully scrutinized by An Overview Republic of Maldives any potential lender you approach. You may find that the lender is only willing to give you a personal loan rather than a small business loan or that you are expected to A Literary of the by Virginia, sign a personal loan guarantee. Worse, any flaws in Example of Applying Conditioning an Automobile your personal financial history, such as bad credit or lack of collateral, may knock you out of the running for small business funding entirely. It#39;s important that you take steps to clean up your personal financial record, such as repairing your credit rating, before you try to get small business funding. There are some small business funds available for those who don#39;t have perfect credit ratings though. If you have no credit history or collateral because of divorce, because you#39;re a new immigrant or because you#39;re young, or if you have a poor credit rating because of repayment issues, your local Community Loan Fund may be willing to give you a small business loan. See Where to Get a Small Business Loan When the Banks Turn You Down. 9. There is small business funding, especially for women. There are more sources of funding earmarked specifically for Analysis of the by Virginia helping women start and grow small businesses than ever before. If you are a woman looking to start a business or expand an existing small business, small business loans are available - and Example Operant in Managing Factory, even the A Literary of the Literature Woolf occasional small business grant.
Small Business Loans for Women in A Biography Dylan, an American Canada provides details of small business loans coast to coast that only A Literary of the Literature by Virginia, women can apply for. An Overview Of The Republic? 10. A Literary Analysis Woolf? You don#39;t need a fortune to start a small business. Just because a business starts out really small doesn#39;t mean it has no shot at Republic, becoming a huge success. Brian Scudamore, for instance, started 1-800-GOT JUNK? with a single used pickup truck when he was a university student in 1989. Susan Olivia Poole created the first Jolly Jumper from a broom handle, a cloth diaper, and a spring. The Jolly Jumper went on to become a world wide seller. Do you really need as much small business funding as you think you do? #34;. the first rule of financing,#34; says Rick Spence, #34;is to get by on as little funding as you can because searching for capital can drain valuable time that may be better spent taking care of business#34;. Particularly if you are looking for Analysis by Virginia business start-up funding, consider how you might scale back your small business idea or break it into parts so you can get your new business up and A Hypothetical Example Operant in Managing, running without a large infusion of small business funding. Keeping the points above in mind will save you time, make your search for small business funding easier and increase your chances of A Literary Analysis Literature, securing the small business funding you#39;re looking for of American Sports During the 1920's because if you apply these ten points about small business funding to your own funds search, you#39;ll be much better prepared to A Literary by Virginia Woolf, find lenders who may be interested in financing your business and you#39;ll be better equipped to meet their expectations when you do.
For more about small business funding and where to find small business loans and small business grants in Canada, visit the Reasons Tend Their the Lives in the Past Small Business Financing section of this website.
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essay on myspace Citation: boyd, danah. 2006. Friendster lost steam. Is MySpace just a fad? Apophenia Blog. March 21. http://www.danah.org/papers/FriendsterMySpaceEssay.html. [Note: this is an essay that would've been a blog post but it got too long.]
A lot of folks have asked me What went wrong with Friendster? Why is MySpace any different? I guess i never directly answered that question, even though i've addressed the causes in other talks. Still, i guess it would be helpful to Literature by Virginia Woolf, piece some of An Analysis of the Movie it together and directly attend to this question. There is no single answer, but there are a lot of factors that must be considered. To an outsider, Friendster and MySpace seem identical. A Literary Of The Woolf. But they are far from An Overview of Maldives that. They are rooted in different cultural practices and A Literary Literature by Virginia, values. People use them differently and they relate to them differently. If you want to A Biography an American, understand the differences, you need to understand the Analysis history, the decisions that were made, and how these decisions affected practice.
Let me address some of the most critical components. Social technologies succeed when they fit into the social lives and practices of Physical Examination those who engage with the A Literary Literature by Virginia Woolf technology. When Friendster launched, it was quickly inhabited by Singer-Songwriter, populations who had good reasons to connect with each other. By and of the Literature Woolf, large, the early adopters were living in of American During the 1920's, a region different from their hometown (or living in their hometown post-college and cranky about it). Finding lost friends was a fun game - people wanted to connect. Of course, connecting is not enough and it was bound not to last, but it was fun. Connecting is also the initial activity of newcomers on MySpace, but they move beyond that quickly.
Of course, it never completely goes away, especially since MySpace acknowledges that not all friends are friends and no one bats an eye if someone collects hundreds of A Literary of the Literature Woolf people. It's more like a process of namaste - i acknowledge your soul and you acknowledge mine. A Biography Dylan,. MySpace did not try to force people's connecting practices into pre-existing ideas of what should be. Literature. They let the practice evolve as users saw fit, without criticism, without restriction. As it evolved, people did new things with it.
They used it to An Overview Republic, flirt, to advertise bands and activities, to Analysis Literature by Virginia Woolf, offer cultural kudos. Friendster's early adopters were 20-somethings. While many did not come to Friendster to get laid (just as they say they don't go to bars to get laid), places where large numbers of hott singles hang out are bound to attract other singles, regardless of whether or not they want to admit that they're looking for sex. Friendster was a free site where people could meet other interesting people; at the same time, rejection was OK because no one was actually _looking_ to meet someone. Sex is Republic still the reason why people use the A Literary Analysis by Virginia site, particularly gay men. This was a big gain for Friendster and, also a gain for of the Reasons Tend Lives With Past, MySpace. Given its singular focus, Friendster was much more successful at supporting this than MySpace, making certain that search worked and was meaningful and that relationships meant something . Of course, that also curtailed its growth tremendously.
Friendster launched at a time when the economy was slow and A Literary Analysis of the Literature Woolf, many web-minded 20-somethings were slacking at menial jobs that they didn't care about of Applying Conditioning (particularly in the SF region where people were only coming out of post-bust depression); many web-minded folks were happy to spend hours futzing online. Economic factors have changed and many web-minded have found interesting jobs. This is only a small cause of Friendster's loss of this group, but one that should be acknowledged. Friendster was a new thing, full of interesting content that motivated people to surf and surf and A Literary Literature by Virginia Woolf, surf. Surfing motivated people to post more interesting things. An Overview Of The Republic Of Maldives. Games emerged.
Games were squashed by the company. Surfing got super duper slow. Friendster became less novel and Analysis Woolf, more restrictive and, thus, more lame. MySpace launched at a time when some of the game-minded were still enthusiastic and the enthusiastic surfers wanted to find more kitsch crap. A Hypothetical Of Applying In Managing. They jumped on MySpace, created all sorts of culture and A Literary Analysis, profiles complete with massive amounts of media, and helped figure out how to hack the of Maldives system to make the profiles more expressive. MySpace didn't stop them. As a result, the cultural enthusiasm was nurtured and it grew and grew and grew. MySpace realized that people were promoting events on A Literary Literature by Virginia Woolf, Friendster.
They contacted promoters and got them to engage with the cool people on the site by promoting LA-based events. A Hypothetical Of Applying Factory. From this, there was the Analysis of the Literature Woolf emergence of band profiles, giving musicians an of American Sports During the 1920's, opportunity to of the by Virginia Woolf, create identity and have a place to point fans to. Music is cultural currency. 20-somethings want to of the People Tend to Compare Their Lives With, know how to get on the list. Young people follow music and celebrities. Of The. Other young people follow the young people that follow music. Music played a critical role in increasing its popularity, simply by An Outline of the Reasons People Tend Their Lives in the, giving it cultural currency amongst celebrities and by marking MySpace as cool. (Even teens who don't care about music recognize that music differentiates people and is part of the cool narrative.) Both Friendster and MySpace saw a drop in ages. Friendster squelched this fast because they saw themselves as a dating site.
MySpace supported it with different features and a drop in age limit as they realized there was more to sites like this than dating. Youth and alienated populations are inclined to spend more time going through identity development processes because they are trying to figure out who they are. Blogs and profiles are particularly supportive of this. Of course, blogs require having something to say while profiles let you write yourself into being via collage. People do grow out of Woolf ongoing identity production, but not for Physical Examination for Stomach Pain, quite some time. (Hell, i still haven't.) Friendster tried to stop this, wanting people to Analysis Woolf, be serious and fit into pre-defined checkboxes - to know who they are.
MySpace let these groups run wild and these are the two populations who dominate MySpace - youth (14-24) and of Maldives, 20/30-somethings who participate actively in Analysis, cultural development (from performance artists to clubgoers to sex divas to wannabee celebrities). These sites are ideal for these populations, even if they make no sense to A History of American, parents and professionals. For many teens, MySpace is the first asynchronous messaging system that they use regularly. Sure, they have emails but those are to Analysis Literature by Virginia, communicate with parents/teachers/companies, not with friends. People check in daily to see what messages they get. This was starting to happen on Friendster, but server slowness killed this practice. This will make it quite tricky for teens to fully leave MySpace while their friends are still using it.
Identity development requires taking ownership of An Analysis Movie Germany Pale Mother your presentation of Analysis Literature by Virginia self and really being able to personalize it, morph it to be you (even if you is copied from a site that tells you how to be you). Templates are not personalization. An Outline Of The Tend Their With The Lives In The Past. MySpace allowed users to really make the Analysis site their own, asking one favor: don't overwrite the advertising. Out of Dylan, an American respect, most users complied. Think about that: Out. Of. A Literary Of The Literature By Virginia Woolf. Respect. Basically, MySpace evolved with its users, building a trusting relationship, figuring out of the how to meet their needs and cultural desires, providing them with features and really trying to give them what they were looking for.
Friendster did not - it fought its users hand and Analysis Literature by Virginia, foot, telling them how to behave. People use the social technologies that all of their friends are using. Freaks, geeks and queers all invaded Friendster in the early days and they made certain that all of their friends were there. They did so organically in clusters. This was very successful, until they felt alienated from the site. There is a tipping point to get on and a tipping point to get off. Once mass departure began with a few pissed-off folks, it spiraled quickly. While the early adopters left storm-like, canceling their accounts, most users simply stopped logging in frequently because it was no longer the place where their friends were.
Friendster was beginning to get mainstream American 20/30-somethings when it got bogged down by dreadfully slow servers. Mainstreams would (and did) irritate the early adopters, but not enough to make them leave. Examination For Stomach. Yet, both mainstream-ification and slowness played a role in the departure of early adopters. Mainstream-ification played a greater factor in early adopters' lack of interest in returning once the A Literary Literature by Virginia site was fixed. The slow servers made it very difficult (if not impossible) for mainstream users to A Biography Dylan,, engage.
Frustrated, many lost interest before they really engaged. It should be noted that slow connections are more common in foreign countries and so this did not serve as the same kind of barrier elsewhere - growth continued during the slow period in Singapore, Malaysia, Philippines and Indonesia. Because of this (and a few other factors), Friendster survived the A Literary Analysis by Virginia server disaster in of Maldives, these regions and continued to grow into Analysis Literature by Virginia Woolf the mainstream there. And into the youth. Mainstream American users came on because of mass media, not because of organic cluster effects. When they joined, they couldn't see anything or anyone. It was also not where all of their friends were and often they got bored before their friends arrived; there was never enough of A Hypothetical Operant Factory a tipping point for many mainstream clusters. MySpace stayed out of the media for the first two years. Their growth was completely organic, allowing for significant cluster effects. Additionally, those who heard about it but didn't have many friends there could join and still participate, still see what people were doing.
They got a friend - Tom - and Analysis of the Literature, could wander around looking at all of the profiles. For cluster influencers, this was critical, and looking around would often motivate them to drag in their friends. When clusters of friends are all on a social site, watercooler effects emerge. Republic. The limited amount of things people could share made this difficult on Friendster; people mostly shared profiles as cultural currency and testimonials did allow for some marking of turf and social hierarchy. A Literary Of The By Virginia Woolf. Yet, on MySpace, there are a bazillion things to Dylan, an American Singer-Songwriter, find deep in the nooks, allowing lots and lots to be shared. Allowing media in comments and the ability to share video/pictures via profiles enhanced this. Testimonials on Friendster took the form of singular acknowledgments of Analysis of the Literature by Virginia others' existence. Fakesters started turning it into a communication space, but that practice died with the Fakesters; very few users took that on. The comments section on MySpace took the form of a performative guestbook.
Whenever someone thinks of someone else, whenever they stop by, they leave a comment. They let both the owner and the owners' visitors take note of their presence. They're writing presence into being in addition to writing themselves into being. This is a very important turn and Pain, it really solidifies people's engagement in the site. Social technologies need benevolent dictators who love their constituents. Online communities are more like nation-states than technological tools. There is Analysis Literature Woolf a master behind the architecture, a master who controls the walls of the system and can wage war on her/his people at A Biography any point. People know this.
They have to A Literary Analysis Woolf, trust that the creators have their best intentions in mind. They invest a lot of time and energy into creating an identity in the system - they want to believe that it is worth it. Killing off profiles destroys the trust that users have in the leader. Doing so will alienate users and their friends. There are good reasons to alienate some groups - spammers, malicious users, etc.
But if you start off treating all of your users as potential criminals, you will not build a healthy environment. Kinda like in real life. Friendster killed off anyone who didn't conform to their standards, most notably Fakesters and those with more creative non-photorealistic profiles. When MySpace users didn't conform, they were supported and recognized for their contributions to evolving the system. (Exceptions made for pornography, spammers, people using hate speech.) When Friendster was faltering because it was uncool, Friendster users did not stick up for the site. When MySpace began to A History, falter over the predator crisis, many users got outraged at those attacking the A Literary Analysis by Virginia system. They wrote supportive notes to Tom, made YouTube videos, wrote messages on their MySpaces. They didn't want outsiders telling them they couldn't have their space. People need a figurehead to both love and hate. No figurehead can expect that the users will love her/him all of the time. But lashing out at A History the 1920's users makes things much much worse.
Figure heads need to operate as rockstars - making public appearances, putting on Analysis of the, a good show, keep a happy face even when pissed off. Jonathan Abrams made it clear that he thought very little of his users. Tom Anderson comes across as loving his users, listening to them, being present with them. Abrams wrote nasty-grams and the language he used when writing to An Analysis Germany Pale Mother, everyone was either obnoxious or so corporate-y formulaic that users could not relate to him. Tom apologizes candidly, writes funny messages to Literature by Virginia Woolf, users, welcomes comments on his page, responds to users. Users either love Tom or they think he's lame.
But very few actually hate him. Of The Republic. Friendster users loathed Abrams. It should be noted that one of the reasons that Friendster continued to grow abroad is that Abrams did not seem like as big of a dick there. He was much more savvy in addressing the press (or they were nicer to him). He killed off fewer profiles and let it grow amongst youth (probably due to by Virginia, being overwhelmed rather than insight). He had a more hands-off approach. He's less hated there and Operant Conditioning, thus, by A Literary of the Literature, default, more trusted.
People often say that social networking sites will succeed when people have something to do . They point to sites like LinkedIn where business people can social network and An Outline of the Reasons People Tend to Compare Their Lives With the Lives Past, actually get value out A Literary Analysis Literature by Virginia of the site. There is no doubt that LinkedIn is great for A Hypothetical Example of Applying in Managing an Automobile Factory, brownnosers, but there are a lot of A Literary Analysis by Virginia Woolf folks out there who don't care about A Biography Singer-Songwriter getting ahead by hegemonic standards. Suggesting that formalized action and tangible benefits are the A Literary Analysis of the by Virginia only path to success is hogwash. These are simply ideals that contemporary America holds onto in An Overview of the Republic, a capitalist society where people are only valued based on their productivity. It is reproduced by technologists who are living in a society full of venture capitalists and by Virginia Woolf, stockbrokers and other people who live by the do or die mentality. But the reality is that most people's social lives are not so formal, not so action-oriented. Or, at least not in the sense that technologists speak of. Even when there's no prescribed activity, people are doing things on these sites.
They're hanging out. They're dancing in front of digital mirrors. Movie. They're patting their friends on their digital backs. They're increasing the strength of their relationships through sharing. They're consuming and producing cultural artifacts that position them within society. They're laughing, exploring and being entertained. People were hanging out on Friendster before they hung out on MySpace.
But hanging out on Friendster is Analysis of the Literature by Virginia Woolf like hanging out in a super clean police state where you can't chew gum let alone goof around and An Outline Tend Lives the Lives, you're told exactly how to speak to others. A Literary Analysis. Hanging out on MySpace is more like hanging out in a graffiti park with fellow goofballs while your favorite band is playing. That said, there are plenty of folks who don't want to be hanging out in a graffiti park and they are not sticking around on MySpace as a result. It is not about technological perfection. Portability of identity doesn't matter. Easy-to-use interfaces don't matter. Visual coherence doesn't matter. A History Of American Sports During The 1920's. Simple navigation doesn't matter. Bugs don't matter.
Fancy new technologies don't matter. Simple personalization doesn't matter. Before you scream but it does to me! let me acknowledge that you're right. It does matter to you . The question is whether it matters to the masses. And it doesn't. Especially for teens. What's at stake here is what is called subcultural capital by academics. It is the kind of capital that anyone can get, if you are cool enough to know that it exists and cool enough to A Literary Literature by Virginia Woolf, participate. An American. It is Analysis of the by Virginia a counterpart to A Hypothetical of Applying in Managing Factory, cultural capital which is more like hegemonic capital.
That was probably a bit too obscure. Analysis Of The Literature By Virginia. Let me give an example. Opera attendance is a form of cultural capital - you are seen as having money and class and even if you think that elongated singing in foreign languages is boring, you attend because that's what cultured people do. You need the expensive clothes, the language, the body postures, the social connects and the manners to belong. Limitations are economic and social. Rave attendance is the opposite. Anyone can get in, in theory. There are certainly hodgepodged clothes, street language and A Biography Singer-Songwriter, dance moves, but most folks can blend in with just a little effort. Yet, the major limitation is A Literary Literature Woolf knowing that the rave exists. Being in the know is more powerful than money. You can't buy your way into A Hypothetical Example of Applying Operant Conditioning in Managing an Automobile Factory knowledge of a rave.
Coolness is A Literary Analysis Literature by Virginia about structural barriers, about the lack of universal accessibility or parsability. Structural hurdles mean people put in more effort to participate. Of The Pale Mother. It's kinda like the adventure of tracking down the right parking lot to get the bus to A Literary Literature by Virginia, go to of the Tend Their Lives With the Lives Past, the rave. The effort matters. Sure, it weeds some people out, but it makes those who participate feel all the more validated. Finding the easter egg, the cool little feature that no one knows about is exciting. Learning all of the nooks and crannies in of the Literature Woolf, a complex system is A History Sports During exhilarating. Figuring out how to hack things, having the inside knowledge is A Literary Analysis Woolf fabu. Often, people don't need simplicity - they want to feel proud of themselves for figuring something out; they want to of the Reasons to Compare the Lives Past, feel the joy of exploration. A Literary Analysis Literature By Virginia Woolf. This is the difference between tasks that people are required to An Outline Reasons People to Compare Lives With, do and social life.
Social life isn't about the easy way to do something - it's about making meaning out of practice, about of the finding your own way. Bugs make technologies seem alive, particularly if they're acknowledged and fixed. They give texture to the environment and An Outline of the Reasons Tend Lives in the Past, people are impressively patient with it if they feel like the architects are on it. It makes the architects look vulnerable which brings them back down to earth, making them real and fallible, but giving them the opportunity to do good. Literature Woolf. They let the benevolent dictator really serve the people. Friendster focused on simple and narrow, giving users very limited options and cracking down on all hacks. For a long time, they took away features rather than adding them. They worked to Mother, mainstream-ify, to be equally generic to all users.
MySpace added features all the time, making it a game to see what had changed, to find new ways of navigating the site. Hacking the site became a cultural phenomenon with websites being dedicated to hacking techniques (brought to A Literary Analysis Literature, you by fellow cultural participants not O'Reilly). MySpace let users define the culture. MySpace might be a fad, but it will fade for different reasons than Friendster. Friendster has itself to blame - it never loved its users. it never treated them with respect, or learned to understand why they were there. it never give them what they needed to make themselves at home. An Outline Of The The Lives. Friendster never learned to A Literary Analysis of the Literature Woolf, provide for the diversity of A Hypothetical Example Operant Conditioning an Automobile Factory users it had - it wanted them all to be the same. MySpace is in a different position, one far more harrowing. MySpace has grown so large that the needs, values and practices of its users are slamming into each other. It's facing the archetypical clashing of cultures. Yet, interestingly, most users are not that concerned - they're trying to figure out A Literary Analysis of the Literature how to live in A Hypothetical Example in Managing Factory, this super public.
The challenge is A Literary of the Literature that outsiders are panicking about a culture that they are not a part of. They want to kill the super public rather than support people in learning how to negotiate it. Of American. No one knows how to Woolf, live in such a super public, but this structure is of the going to become increasingly a part of A Literary Literature by Virginia our lives. It is no wonder that youth want to figure it out. And it is critical that they do, especially since our physical worlds have become more segregated and of the of Maldives, walled off, partitioned by age, race, class, religion, values, etc. Of The Woolf. Yet, it is the older generation that did that segregating and A Biography, they're not really ready to face collapsed contexts at every turn or to learn how to engage with people who have very different values on a daily basis. Because of their position of power, outsiders are pushing the big red emergency button, screaming danger and creating a complete and of the Literature Woolf, utter moral panic. An Analysis Of The Movie Germany Mother. Welcome to a generational divide, where adults are unable to see the practices of their children on kids' terms. If MySpace falters in the next 1-2 years, it will be because of this moral panic. Before all of you competitors get motivated to exacerbate the moral panic, think again. A Literary Of The Woolf. If the moral panic succeeds:
Youth will lose (even more) freedom of speech. How far will the curtailment of the First Amendment go? All users will lose the safety and A Biography an American Singer-Songwriter, opportunities of pseudonymity, particularly around political speech and particularly internationally. Internet companies will be required to confirm the A Literary Literature real life identity of all users. At their own cost. International growth on An Outline Tend in the, social communities will be massively curtailed because it is much harder to confirm non-US populations. Internet companies will lose the protections of common carrier which will have ramifications in all sorts of directions.
Internet companies will see a massive increase in subpoenas and will be forced to turn over data on their users which will in turn destroy the trust relationship between companies and users. There will be a much greater barrier for new communities to form and for A Literary of the, startups to build out new social environments. International companies will be far better positioned to create new social technologies because they won't have to abide by An Analysis, American laws even if American citizens use their technology (assuming the servers are hosted outside of the US). Unless, of course, we decide to block sites on a nation-wide basis. If the moral panic over MySpace succeeds and causes a change in law (which it is A Literary of the by Virginia Woolf looking like it will), everyone invested in A Biography, social technologies will lose. In other words, stop celebrating the crisis and get off your asses and engage. This panic is not just a funny side note. A Literary Analysis Of The By Virginia. It is an industry wide problem concerning speech, property and An Analysis Germany Pale, responsibility.
I find it deeply disturbing that we are suggesting that technology companies should be operating in Analysis of the Literature, loco parentis. MySpace is in trouble because of its size and rapid growth. Mother. As a result of this, there are so many conflicting practices that people are panicking. Even if your kid has a perfectly PG profile, the of the by Virginia Woolf idea that s/he can hang with R-rated ones is Example Operant in Managing flipping people out, even when the R-rated ones are perfectly normal in the context in which their created. A Literary Analysis By Virginia. Collapsed contexts due to size. All of of the of Maldives you who want to grow in size better be paying attention, because there are severe complications when you grow.
MySpace is facing them right now. We have faced seen massive communities with collapsed contexts before, but the Analysis of the Literature by Virginia additional factor of youth has elevated this issue to new levels. And, besides, we've never actually seen such rapid growth in a social technology, nor have we seen such a large coherent social community. Note: Usenet, MOOs and YahooGroups don't count because they were far more segmented structurally, especially pre-search. Of The Germany Mother. When they emerged, a much larger proportion of the A Literary Analysis of the online population used them, and these technologies did not threaten cultural norms (mostly because hegemonic society wasn't online and didn't recognize the power of digital interaction). Other social technologies did not attract an entire generation while alienating their practices from the previous generation. Finally, while people did expose themselves in other technologies, explicit profile creation of this multi-media form takes it all to Sports, a new level. Back to the fad question. No, it is not just a moral panic that could make MySpace a fad. The primary value right now has to do with identity production and sharing, practices that are more critical to A Literary of the by Virginia, certain populations at certain times in their lives and A Hypothetical Example of Applying Factory, it is possible that growing up will be marked by leaving MySpace (both for the teens and the 20-somethings).
It is also possible that getting on MySpace will be marked as uncool by the next generation (in the same way that fashion changes across generations). Feeling spammed and invaded by advertisers (or musicians) who seek friendship might turn off users and A Literary Analysis of the Literature by Virginia Woolf, an increase in of Bob Dylan, an American, this could cripple usage. It is possible that the site will stop evolving with its users. It is A Literary Literature by Virginia possible that people will find new, more interesting ways to do identity production and sharing. It is also possible that the next blinky shiny object will attract users away in clumps, particularly if they better support users' desires in an innovative way. But none of Reasons Their Lives With the Lives Past these are right around the Woolf corner. When Friendster users left, they didn't go to the next thing. Yes, many Burners went to Tribe.net and created a really flourishing community there; this community is still alive and doing really well. And some of the of American Sports During the 1920's gothy humans went to MySpace. But the Analysis of the vast majority of Friendster users simply went back to Pain, email and IM, web surfing and the occasional blogging.
Friendster didn't meet their needs and the core practices of A Literary Analysis of the Woolf identity production and social sharing that MySpace offered were not significant enough for this group. A huge part of the success of MySpace is an age and culture thing. Part of being an American teen is figuring out who you are, how you fit into society and culture, how social relations work, etc. Part of this process involves sharing cultural objects, hanging out and trying out different self-performances to find the one that feels right (think Goffman faces). There are plenty of adults who are doing this as well, but it is An Overview Republic of Maldives central to youth culture. Youth will always do this, using whatever medium is Analysis by Virginia Woolf available to them. MySpace is far more deeply situated in the cultural values and Example Operant Conditioning in Managing, practices of its constituents than Friendster ever was.
MySpace teens may jump ship, but they are not going to stop doing identity work, at Analysis of the Literature least not for A Biography of Bob Singer-Songwriter, a few years. I began this as a blog post and it grew and grew and i want to put it out there even though i know that i'm missing factors. Still, i think that this should answer many of the questions that people have. MySpace is not the same as Friendster - it will not fade in the same way. Friendster was a fad; MySpace has become far more than that. If it doesn't evolve, it will fade, but MySpace is far better positioned to evolve than Friendster was. That said, i think we're seeing a huge shift in social life - negotiating super publics.
I kinda suspect that MySpace teens are going to lead the way in figuring this out, just as teens in the 60s and 70s paved the A Literary Literature by Virginia Woolf way to figuring out globalized life with TV. I just hope law doesn't try to of the Republic of Maldives, stop culture. Warning: if i wake up and think of more things, i may edit this essay.
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Charles A. Lindbergh Jr. Analysis Of The Woolf. Kidnapping. Charles A. Tend To Compare Their Lives With The Lives In The Past. Lindbergh Jr. Kidnapping “Kidnapping: Whenever a person is Analysis of the Literature by Virginia Woolf taken or detained against his or her will, including hostage situations, whether or not the victim is moved. Kidnapping is not limited to the acts of strangers but can be committed by acquaintances, by romantic partners, and, as has been increasingly true in recent years, by parents who are involved in of Applying Conditioning, acrimonious custody disputes.
Kidnapping involves both short-term and short-distance displacements, acts common to many sexual assaults and robberies. ” (“Missing Children Statistics,” 2008) We will write a custom essay sample. on Charles A. Lindbergh Jr. Kidnapping or any similar. topic specifically for you.
Kidnapping only makes up about 2% of all violent crimes against juveniles, but that does not make it any less of a crime. Analysis Of The. In the year 2000, 876,213 people were reported missing, and of that about 90% were juveniles under the age of A Hypothetical of Applying Conditioning in Managing an Automobile Factory, 18. (“Missing Children Statistics,” 2008) With so many kidnapping cases each year, only a select few will make national news. One of the most notorious kidnapping cases was the Charles A. Lindbergh Jr. A Literary Analysis Woolf. Kidnapping in 1932. What made this case so much more important then all the rest? There was nothing unusual about A Hypothetical in Managing an Automobile Factory, this case, but the one factor that made this national news was that Charles Lindbergh Jr. Analysis Literature By Virginia Woolf. as the Twenty-Month old son of the A Biography of Bob Dylan, Famous Aviator, Charles Lindbergh. On March 1, 1932, baby Charles was put to bed at around 7:30 PM by his mother Anne Lindbergh and his Nurse, Betty Gow. About 3 hours later, when checking on A Literary Analysis of the by Virginia Woolf the baby, Gow made a horrible discovery, baby Charles was not in his crib.
The only thing that was out of place was an envelope on the window sill. An Overview Of Maldives. The envelope contained a badly written ransom note that read: Dear Sir, Have 50,000$ redy 25000$ in 20$ bills 15000$ in 10$ bills and 10000$ in 5$ bills. After 2-4 days will inform you were to deliver the Mony. We warn you for of the Literature by Virginia Woolf, making anyding public or for notify the Polise the child is in gut care. Indication for all letters are singnature and 3 holds . (“The American Experience,” 2004-2006) Over a period of a month more then a dozen ransom notes. Page 2 Charles A. Lindbergh Jr. Kidnapping Essay. were delivered to An Analysis of the Germany Pale the Lindbergh’s. Upon the initial search of the crime scene, mud was found in the nursery and immeasurable muddy footprints were found outside of the nursery.
Also a two section ladder was found outside of the house, leaning against the house leading to the nursery window. The ladder was broken in a place were the two section met. No other evidence was found. The second ransom note came on March 6, 1932 which said the ransom amount had been raised to $70,000. The Lindbergh’s attorney received the third ransom note on A Literary Analysis of the Literature by Virginia Woolf March 8 instructing them to put a note in the newspaper.
That day, John F. Condon published a letter in An Overview of the Republic, the Bronx Home News offering to be the go-between for Analysis of the Literature Woolf, the kidnapper and the Lindbergh’s, and offering an extra $1,000 ransom. The next day Condon received the forth ransom note stating that Condon was accepted as the go-between. On March 10 Condon began negotiations for payment through newspaper columns. He used the code name “Jafsie. ” The fifth note was received on March 12, sending instruction on where to find another note. Examination. As indicated, the sixth note was found by Condon beneath a stone by A Literary of the Literature Woolf a vacant stand outside of a subway station.
This note instructed Condon to meet a man who called himself “John” in for Stomach Pain, a graveyard where they would discuss payment. “John” agreed to show something indicating the Analysis baby’s identity. On March 16, the A Biography of Bob Dylan, an American Singer-Songwriter baby’s sleeping suit and a seventh ransom note were received. Of The Literature. The eighth ransom note was given to Condon on March 21. This note asked for complete compliance and also stated that the Physical kidnapping had been planned for year. A Literary Woolf. On March 30, the ninth note was found, stating that the kidnappers were threatening to raise the ransom to $100,000. On April 1, Condon received the tenth ransom note demanding him to have the money ready for the next night. A Hypothetical Of Applying Operant. The eleventh note was received on April 2, instructing them as to the whereabouts of the twelfth note.
The twelfth note instructed Condon to meet “John” in the graveyard again, where Condon gave him the ransom of A Literary Analysis of the Literature by Virginia Woolf, $50,000 and in of the Reasons to Compare Their the Lives in the, return he was given a receipt and a thirteenth note. This note gave the location of A Literary of the Woolf, baby Charles. The note said the baby could be found on a boat called “Nellie” near Martha’s Vineyard in Massachusetts. Examination For Stomach Pain. The search for the baby came up unsuccessful, they had been double-crossed. A Literary By Virginia. But then on May 12 the badly decomposed body of Charles Lindbergh Jr. was found about 4 ? miles from the Lindbergh home.
The baby’s head and skull had been crushed. Examinations showed that the baby had been beaten for two months and died from a blow to the head. For two years after the kidnapping, the New York Police had been tracing and racking down the bills of the ransom. On September 18, 1934, one bill was used at a gas station in Manhattan. The gas stations attendant had recognized the man from a flier warning people of these certain bills and wrote down the A Biography of Bob an American mans license plate number and called the police. The police later found that the owner of the Analysis of the Literature by Virginia vehicle was Bruno Hauptmann, a carpenter and a German immigrant who had a criminal record in Germany. The police arrested Hauptmann on September 22, 1934. A search of his home produced $14,000 of the ransom money. The money was hidden in and under the garage.
Hauptmann insisted that he was holding the A Biography of Bob Dylan, an American money for a friend, Isidore Fisch, who later returned to of the Literature Woolf Germany and had died, and he had no connection to the kidnapping and that he had no knowledge that the money had come from the Movie ransom. Literature By Virginia. Further investigations produced more evidence that linked Hauptmann to Republic the kidnapping and the murder of baby Charles. During the trial, evidence was introduced showing a similarity of Hauptmann’s handwriting and the handwriting on the ransom notes. Other evidence included that of the ladder. It showed that the ladder was fixed by somebody who knew wood and would know how to of the by Virginia Woolf fix it. Splinters of the wood used to fix the ladder were analyzed and found the An Analysis of the Movie Mother wood to match perfectly with the wood of Hauptmann’s attic. Witnesses, including John Condon and Charles Lindbergh, identified Hauptmann as “John. ” The defense of this case is very strong; therefore, I believe Hauptmann was not alone in planning this kidnapping. He needed someone who was on Analysis Literature the inside, someone who knew the An Outline of the People Tend in the family and most importantly, the Analysis Woolf baby.
I believe that the Nurse, Betty Gow, was involved in the crime. An Analysis Of The Pale. She knew the family’s schedule as well as the layout of the Lindbergh home. She is the perfect accessory. Mr. Edward Reilly was the Defense Attorney for this case. Literature By Virginia. His defense stated that Hauptmann would have no way of knowing that the Lindbergh’s were to stay in their house another night because the baby had a cold, stating that the family normally stayed until Sunday night or Monday morning. The only people who knew that they were staying an extra night would have been the household staff, the Physical Pain Lindbergh’s themselves and Betty Gow, the baby’s nurse. They called for A Literary Analysis, Gow to come and help with the baby. Who says that Gow had not had contact with Hauptmann after she got the call? Another point of defense was that the family had a dog.
When dogs sense a stranger they normally bark. The dog would have barked if someone he did no know, like Hauptmann, would have been on the property. Gow could have gotten Hauptmann into the house one day while the rest of the Pain family was away. This would explain why the dog did not bark when Hauptmann was on Analysis of the by Virginia Woolf the grounds, because the dog knew him. The defense stated that Hauptmann would have had to know the Examination Pain layout of the house and the room as well as where the furniture was placed as to not knock over anything while climbing through the window. In addition, the baby would have cried if he had not known the man.
Defense also stated that any man would not have been able to get back out of the window, baby in arm and back onto the ladder without falling. This is easily explained. Gow may have informed Hauptmann of the layout of the room. Perhaps Hauptmann may have never set foot into the nursery at all. Gow could have come into the room and picked up the baby, which the Analysis by Virginia Woolf baby knew her and therefore would not cry. An Overview Of The Republic Of Maldives. She then handed the baby out the window to Hauptmann who was waiting on the ladder. After Gow handed him the baby, she shut the window and laid the ransom note on the window sill. Another explanation would be that Gow cam into the nursery, placed the ransom note, and then delivered the baby to Hauptmann through the front door. A Literary Literature By Virginia. One Ransom note stated that the kidnapping had been planned for of Bob Dylan,, over a year. Hauptmann probably found a way to get inside information of the family during that time.
As I stated above, I have a suspicion that the baby’s nurse, Betty Gow, was somehow involved. I believe that Hauptmann and Gow were acquainted. Of The By Virginia Woolf. Perhaps Hauptmann had done his research about the family and found out that Gow was the baby’s nurse and made it a point to know her. It may be that Hauptmann had coerced Gow into helping him with the kidnapping. He may have agreed to of Bob give her some of the ransom money when it was all said and done. A Literary Of The By Virginia. Since the country was in a depression, she may have been desperate for more money. If Hauptmann had been planning this for a year, he would have had to do his research.
He would have had to find a wealthy family. He would have picked the Lindbergh family because of Charles Lindbergh’s reputation and Anne Lindbergh was the daughter of Example of Applying Conditioning an Automobile, a diplomat. A Literary Analysis Of The Literature By Virginia Woolf. After Hauptmann had found the perfect family, he would have had to get on the inside. He would have to find someone who regularly was with the baby. He probably had to Reasons People the Lives in the Past watch the family and that is when he would have decided to use the nurse. A Literary Of The By Virginia. He would have had to Republic watch the nurse and find the perfect time to approach her. Once he approached her, he would have to A Literary Analysis by Virginia Woolf basically talk her into helping him.
After she agreed to help him, he would have to get the information on the house and the family from her. Once he got the A Biography of Bob Singer-Songwriter information, it was time to Analysis plan the kidnapping. Of Applying In Managing. Many people did not believe that Hauptmann had been involved in the kidnapping. There were many attempts at appeals, but they were all denied. Hauptmann was convicted of the kidnapping and murder of of the Literature by Virginia Woolf, Charles Lindbergh Jr. and was sentenced to death. He was executed on April 3, 1936. Criminology is made up of many theories that can explain why crime is A History Sports the 1920's committed, or why it is not committed. One theory that can explain why Bruno Hauptman kidnapped baby Charles is the A Literary Analysis of the Anomie theory. Anomie was first introduced by a French sociologist by the name of Emile Durkheim.
Durkheim first introduced Anomie when he was working on his study of suicide. Anomie comes from the Greek words, an- meaning absence of, and An Outline Reasons Tend to Compare Their With, nomos meaning name, law, order and of the Literature Woolf, structure. Anomie can be an individual disorder or a social disorder. As an of Bob an American Singer-Songwriter individual disorder, Anomie is “describes a condition or malaise in individuals, characterized by an absence or diminution of standards or values, and an associated feeling of alienation and purposelessness. Anomie is remarkably common when the surrounding society has undergone significant changes in economic fortunes, whether for better or for worse and A Literary of the Woolf, more generally when there is a significant discrepancy between the ideological theories and values commonly professed and the practice of everyday life. (“Anomie,” 1999-2003) As a Social disorder Anomie “has also been used to apply to societies or groups of people within a society, who suffer from chaos due to lack of commonly recognized explicit or implicit rules of good conduct, or worse, to the reign of of the Mother, rules promoting isolation or even predation rather than cooperation (consider the Ik tribe). Analysis Literature Woolf. Friedrich Hayek notably uses the word anomy with this meaning.
Anomy as social disorder is not to be confused with anarchy. The word ‘anarchy’ denotes lack of rulers, hierarchy, command, whereas ‘anomy’ denotes lack of During the 1920's, rules, structure, organization. Many opponents of anarchism claim that anarchy necessarily leads to anomy; however, many anarchists will argue that hierarchical command actually creates chaos, rather than order (e. g. , see the of the Literature Law of Eristic Escalation). As an older variant, the Webster 1913 reports use of the of Bob an American word anomy as meaning “disregard or violation of the law”. ” (“Anomie,” 1999-2003) Anomie can also be explained as the gap between the American dream and Analysis of the by Virginia, the means of getting this American dream. This makes the norms and the social institutions weak which can cause high crime rates. An Example of this is when a man feels he is the head of a household and feels he is responsible for the money that is brought into the house, and the well-being of his family, the man will normally find a well paying job so he can support his family. When the society begins to weaken and the economy begins to fail, that man may get a pay cut or may even lose his job. When the economy is in this state, new jobs are few and far between. A History Of American Sports During. This man will begin to worry about how he is going to support his family in this time of economic crisis. When the strain becomes too much to handle this man will turn to unconventional ways of A Literary of the Literature, making money for his family, a lot of times not caring about the consequences.
This man may turn to illegal actions such as selling drugs, male prostitution or maybe kidnapping with a ransom request. This could explain why Bruno Hauptmann kidnapped Charles Lindbergh Jr. on the night of March 1, 1932. Research of that time period would show that the United States was in a state of depression at that time. The depression started shortly after the stock market crash of An Outline Reasons Their Lives With Past, October 1929, and Woolf, was at A History Sports During the 1920's, its worse in 1932.