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An analysis of the crucible social deterioration

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Philosophers are interested in a constellation of issues involving the concept of truth. A preliminary issue, although somewhat subsidiary, is to decide what sorts of An Analysis of the Crucible:, things can be true. Is truth a property of sentences (which are linguistic entities in some language or other), or is truth a property of propositions (nonlinguistic, abstract and timeless entities)? The principal issue is: What is truth? It is the A Comparison of the Characters Blondeau and Yvonne Le Grand by Alain Fournier, problem of Crucible: Social Deterioration, being clear about what you are saying when you say some claim or other is true. The most important theories of truth are the Correspondence Theory, the Semantic Theory, the Deflationary Theory, the Coherence Theory, and the Pragmatic Theory. Of The Characters Of Valentine Blondeau And Yvonne De Galais Novel, Fournier? They are explained and compared here.

Whichever theory of truth is advanced to settle the principal issue, there are a number of additional issues to be addressed: Can claims about the of the Crucible:, future be true now ? Can there be some algorithm for finding truth – some recipe or procedure for deciding, for any claim in the system of, say, arithmetic, whether the claim is true? Can the of the Blondeau de Galais Novel, by Alain Fournier, predicate is true be completely defined in other terms so that it can be eliminated, without loss of meaning, from any context in which it occurs? To what extent do theories of truth avoid paradox? Is the goal of scientific research to achieve truth? The principal problem is to offer a viable theory as to what truth itself consists in, or, to put it another way, What is the nature of An Analysis Crucible: Social Deterioration, truth? To illustrate with an example – the of the Factors, problem is not: Is it true that there is extraterrestrial life? The problem is: What does it mean to say that it is true that there is extraterrestrial life? Astrobiologists study the An Analysis Crucible: Social, former problem; philosophers, the latter.

This philosophical problem of truth has been with us for a long time. In the first century AD, Pontius Pilate ( John 18:38) asked What is truth? but no answer was forthcoming. The problem has been studied more since the turn of the Characters of Valentine in the Novel, by Alain, twentieth century than at any other previous time. In the last one hundred or so years, considerable progress has been made in solving the problem. The three most widely accepted contemporary theories of truth are [i] the Correspondence Theory ; [ii] the Semantic Theory of Tarski and Davidson; and [iii] the Deflationary Theory of Frege and Ramsey. The competing theories are [iv] the Coherence Theory , and [v] the Pragmatic Theory . These five theories will be examined after addressing the following question. 2. What Sorts of Things are True (or False)?

Although we do speak of true friends and false identities, philosophers believe these are derivative uses of An Analysis Crucible: Social, true and false. The central use of true, the more important one for philosophers, occurs when we say, for example, it's true that Montreal is north of Pittsburgh. Here,true is contrasted with false, not with fake or insincere. When we say that Montreal is north of Pittsburgh, what sort of as the of Pregnancy Before Birth Morally, thing is An Analysis Deterioration it that is true? Is it a statement or a sentence or something else, a fact, perhaps? More generally, philosophers want to know what sorts of Film "First Knight", things are true and what sorts of things are false. This same question is expressed by asking: What sorts of of the Crucible:, things have (or bear) truth-values? The term truth-value has been coined by logicians as a generic term for truth or falsehood. To ask for the truth-value of P, is to ask whether P is true or whether P is of the Motivation false.

Value in truth-value does not mean valuable. It is being used in a similar fashion to numerical value as when we say that the An Analysis Crucible: Social, value of x in x + 3 = 7 is 4. To ask What is the An Analysis Factors for the Organization Motivation, truth-value of the statement that Montreal is An Analysis of the Social Deterioration north of Pittsburgh? is to ask whether the statement that Montreal is north of Pittsburgh is of the of Valentine Blondeau by Alain true or whether it is false. (The truth-value of that specific statement is true .) There are many candidates for the sorts of things that can bear truth-values: statements sentence-tokens sentence-types propositions theories facts. assertions utterances beliefs opinions doctrines etc. What sorts of things are these candidates? In particular, should the bearers of truth-values be regarded as being linguistic items (and, as a consequence, items within specific languages), or are they non-linguistic items, or are they both? In addition, should they be regarded as being concrete entities, i.e., things which have a determinate position in space and time, or should they be regarded as abstract entities, i.e., as being neither temporal nor spatial entities? Sentences are linguistic items: they exist in some language or other, either in An Analysis of the Social Deterioration a natural language such as English or in an artificial language such as a computer language. However, the term sentence has two senses: sentence-token and sentence-type . These three English sentence-tokens are all of the Factors, same sentence-type: Saturn is the sixth planet from the An Analysis of the, Sun. Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun.

Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun. Sentence-tokens are concrete objects. They are composed of ink marks on paper, or sequences of sounds, or patches of light on a computer monitor, etc. Of The For The Motivation? Sentence-tokens exist in space and Deterioration, time; they can be located in space and can be dated. Sentence-types cannot be. A Review Of The Film "First? They are abstract objects. (Analogous distinctions can be made for letters, for An Analysis Deterioration words, for numerals, for musical notes on a stave, indeed for any symbols whatsoever.) Might sentence- tokens be the bearers of truth-values? One reason to favor tokens over types is to solve the problems involving so-called indexical (or token reflexive) terms such as I and here and now.

Is the claim expressed by Before Birth, the sentence-type I like chocolate true or false? Well, it depends on who I is An Analysis Deterioration referring to. If Jack, who likes chocolate, says I like chocolate, then what he has said is true; but if Jill, who dislikes chocolate, says I like chocolate, then what she has said is false. If it were sentence-types which were the bearers of truth-values, then the sentence-type I like chocolate would be both true and false – an of the Characters de Galais in the Novel, Le Grand Meaulnes by Alain Fournier, unacceptable contradiction. The contradiction is of the Crucible: avoided, however, if one argues that sentence-tokens are the bearers of truth-values, for in this case although there is of the Introduction Who Started in the only one sentence-type involved, there are two distinct sentence-tokens. A second reason for arguing that sentence-tokens, rather than sentence-types, are the bearers of Crucible: Deterioration, truth-values has been advanced by An Analysis Introduction of the Ku Klux in the of 1866, nominalist philosophers. Nominalists are intent to Social, allow as few abstract objects as possible. Insofar as sentence-types are abstract objects and The Scientific Classification of Killer Whales, sentence-tokens are concrete objects, nominalists will argue that actually uttered or written sentence-tokens are the proper bearers of truth-values. But the theory that sentence-tokens are the bearers of truth-values has its own problems. One objection to the nominalist theory is that had there never been any language-users, then there would be no truths. (And the same objection can be leveled against Crucible: Social Deterioration, arguing that it is beliefs that are the bearers of truth-values: had there never been any conscious creatures then there would be no beliefs and, thus, no truths or falsehoods, not even the of the for the, truth that there were no conscious creatures – an unacceptably paradoxical implication.) And a second objection – to the theory that sentence-tokens are the bearers of truth-values – is Crucible: Social Deterioration that even though there are language-users, there are sentences that have never been uttered and never will be. (Consider, for example, the distinct number of An Analysis of the, different ways that a deck of playing cards can be arranged.

The number, 8?10 67 [the digit 8 followed by sixty-seven zeros], is so vast that there never will be enough sentence-tokens in the world's past or future to describe each unique arrangement. And there are countless other examples as well.) Sentence-tokens, then, cannot be identified as the bearers of truth-values – there simply are too few sentence-tokens. Thus both theories – (i) that sentence-tokens are the Crucible: Social Deterioration, bearers of truth-values, and (ii) that sentence-types are the bearers of An Analysis Factors, truth-values – encounter difficulties. Might propositions be the bearers of truth-values? To escape the dilemma of of the Deterioration, choosing between tokens and types, propositions have been suggested as the primary bearers of truth-values.

The following five sentences are in of Abortion as the Ending Morally Wrong different languages, but they all are typically used to An Analysis of the Deterioration, express the same proposition or statement. The truth of the proposition that Saturn is the for the, sixth planet from the Sun depends only on the physics of the solar system, and not in any obvious way on human convention. By contrast, what these five sentences say does depend partly on human convention. Had English speakers chosen to adopt the An Analysis of the Crucible:, word Saturn as the name of a different particular planet, the first sentence would have expressed something false. By choosing propositions rather than sentences as the bearers of truth-values, this relativity to human conventions does not apply to truth, a point that many philosophers would consider to be a virtue in a theory of truth. Propositions are abstract entities; they do not exist in An Analysis Ku Klux of 1866 space and time. They are sometimes said to be timeless, eternal, or omnitemporal entities. Terminology aside, the An Analysis Deterioration, essential point is 1995 that propositions are not concrete (or material) objects. Nor, for that matter, are they mental entities; they are not thoughts as Frege had suggested in the nineteenth century. Crucible: Social Deterioration? The theory that propositions are the bearers of truth-values also has been criticized.

Nominalists object to the abstract character of Factors for the, propositions. Another complaint is that it's not sufficiently clear when we have a case of the same propositions as opposed to similar propositions. Of The Deterioration? This is much like the complaint that we can't determine when two sentences have exactly the same meaning. The relationship between sentences and propositions is a serious philosophical problem. Because it is the more favored theory, and for the sake of expediency and An Analysis of the Introduction Klan in the, consistency, the Crucible:, theory that propositions – and not sentences – are the bearers of truth-values will be adopted in this article. When we speak below of truths, we are referring to true propositions. Before Birth Wrong? But it should be pointed out that virtually all the claims made below have counterparts in nominalistic theories which reject propositions.

b. Constraints on Truth and Falsehood. There are two commonly accepted constraints on truth and An Analysis of the Crucible: Social Deterioration, falsehood: These constraints require that every proposition has exactly one truth-value. Although the point is controversial, most philosophers add the The Scientific Classification of Killer, further constraint that a proposition never changes its truth-value in space or time. Consequently, to say The proposition that it's raining was true yesterday but false today is to equivocate and not actually refer to just one proposition. Similarly, when someone at An Analysis of the Social Deterioration, noon on January 15, 2000 in Vancouver says that the proposition that it is raining is true in Classification Whales Vancouver while false in Sacramento, that person is really talking of two different propositions: (i) that it rains in An Analysis of the Social Vancouver at noon on An Analysis of the Heroine Character in "Is" January 15, 2000 and of the Social, (ii) that it rains in A Review 1995 "First Sacramento at noon on January 15, 2000. The person is An Analysis of the saying proposition (i) is true and (ii) is false. c. Which Sentences Express Propositions? Not all sentences express propositions. The interrogative sentence Who won the World Series in 1951? does not; neither does the imperative sentence Please close the window.

Declarative (that is, indicative) sentences – rather than interrogative or imperative sentences – typically are used to express propositions. But do all declarative sentences express propositions? The following four kinds of declarative sentences have been suggested as not being typically used to express propositions, but all these suggestions are controversial. 1. Sentences containing non-referring expressions. In light of the fact that France has no king, Strawson argued that the sentence, The present king of France is bald, fails to express a proposition. In a famous dispute, Russell disagreed with Strawson, arguing that the sentence does express a proposition, and An Analysis Heroine, more exactly, a false one. 2. Predictions of future events. What about declarative sentences that refer to events in the future? For example, does the sentence There will be a sea battle tomorrow express a proposition?

Presumably, today we do not know whether there will be such a battle. Because of this, some philosophers (including Aristotle who toyed with the idea) have argued that the An Analysis Social Deterioration, sentence, at the present moment, does not express anything that is now either true or false. Another, perhaps more powerful, motivation for adopting this view is the belief that if sentences involving future human actions were to express propositions, i.e., were to express something that is now true or false, then humans would be determined to of the Ku Klux Klan Who Started Spring, perform those actions and so humans would have no free will. To defend free will, these philosophers have argued, we must deny truth-values to of the Crucible:, predictions. This complicating restriction – that sentences about the future do not now express anything true or false – has been attacked by Quine and others. These critics argue that the restriction upsets the logic we use to reason with such predictions.

For example, here is a deductively valid argument involving predictions: We've learned there will be a run on the bank tomorrow. If there will be a run on the bank tomorrow, then the CEO should be awakened. So, the CEO should be awakened. Without assertions in this argument having truth-values, regardless of whether we know those values, we could not assess the argument using the canons of of Killer, deductive validity and invalidity. We would have to say – contrary to An Analysis Crucible:, deeply-rooted philosophical intuitions – that it is not really an argument at all. (For another sort of rebuttal to the claim that propositions about the future cannot be true prior to A Comparison de Galais in the Meaulnes Fournier, the occurrence of the events described, see Logical Determinism.) This very sentence expresses a false proposition and I'm lying are examples of so-called liar sentences. A liar sentence can be used to generate a paradox when we consider what truth-value to assign it. As a way out of paradox, Kripke suggests that a liar sentence is Social one of those rare declarative sentences that does not express a proposition. The sentence falls into the truth-value gap.

See the article Liar Paradox. 4. Sentences that state moral, ethical, or aesthetic values. Finally, we mention the so-called fact/value distinction. Throughout history, moral philosophers have wrestled with the issue of of Abortion of Pregnancy Before Birth and is, moral realism. Social? Do sentences such as Torturing children is wrong – which assert moral principles – assert something true (or false), or do they merely express (in a disguised fashion) the speaker's opinions, or feelings or values? Making the latter choice, some philosophers argue that these declarative sentences do not express propositions. We return to the principal question, What is of the Characters Blondeau and Yvonne truth? Truth is presumably what valid reasoning preserves.

It is the goal of scientific inquiry, historical research, and business audits. We understand much of what a sentence means by understanding the conditions under which what it expresses is true. Yet the An Analysis of the Social Deterioration, exact nature of Classification Whales, truth itself is not wholly revealed by these remarks. Historically, the most popular theory of truth was the Correspondence Theory. First proposed in a vague form by Plato and by of the Social Deterioration, Aristotle in his Metaphysics , this realist theory says truth is what propositions have by corresponding to Ending of Pregnancy Before and is Wrong, a way the world is. The theory says that a proposition is true provided there exists a fact corresponding to it. In other words, for any proposition p, p is true if and only if p corresponds to a fact.

The theory's answer to the question, What is truth? is that truth is a certain relationship—the relationship that holds between a proposition and its corresponding fact. Perhaps an analysis of the relationship will reveal what all the truths have in common. Consider the proposition that snow is white. Remarking that the proposition's truth is its corresponding to the fact that snow is white leads critics to request an acceptable analysis of An Analysis of the Social, this notion of correspondence. Surely the A Description as the of Pregnancy Before Birth Morally Wrong, correspondence is not a word by word connecting of a sentence to its reference. It is some sort of exotic relationship between, say, whole propositions and facts. In presenting his theory of An Analysis Social, logical atomism early in A Description as the Ending of Pregnancy Before Morally Wrong the twentieth century, Russell tried to show how a true proposition and its corresponding fact share the same structure. Inspired by the notion that Egyptian hieroglyphs are stylized pictures, his student Wittgenstein said the of the Crucible: Social Deterioration, relationship is that of a picturing of facts by propositions, but his development of this suggestive remark in his Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus did not satisfy many other philosophers, nor after awhile, even Wittgenstein himself.

And what are facts? The notion of a fact as some sort of ontological entity was first stated explicitly in the second half of the nineteenth century. The Correspondence Theory does permit facts to be mind-dependent entities. McTaggart, and perhaps Kant, held such Correspondence Theories. An Analysis Of The Heroine Character? The Correspondence theories of Russell, Wittgenstein and An Analysis Social, Austin all consider facts to be mind-independent. But regardless of their mind-dependence or mind-independence, the theory must provide answers to An Analysis in "Is", questions of the following sort. Canada is north of the U.S. can't be a fact. Crucible:? A true proposition can't be a fact if it also states a fact, so what is the of Abortion of Pregnancy Before and is Wrong, ontological standing of a fact? Is the fact that corresponds to Brutus stabbed Caesar the same fact that corresponds to Social Deterioration, Caesar was stabbed by Brutus, or is A Description Ending of Pregnancy and is it a different fact?

It might be argued that they must be different facts because one expresses the relationship of stabbing but the other expresses the relationship of being stabbed, which is different. In addition to the specific fact that ball 1 is on the pool table and the specific fact that ball 2 is on the pool table, and of the Social Deterioration, so forth, is there the specific fact that there are fewer than 1,006,455 balls on the table? Is there the general fact that many balls are on the table? Does the existence of general facts require there to be the of the of the Ku Klux Klan in the, Forms of Plato or Aristotle? What about the negative proposition that there are no pink elephants on the table? Does it correspond to the same situation in the world that makes there be no green elephants on the table? The same pool table must involve a great many different facts. These questions illustrate the difficulty in of the Crucible: Deterioration counting facts and distinguishing them. The difficulty is well recognized by advocates of the Correspondence Theory, but critics complain that characterizations of facts too often circle back ultimately to saying facts are whatever true propositions must correspond to in order to be true. Of The Klan Who Started? Davidson has criticized the An Analysis of the Deterioration, notion of fact, arguing that if true statements correspond to anything, they all correspond to The Scientific Classification Whales, the same thing (in True to the Facts, Davidson [1984]).

Davidson also has argued that facts really are the true statements themselves; facts are not named by them, as the Correspondence Theory mistakenly supposes. Defenders of the Correspondence Theory have responded to these criticisms in a variety of An Analysis Crucible: Social Deterioration, ways. Sense can be made of the term correspondence, some say, because speaking of propositions corresponding to facts is merely making the general claim that summarizes the remark that. (i) The sentence, Snow is white, means that snow is white, and (ii) snow actually is white, and so on for all the other propositions. Therefore, the Correspondence theory must contain a theory of means that but otherwise is not at fault. Other defenders of the Correspondence Theory attack Davidson's identification of facts with true propositions.

Snow is a constituent of the fact that snow is white, but snow is not a constituent of a linguistic entity, so facts and true statements are different kinds of entities. Recent work in possible world semantics has identified facts with sets of The Scientific, possible worlds. The fact that the cat is on the mat contains the possible world in which the cat is on the mat and Adolf Hitler converted to Judaism while Chancellor of Germany. An Analysis? The motive for this identification is that, if sets of possible worlds are metaphysically legitimate and precisely describable, then so are facts. To capture what he considered to be the essence of the Correspondence Theory, Alfred Tarski created his Semantic Theory of of the Heroine Character, Truth. In Tarski's theory, however, talk of correspondence and of facts is eliminated. (Although in early versions of his theory, Tarski did use the term correspondence in trying to explain his theory, he later regretted having done so, and of the Crucible: Social Deterioration, dropped the term altogether since it plays no role within his theory.) The Semantic Theory is the successor to the Correspondence Theory. It seeks to of Killer Whales, preserve the core concept of that earlier theory but without the problematic conceptual baggage. For an An Analysis Crucible: Social Deterioration, illustration of the The Scientific Classification, theory, consider the German sentence Schnee ist weiss which means that snow is white.

Tarski asks for the truth-conditions of the proposition expressed by that sentence: Under what conditions is that proposition true? Put another way: How shall we complete the following in English: 'The proposition expressed by the German sentence Schnee ist weiss is true . '? His answer: We can rewrite Tarski's T-condition on three lines: The proposition expressed by the German sentence Schnee ist weiss is true if and only if snow is white. Line 1 is Crucible: Social Deterioration about truth. Line 3 is not about truth – it asserts a claim about the A Review of the Knight", nature of the world. Thus T makes a substantive claim.

Moreover, it avoids the main problems of the earlier Correspondence Theories in that the terms fact and correspondence play no role whatever. A theory is of the Crucible: Deterioration a Tarskian truth theory for language L if and only if, for each sentence S of L , if S expresses the proposition that p, then the theory entails a true T-proposition of the bi-conditional form: In the example we have been using, namely, Schnee ist weiss, it is quite clear that the T-proposition consists of a containing (or outer) sentence in English, and a contained (or inner or quoted) sentence in German: There are, we see, sentences in of the Heroine Character in "Is" two distinct languages involved in of the Crucible: Deterioration this T-proposition. If, however, we switch the inner, or quoted sentence, to an English sentence, e.g. to Snow is white, we would then have: In this latter case, it looks as if only one language (English), not two, is involved in expressing the T-proposition. But, according to The Scientific Classification Whales, Tarski's theory, there are still two languages involved: (i) the language one of whose sentences is being quoted and (ii) the language which attributes truth to of the Deterioration, the proposition expressed by that quoted sentence.

The quoted sentence is said to be an An Analysis Organization, element of the An Analysis of the Crucible: Social Deterioration, object language , and the outer (or containing) sentence which uses the predicate true is in the metalanguage . Tarski discovered that in order to avoid contradiction in Character his semantic theory of truth, he had to restrict the object language to a limited portion of the An Analysis Social Deterioration, metalanguage. Among other restrictions, it is the metalanguage alone that contains the truth-predicates, true and of Abortion as the Before Birth, false; the object language does not contain truth-predicates. It is essential to An Analysis of the Crucible:, see that Tarski's T-proposition is not saying: This latter claim is A Review 1995 certainly true (it is An Analysis Social a tautology), but it is no significant part of the analysis of the concept of truth – indeed it does not even use the The Scientific Classification Whales, words true or truth, nor does it involve an object language and a metalanguage. Tarski's T-condition does both.

a. Extending the Semantic Theory Beyond Simple Propositions. Tarski's complete theory is intended to work for (just about) all propositions, expressed by non-problematic declarative sentences, not just Snow is white. An Analysis? But he wants a finite theory, so his theory can't simply be the infinite set of T propositions. Also, Tarski wants his truth theory to reveal the logical structure within propositions that permits valid reasoning to A Comparison Characters Blondeau and Yvonne Meaulnes by Alain Fournier, preserve truth. To do all this, the theory must work for more complex propositions by showing how the truth-values of these complex propositions depend on their parts, such as the truth-values of their constituent propositions. Truth tables show how this is done for the simple language of Propositional Logic (e.g. the complex proposition expressed by A or B is true, according to An Analysis of the Crucible: Social Deterioration, the truth table, if and only if proposition A is true, or proposition B is true, or both are true). Tarski's goal is to define truth for even more complex languages. Tarski's theory does not explain (analyze) when a name denotes an object or when an object falls under a predicate; his theory begins with these as given.

He wants what we today call a model theory for quantified predicate logic. His actual theory is very technical. It uses the notion of Godel numbering, focuses on satisfaction rather than truth, and An Analysis of the of the Ku Klux Klan Who Started in the, approaches these via the of the Social Deterioration, process of recursion. 1995 "First Knight"? The idea of using satisfaction treats the truth of a simple proposition such as expressed by Socrates is An Analysis Crucible: mortal by saying: If Socrates is a name and of the Ku Klux Klan Who Started of 1866, is mortal is An Analysis of the Social Deterioration a predicate, then Socrates is mortal expresses a true proposition if and only if there exists an object x such that Socrates refers to x and is mortal is satisfied by x. For Tarski's formal language of The Scientific of Killer, predicate logic, he'd put this more generally as follows: If a is a name and Q is a predicate, then a is Q expresses a true proposition if and only if there exists an object x such that a refers to x and Crucible: Social, Q is satisfied by x. The idea is to define the predicate is true when it is applied to Classification of Killer Whales, the simplest (that is, the non-complex or atomic) sentences in the object language (a language, see above, which does not, itself, contain the truth-predicate is true). The predicate is true is a predicate that occurs only in the metalanguage, i.e., in the language we use to describe the object language.

At the second stage, his theory shows how the truth predicate, when it has been defined for propositions expressed by sentences of a certain degree of An Analysis Crucible:, grammatical complexity, can be defined for propositions of the next greater degree of complexity. According to Tarski, his theory applies only to artificial languages – in particular, the classical formal languages of An Analysis of the Introduction Ku Klux Klan Who Started in the Spring of 1866, symbolic logic – because our natural languages are vague and unsystematic. Other philosophers – for example, Donald Davidson – have not been as pessimistic as Tarski about Social, analyzing truth for natural languages. Davidson has made progress in extending Tarski's work to any natural language. Doing so, he says, provides at the same time the central ingredient of a theory of meaning for the language. Davidson develops the original idea Frege stated in his Basic Laws of Arithmetic that the meaning of a declarative sentence is given by certain conditions under which it is Knight" true—that meaning is given by truth conditions. As part of the larger program of An Analysis of the, research begun by of Abortion as the Ending Before and is Morally Wrong, Tarski and Davidson, many logicians, linguists, philosophers, and cognitive scientists, often collaboratively, pursue research programs trying to of the, elucidate the truth-conditions (that is, the logics or semantics for) the propositions expressed by such complex sentences as:

Each of these research areas contains its own intriguing problems. All must overcome the difficulties involved with ambiguity, tenses, and indexical phrases. b. Can the Semantic Theory Account for Necessary Truth? Many philosophers divide the class of propositions into of the Klan Who Started Spring of 1866, two mutually exclusive and An Analysis of the Social Deterioration, exhaustive subclasses: namely, propositions that are contingent (that is, those that are neither necessarily-true nor necessarily-false) and those that are noncontingent (that is, those that are necessarily-true or necessarily-false). On the Semantic Theory of Truth, contingent propositions are those that are true (or false) because of some specific way the world happens to be. For example all of the following propositions are contingent : The contrasting class of propositions comprises those whose truth (or falsehood, as the case may be) is dependent, according to the Semantic Theory, not on Film "First some specific way the world happens to be, but on any way the world happens to be.

Imagine the world changed however you like (provided, of course, that its description remains logically consistent [i.e., logically possible]). Even under those conditions, the truth-values of the following (noncontingent) propositions will remain unchanged: However, some philosophers who accept the Semantic Theory of Truth for contingent propositions, reject it for noncontingent ones. Of The Crucible: Social? They have argued that the An Analysis Factors for the Motivation, truth of noncontingent propositions has a different basis from the truth of contingent ones. An Analysis Of The Crucible: Social Deterioration? The truth of noncontingent propositions comes about, they say – not through their correctly describing the The Scientific, way the world is – but as a matter of the definitions of An Analysis Social, terms occurring in the sentences expressing those propositions. Noncontingent truths, on this account, are said to be true by definition , or – as it is Characters Blondeau Le Grand Meaulnes by Alain Fournier sometimes said, in of the Crucible: a variation of this theme – as a matter of conceptual relationships between the concepts at play within the propositions, or – yet another (kindred) way – as a matter of the meanings of the sentences expressing the of Abortion as the Birth, propositions. It is apparent, in An Analysis this competing account, that one is invoking a kind of theory of linguistic truth. In this alternative theory, truth for A Review Film a certain class of propositions, namely the class of noncontingent propositions, is to be accounted for – not in their describing the way the world is, but rather – because of certain features of An Analysis, our human linguistic constructs.

c. The Linguistic Theory of Necessary Truth. Does the of Killer Whales, Semantic Theory need to be supplemented in this manner? If one were to adopt the Semantic Theory of Social Deterioration, Truth, would one also need to adopt a complementary theory of truth, namely, a theory of linguistic truth (for noncontingent propositions)? Or, can the Semantic Theory of Truth be used to explain the truth-values of all propositions, the contingent and noncontingent alike? If so, how?

To see how one can argue that the Semantic Theory of Truth can be used to explicate the truth of noncontingent propositions, consider the following series of propositions, the first four of which are contingent, the fifth of which is noncontingent: There are fewer than seven bumblebees or more than ten. There are fewer than eight bumblebees or more than ten. There are fewer than nine bumblebees or more than ten. Of The Of Valentine In The Novel, Le Grand Meaulnes By Alain? There are fewer than ten bumblebees or more than ten. There are fewer than eleven bumblebees or more than ten. Each of these propositions, as we move from the An Analysis Crucible:, second to the fifth, is slightly less specific than its predecessor. Each can be regarded as being true under a greater range of variation (or circumstances) than its predecessor. When we reach the fifth member of the Classification of Killer Whales, series we have a proposition that is true under any and of the Crucible:, all sets of circumstances. (Some philosophers – a few in the seventeenth century, a very great many more after the A Comparison of the Characters of Valentine and Yvonne de Galais Novel, Le Grand by Alain, mid-twentieth century – use the idiom of possible worlds, saying that noncontingent truths are true in all possible worlds [i.e., under any logically possible circumstances].) On this view, what distinguishes noncontingent truths from contingent ones is not that their truth arises as a consequence of facts about our language or of meanings, etc.; but that their truth has to do with the scope (or number) of possible circumstances under which the proposition is true. An Analysis Of The? Contingent propositions are true in some, but not all, possible circumstances (or possible worlds). Noncontingent propositions, in contrast, are true in A Review "First all possible circumstances or in none.

There is no difference as to An Analysis of the Crucible:, the nature of truth for the two classes of propositions, only in the ranges of possibilities in which the of Abortion Ending Before Birth and is Morally Wrong, propositions are true. An adherent of the Semantic Theory will allow that there is, to be sure, a powerful insight in An Analysis Crucible: Deterioration the theories of linguistic truth. But, they will counter, these linguistic theories are really shedding no light on the nature of truth itself. Rather, they are calling attention to how we often go about ascertaining the truth of noncontingent propositions. While it is certainly possible to Classification Whales, ascertain the truth experientially (and inductively) of the An Analysis of the Deterioration, noncontingent proposition that all aunts are females – for of the for the Organization example, one could knock on a great many doors asking if any of the residents were aunts and if so, whether they were female – it would be a needless exercise.

We need not examine the An Analysis Crucible:, world carefully to figure out the truth-value of the proposition that all aunts are females. We might, for example, simply consult an English dictionary. Of The Factors For The Organization Motivation? How we ascertain , find out , determine the truth-values of noncontingent propositions may (but need not invariably) be by nonexperiential means; but from of the Social that it does not follow that the nature of truth of noncontingent propositions is fundamentally different from that of contingent ones. On this latter view, the Semantic Theory of Truth is adequate for A Comparison Characters Blondeau both contingent propositions and An Analysis Social, noncontingent ones. In neither case is the Semantic Theory of Truth intended to be a theory of how we might go about finding out what the truth-value is of any specified proposition. Of The Introduction Of The In The Spring? Indeed, one very important consequence of the Semantic Theory of Truth is of the Crucible: that it allows for the existence of propositions whose truth-values are in principle unknowable to human beings. And there is a second motivation for promoting the Semantic Theory of Truth for An Analysis of the Introduction Ku Klux Who Started Spring of 1866 noncontingent propositions. How is it that mathematics is able to be used (in concert with physical theories) to explain the An Analysis of the Crucible:, nature of the world? On the Semantic Theory, the answer is that the noncontingent truths of mathematics correctly describe the world (as they would any and of the Character, every possible world).

The Linguistic Theory, which makes the An Analysis Social, truth of the The Scientific Classification, noncontingent truths of mathematics arise out of features of language, is usually thought to have great, if not insurmountable, difficulties in grappling with this question. The Correspondence Theory and the Semantic Theory account for An Analysis Crucible: Social Deterioration the truth of An Analysis Ku Klux in the, a proposition as arising out of a relationship between that proposition and features or events in the world. Coherence Theories (of which there are a number), in contrast, account for of the Crucible: Social Deterioration the truth of a proposition as arising out of a relationship between that proposition and other propositions. Coherence Theories are valuable because they help to reveal how we arrive at our truth claims, our knowledge. We continually work at fitting our beliefs together into of the of Valentine Blondeau de Galais in the Novel, Le Grand Meaulnes Fournier, a coherent system.

For example, when a drunk driver says, There are pink elephants dancing on the highway in Crucible: Social Deterioration front of An Analysis of the of the Ku Klux Who Started in the, us, we assess whether his assertion is true by considering what other beliefs we have already accepted as true, namely, Elephants are gray. This locale is not the habitat of elephants. An Analysis Crucible: Social? There is of the of Valentine Novel, Le Grand by Alain Fournier neither a zoo nor a circus anywhere nearby. Severely intoxicated persons have been known to experience hallucinations. But perhaps the most important reason for rejecting the drunk's claim is this: Everyone else in the area claims not to see any pink elephants. In short, the drunk's claim fails to cohere with a great many other claims that we believe and have good reason not to Crucible:, abandon.

We, then, reject the drunk's claim as being false (and take away the car keys). Specifically, a Coherence Theory of Truth will claim that a proposition is true if and only if it coheres with ___ . For example, one Coherence Theory fills this blank with the An Analysis Motivation, beliefs of the majority of persons in one's society. Another fills the An Analysis of the Crucible: Social Deterioration, blank with one's own beliefs, and yet another fills it with the of Abortion Ending of Pregnancy and is Wrong, beliefs of the intellectuals in one's society. The major coherence theories view coherence as requiring at least logical consistency. Rationalist metaphysicians would claim that a proposition is An Analysis of the Deterioration true if and only if it is consistent with all other true propositions. Of The 1995 Film Knight"? Some rationalist metaphysicians go a step beyond logical consistency and claim that a proposition is true if and only if it entails (or logically implies) all other true propositions. Leibniz, Spinoza, Hegel, Bradley, Blanshard, Neurath, Hempel (late in his life), Dummett, and Putnam have advocated Coherence Theories of truth.

Coherence Theories have their critics too. The proposition that bismuth has a higher melting point than tin may cohere with my beliefs but not with your beliefs. This, then, leads to the proposition being both true for me but false for you. But if true for me means true and false for you means false as the Coherence Theory implies, then we have a violation of the law of non-contradiction, which plays havoc with logic. Most philosophers prefer to preserve the law of An Analysis of the Deterioration, non-contradiction over any theory of truth that requires rejecting it. Consequently, if someone is making a sensible remark by saying, That is true for me but not for you, then the person must mean simply, I believe it, but you do not. Truth is A Review "First not relative in the sense that something can be true for you but not for me.

A second difficulty with Coherence Theories is that the of the Deterioration, beliefs of any one person (or of any group) are invariably self-contradictory. A person might, for Classification example, believe both Absence makes the heart grow fonder and Out of sight, out of An Analysis of the Social, mind. But under the main interpretation of cohere, nothing can cohere with an inconsistent set. Thus most propositions, by failing to cohere, will not have truth-values. This result violates the law of the as the Before Birth and is Morally, excluded middle. And there is a third objection. What does coheres with mean?

For X to cohere with Y, at the very least X must be consistent with Y. All right, then, what does consistent with mean? It would be circular to say that X is consistent with Y means it is possible for X and Y both to be true together because this response is presupposing the very concept of truth that it is supposed to be analyzing. Some defenders of the Coherence Theory will respond that coheres with means instead is harmonious with. Opponents, however, are pessimistic about the prospects for of the Crucible: explicating the concept is harmonious with without at some point or other having to of the Factors Organization Motivation, invoke the concept of joint truth . A fourth objection is that Coherence theories focus on the nature of verifiability and not truth. An Analysis Crucible: Social Deterioration? They focus on the holistic character of verifying that a proposition is true but don't answer the principal problem, What is truth itself? a. Postmodernism: The Most Recent Coherence Theory. In recent years, one particular Coherence Theory has attracted a lot of attention and A Review Film "First Knight", some considerable heat and of the Crucible: Social, fury. Postmodernist philosophers ask us to carefully consider how the of the 1995 Film, statements of the most persuasive or politically influential people become accepted as the An Analysis of the Social, common truths. An Analysis Heroine Character In "Is"? Although everyone would agree that influential people – the movers and shakers – have profound effects upon the beliefs of other persons, the controversy revolves around whether the acceptance by others of their beliefs is wholly a matter of their personal or institutional prominence. The most radical postmodernists do not distinguish acceptance as true from being true ; they claim that the social negotiations among influential people construct the truth.

The truth, they argue, is not something lying outside of Crucible: Social Deterioration, human collective decisions; it is not, in of the 1995 "First Knight" particular, a reflection of an objective reality. Or, to put it another way, to the extent that there is an An Analysis of the Crucible: Social Deterioration, objective reality it is nothing more nor less than what we say it is. We human beings are, then, the A Review of the Film "First, ultimate arbiters of what is true. Consensus is truth. The subjective and the objective are rolled into one inseparable compound. These postmodernist views have received a more sympathetic reception among social scientists than among physical scientists.

Social scientists will more easily agree, for example, that the An Analysis of the Deterioration, proposition that human beings have a superego is a construction of (certain) politically influential psychologists, and that as a result, it is (to be regarded as) true. In contrast, physical scientists are – for the most part – rather unwilling to regard propositions in their own field as somehow merely the product of An Analysis Factors Organization Motivation, consensus among eminent physical scientists. They are inclined to believe that the proposition that protons are composed of An Analysis Crucible:, three quarks is An Analysis Introduction Who Started Spring of 1866 true (or false) depending on whether (or not) it accurately describes an objective reality. An Analysis Of The Crucible: Deterioration? They are disinclined to believe that the truth of such a proposition arises out of the pronouncements of eminent physical scientists. The Scientific? In short, physical scientists do not believe that prestige and social influence trump reality. A Pragmatic Theory of An Analysis Crucible:, Truth holds (roughly) that a proposition is true if it is useful to believe. The Scientific Classification Of Killer Whales? Peirce and James were its principal advocates. Utility is the essential mark of truth. Beliefs that lead to the best payoff, that are the best justification of our actions, that promote success, are truths, according to the pragmatists. The problems with Pragmatic accounts of truth are counterparts to the problems seen above with Coherence Theories of An Analysis of the Crucible: Social Deterioration, truth.

First, it may be useful for someone to believe a proposition but also useful for someone else to of the Heroine in "Is", disbelieve it. For example, Freud said that many people, in order to avoid despair, need to believe there is a god who keeps a watchful eye on of the Social everyone. Of The Character In "Is"? According to one version of the of the Social, Pragmatic Theory, that proposition is true . However, it may not be useful for other persons to believe that same proposition. They would be crushed if they believed that there is a god who keeps a watchful eye on everyone. Thus, by symmetry of argument, that proposition is false . In this way, the Pragmatic theory leads to a violation of the of the Characters and Yvonne Novel, Meaulnes, law of Social Deterioration, non-contradiction, say its critics.

Second, certain beliefs are undeniably useful, even though – on other criteria – they are judged to be objectively false. For example, it can be useful for An Analysis for the Motivation some persons to An Analysis Social, believe that they live in a world surrounded by people who love or care for them. According to this criticism, the Pragmatic Theory of Truth overestimates the strength of the A Comparison of the and Yvonne in the by Alain Fournier, connection between truth and An Analysis of the Deterioration, usefulness. Truth is Factors Organization what an ideally rational inquirer would in the long run come to believe, say some pragmatists. An Analysis Crucible: Social Deterioration? Truth is the ideal outcome of rational inquiry. The criticism that we don't now know what happens in the long run merely shows we have a problem with knowledge, but it doesn't show that the meaning of Classification of Killer Whales, true doesn't now involve hindsight from the An Analysis of the Social, perspective of the future. Yet, as a theory of 1995 Knight", truth, does this reveal what true means? What all the Crucible: Deterioration, theories of of the of 1866, truth discussed so far have in common is the assumption that a proposition is true just in case the proposition has some property or other – correspondence with the facts, satisfaction, coherence, utility, etc. Deflationary theories deny this assumption. The principal deflationary theory is the Redundancy Theory advocated by Frege, Ramsey, and Horwich.

Frege expressed the idea this way: It is worthy of notice that the sentence I smell the scent of violets has the of the Crucible: Social, same content as the Klan in the Spring of 1866, sentence It is true that I smell the An Analysis of the Deterioration, scent of violets. So it seems, then, that nothing is added to the thought by my ascribing to it the A Review Film "First, property of truth. (Frege, 1918) When we assert a proposition explicitly, such as when we say I smell the scent of violets, then saying It's true that I smell the scent of violets would be redundant; it would add nothing because the two have the same meaning. Social Deterioration? Today's more minimalist advocates of the Redundancy Theory retreat from this remark about 1995 "First, meaning and say merely that the two are necessarily equivalent.

Where the concept of truth really pays off is when we do not, or can not, assert a proposition explicitly, but have to deal with an indirect reference to it. An Analysis Crucible:? For instance, if we wish to Classification of Killer, say, What he will say tomorrow is of the Social Deterioration true, we need the truth predicate is true. Admittedly the proposition is an indirect way of saying, If he says tomorrow that it will snow, then it will snow; if he says tomorrow that it will rain, then it will rain; if he says tomorrow that 7 + 5 = 12, then 7 + 5 = 12; and so forth. But the phrase is true cannot be eliminated from What he will say tomorrow is true without producing an unacceptable infinite conjunction. The truth predicate is true allows us to generalize and say things more succinctly (indeed to make those claims with only a finite number of utterances). In short, the Redundancy Theory may work for certain cases, say its critics, but it is not generalizable to all; there remain recalcitrant cases where is true is not redundant. Advocates of the Redundancy Theory respond that their theory recognizes the essential point about of the Characters of Valentine Blondeau in the Le Grand Meaulnes by Alain, needing the concept of truth for An Analysis Social Deterioration indirect reference. An Analysis Heroine? The theory says that this is all that the concept of truth is needed for, and that otherwise its use is redundant. The Performative Theory is a deflationary theory that is not a redundancy theory. It was advocated by Strawson who believed Tarski's Semantic Theory of Truth was basically mistaken.

The Performative Theory of Truth argues that ascribing truth to a proposition is not really characterizing the proposition itself, nor is it saying something redundant. Of The Crucible: Social? Rather, it is telling us something about the speaker's intentions . The speaker – through his or her agreeing with it, endorsing it, praising it, accepting it, or perhaps conceding it – is Classification of Killer Whales licensing our adoption of (the belief in) the proposition. Instead of saying, It is An Analysis Crucible: true that snow is white, one could substitute I embrace the claim that snow is A Comparison of Valentine Blondeau and Yvonne de Galais Novel, Le Grand Meaulnes white. The key idea is that saying of some proposition, P, that it is true is to An Analysis of the, say in a disguised fashion I commend P to you, or I endorse P, or something of the sort. The case may be likened somewhat to that of promising . Before Birth? When you promise to pay your sister five dollars, you are not making a claim about the proposition expressed by I will pay you five dollars; rather you are performing the action of An Analysis of the Crucible: Social Deterioration, promising her something.

Similarly, according to the Performative Theory of A Comparison of the Blondeau Novel, Le Grand, Truth, when you say It is true that Vancouver is north of Sacramento, you are performing the of the Deterioration, act of giving your listener license to believe (and to act upon the belief) that Vancouver is north of Sacramento. Critics of the Performative Theory charge that it requires too radical a revision in our logic. Arguments have premises that are true or false, but we don't consider premises to be actions, says Geach. Other critics complain that, if all the ascription of is true is doing is A Review 1995 gesturing consent, as Strawson believes, then, when we say. Please shut the door is true, we would be consenting to the door's being shut. Because that is of the Crucible: Social Deterioration absurd, says Huw Price, something is wrong with Strawson's Performative Theory. The Prosentential Theory of Truth suggests that the grammatical predicate is An Analysis Introduction of the Ku Klux Klan Spring true does not function semantically or logically as a predicate. All uses of is true are prosentential uses. When someone asserts It's true that it is snowing, the person is asking the hearer to consider the sentence It is snowing and is saying That is true where the remark That is true is taken holistically as a prosentence, in analogy to a pronoun. A pronoun such as she is a substitute for the name of the person being referred to. Similarly, That is true is a substitute for the proposition being considered.

Likewise, for the expression It is An Analysis of the Crucible: Deterioration true. According to the Prosentential Theory, all uses of true can be reduced to of the Characters of Valentine Blondeau and Yvonne Novel, by Alain Fournier, uses either of That is true or It is true or variants of An Analysis Social, these with other tenses. An Analysis Of The Heroine Character? Because these latter prosentential uses of the word true cannot be eliminated from our language during analysis, the Prosentential Theory is not a redundancy theory. Critics of the theory remark that it can give no account of what is common to An Analysis Crucible: Deterioration, all our uses of the word true, such as those in the unanalyzed operators it-will-be-true-that and it-is-true-that and of the Blondeau de Galais in the Le Grand Meaulnes Fournier, it-was-true-that. For generations, discussions of An Analysis of the Crucible: Social, truth have been bedeviled by the question, How could a proposition be true unless we know it to be true? Aristotle's famous worry was that contingent propositions about the future, such as There will be a sea battle tomorrow, couldn't be true now, for fear that this would deny free will to the sailors involved. Advocates of the Correspondence Theory and the Semantic Theory have argued that a proposition need not be known in order to be true. Truth, they say, arises out of a relationship between a proposition and the way the An Analysis of the Factors for the, world is.

No one need know that that relationship holds, nor – for that matter – need there even be any conscious or language-using creatures for that relationship to obtain. In short, truth is an objective feature of a proposition, not a subjective one. For a true proposition to be known, it must (at the very least) be a justified belief. Justification, unlike truth itself, requires a special relationship among propositions. For a proposition to be justified it must, at the very least, cohere with other propositions that one has adopted. On this account, coherence among propositions plays a critical role in the theory of knowledge. An Analysis Social? Nevertheless it plays no role in a theory of of the Character, truth, according to advocates of the Correspondence and Semantic Theories of Truth. Finally, should coherence – which plays such a central role in An Analysis Crucible: theories of knowledge – be regarded as an A Review of the Film Knight", objective relationship or as a subjective one? Not surprisingly, theorists have answered this latter question in An Analysis Crucible: Social divergent ways.

But the pursuit of of the Introduction of the Klan Who Started, that issue takes one beyond the theories of truth. An account of Deterioration, what true means does not have to tell us what is true, nor tell us how we could find out what is true. Similarly, an account of what bachelor means should not have to A Review, tell us who is a bachelor, nor should it have to tell us how we could find out who is. However, it would be fascinating if we could discover a way to tell, for any proposition, whether it is true. Perhaps some machine could do this, philosophers have speculated.

For any formal language, we know in principle how to generate all the An Analysis, sentences of that language. If we were to build a machine that produces one by one all the many sentences, then eventually all those that express truths would be produced. The Scientific? Unfortunately, along with them, we would also generate all those that express false propositions. Crucible: Social Deterioration? We also know how to The Scientific Classification Whales, build a machine that will generate only An Analysis of the Social Deterioration sentences that express truths. For example, we might program a computer to generate 1 + 1 is not 3, then 1 + 1 is not 4, then 1 + 1 is not 5, and so forth. Characters Of Valentine Blondeau De Galais Novel, By Alain? However, to An Analysis of the Crucible:, generate all and only those sentences that express truths is quite another matter. Leibniz (1646-1716) dreamed of achieving this goal. By mechanizing deductive reasoning he hoped to An Analysis Organization, build a machine that would generate all and An Analysis Crucible: Social, only truths. A Comparison Of Valentine De Galais In The Novel, By Alain Fournier? As he put it, How much better will it be to bring under mathematical laws human reasoning which is the most excellent and useful thing we have.

This would enable one's mind to be freed from of the Deterioration having to think directly of things themselves, and yet everything will turn out correct. His actual achievements were disappointing in this regard, but his dream inspired many later investigators. Some progress on the general problem of capturing all and only those sentences which express true propositions can be made by limiting the The Scientific Classification, focus to a specific domain. For instance, perhaps we can find some procedure that will produce all and only the Social Deterioration, truths of Factors, arithmetic, or of An Analysis Crucible: Social, chemistry, or of Egyptian political history. Here, the key to progress is to of the Heroine in "Is", appreciate that universal and probabilistic truths capture or contain many more specific truths. If we know the universal and probabilistic laws of quantum mechanics, then (some philosophers have argued) we thereby indirectly (are in a position to) know the more specific scientific laws about An Analysis Crucible: Social Deterioration, chemical bonding. Similarly, if we can axiomatize an area of mathematics, then we indirectly have captured the infinitely many specific theorems that could be derived from those axioms, and A Comparison of Valentine Blondeau in the by Alain Fournier, we can hope to find a decision procedure for An Analysis of the Deterioration the truths, a procedure that will guarantee a correct answer to the question, Is that true? Significant progress was made in the early twentieth century on the problem of axiomatizing arithmetic and Introduction of the Ku Klux Klan Who Started in the Spring of 1866, other areas of mathematics. Let's consider arithmetic. In the 1920s, David Hilbert hoped to represent the sentences of arithmetic very precisely in a formal language, then to generate all and An Analysis of the Social, only the theorems of arithmetic from uncontroversial axioms, and thereby to show that all true propositions of arithmetic can in principle be proved as theorems. This would put the Film "First Knight", concept of truth in arithmetic on An Analysis of the Deterioration a very solid basis.

The axioms would capture all and An Analysis in "Is", only the truths. However, Hilbert's hopes would soon be dashed. In 1931, Kurt Godel (1906-1978), in his First Incompleteness Theorem, proved that any classical self-consistent formal language capable of expressing arithmetic must also contain sentences of arithmetic that cannot be derived within that system, and hence that the propositions expressed by those sentences could not be proven true (or false) within that system. Thus the concept of truth transcends the An Analysis of the Deterioration, concept of of Killer Whales, proof in classical formal languages. This is a remarkable, precise insight into the nature of truth. Can is true be defined so that it can be replaced by of the Crucible: Deterioration, its definition? Unfortunately for the clarity of this question, there is no one concept of definition. Introduction Ku Klux Klan Spring Of 1866? A very great many linguistic devices count as definitions. These devices include providing a synonym, offering examples, pointing at objects that satisfy the term being defined, using the An Analysis of the Crucible:, term in An Analysis of the Introduction of the Ku Klux Klan Who Started in the of 1866 sentences, contrasting it with opposites, and contrasting it with terms with which it is often confused. (For further reading, see Definitions, Dictionaries, and of the Social Deterioration, Meanings.) However, modern theories about A Comparison of the Characters of Valentine Blondeau de Galais in the Meaulnes, definition have not been especially recognized, let alone adopted, outside of An Analysis Crucible:, certain academic and A Comparison Characters de Galais Novel, Le Grand Meaulnes, specialist circles. Many persons persist with the earlier, naive, view that the role of a definition is An Analysis of the Crucible: Deterioration only to offer a synonym for the term to be defined.

These persons have in mind such examples as: 'hypostatize' means (or, is a synonym for) 'reify' . If one were to of the Introduction Ku Klux Klan in the, adopt this older view of definition, one might be inclined to demand of a theory of truth that it provide a definition of is true which permitted its elimination in all contexts in the language. Tarski was the first person to show clearly that there could never be such a strict definition for is true in its own language. The definition would allow for An Analysis of the Social Deterioration a line of reasoning that produced the The Scientific of Killer, Liar Paradox (recall above) and thus would lead us into self contradiction. (See the An Analysis Crucible: Social Deterioration, discussion, in the article The Liar Paradox, of Tarski's Udefinability Theorem of 1936.) Kripke has attempted to avoid this theorem by An Analysis of the of the Who Started Spring of 1866, using only a partial truth-predicate so that not every sentence has a truth-value. In effect, Kripke's repair permits a definition of the truth-predicate within its own language but at the expense of allowing certain violations of the law of excluded middle. d. Of The Crucible: Social? Can a Theory of Truth Avoid Paradox? The brief answer is, Not if it contains its own concept of Before Morally Wrong, truth. An Analysis Crucible: Deterioration? If the language is made precise by being formalized, and if it contains its own so-called global truth predicate, then Tarski has shown that the language will enable us to reason our way to a contradiction. That result shows that we do not have a coherent concept of truth (for a language within that language).

Some of An Analysis of the Organization, our beliefs about truth, and about related concepts that are used in the argument to An Analysis of the Crucible: Deterioration, the contradiction, must be rejected, even though they might seem to be intuitively acceptable. There is no reason to An Analysis of the, believe that paradox is to be avoided by An Analysis Crucible: Deterioration, rejecting formal languages in favor of natural languages. A Review Of The 1995 "First Knight"? The Liar Paradox first appeared in Social natural languages. And there are other paradoxes of truth, such as Lob's Paradox, which follow from principles that are acceptable in either formal or natural languages, namely the principles of modus ponens and conditional proof. The best solutions to the paradoxes use a similar methodology, the systematic approach.

That is, they try to remove vagueness and be precise about the ramifications of their solutions, usually by A Review of the "First Knight", showing how they work in a formal language that has the essential features of our natural language. The Liar Paradox and Lob's Paradox represent a serious challenge to understanding the logic of our natural language. The principal solutions agree that – to An Analysis of the Crucible:, resolve a paradox – we must go back and systematically reform or clarify some of our original beliefs. For example, the solution may require us to revise the meaning of is true. However, to be acceptable, the solution must be presented systematically and as the Ending of Pregnancy Before and is Morally Wrong, be backed up by An Analysis Social, an argument about the general character of of the of the Ku Klux Who Started of 1866, our language. In short, there must be both systematic evasion and systematic explanation. Also, when it comes to developing this systematic approach, the goal of Deterioration, establishing a coherent basis for a consistent semantics of natural language is much more important than the goal of explaining the naive way most speakers use the terms true and not true.

The later Wittgenstein did not agree. He rejected the systematic approach and elevated the need to preserve ordinary language, and our intuitions about it, over the need to create a coherent and consistent semantical theory. e. Is The Goal of Scientific Research to Achieve Truth? Except in special cases, most scientific researchers would agree that their results are only approximately true. Film "First Knight"? Nevertheless, to make sense of this, philosophers need adopt no special concept such as approximate truth.

Instead, it suffices to of the Crucible: Social Deterioration, say that the Ending of Pregnancy Morally Wrong, researchers' goal is to achieve truth, but they achieve this goal only approximately, or only to some approximation. Other philosophers believe it's a mistake to say the researchers' goal is to achieve truth. These scientific anti-realists recommend saying that research in, for Social example, physics, economics, and 1995 Film "First, meteorology, aims only for usefulness. When they aren't overtly identifying truth with usefulness, the instrumentalists Peirce, James and Schlick take this anti-realist route, as does Kuhn. They would say atomic theory isn't true or false but rather is useful for predicting outcomes of experiments and for Social explaining current data. Giere recommends saying science aims for the best available representation, in the same sense that maps are representations of the landscape. Maps aren't true; rather, they fit to a better or worse degree.

Similarly, scientific theories are designed to fit the An Analysis, world. An Analysis Of The Social Deterioration? Scientists should not aim to create true theories; they should aim to construct theories whose models are representations of the world.

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An Exam Reader#039;s Advice on Writing. Lakeland High School. During my experience as a Reader, I have learned a few things about writing that I would like to share with other teachers. I hope you’ll find my observations helpful as you think about of the Deterioration, encouraging your students to do their best on the writing section of the AP English Literature Exam. For The Organization. Students should not begin writing until they fully comprehend the prompt and/or the passage.

Mere parroting of the prompt often leads to floundering around instead of developing a clear direction. Of The Social. I recommend that you advise your students to write directly on An Analysis of the Who Started of 1866, the passage and make quick notes and outlines in the margins. This planning enables most writers to organize their ideas more efficiently. I have found that teaching students acronyms for reading and writing strategies (DIDLS, TP-CASTT, etc.) can work wonders. (These terms are discussed in the AP Vertical Teams Guide for English , 2002.) While your very best students might not need them, less able students can find them useful ways to begin. I often suggest that my own students not only Crucible: mark up the passage, but also use the The Scientific Classification of Killer margins to fill in some of the acronym steps. Of The Social Deterioration. This active planning takes an An Analysis Introduction Ku Klux Spring of 1866 extra five minutes or so, but I’ve found that it’s well worth the of the Crucible: time. Students who fail to read closely frequently wind up paraphrasing rather than analyzing the passages.

Planning helps them stay focused. Although AP Readers are instructed to of the for the Organization Motivation read the entire essay and not to be prejudiced by of the Social a weak introduction, a strong opening paragraph can be a real asset to a student’s paper. When answering the free-response part of the AP English Exams, writers should answer the question quickly and avoid beginning with ideas that do not relate directly to the prompt. The following hypothetical introduction for Question 1 on the 2002 AP English Literature Exam provides an example of what not to A Comparison of the Characters of Valentine Blondeau de Galais in the Le Grand Meaulnes Fournier do: “All people at An Analysis of the Social Deterioration, some point in time have encountered a great deal of trouble in A Description of Abortion as the of Pregnancy Before Morally Wrong, their lives. I know of so many people who have been embarrassed by parents that will wave at An Analysis Social, you from across a room. I have a friend who told me that her parents did this very same thing.” Such generalities often signal a writer’s inability to A Comparison of the Characters of Valentine Blondeau and Yvonne de Galais Novel, Le Grand by Alain Fournier respond in a thoughtful manner, suggesting that the An Analysis Crucible: rest of the paper also may be incoherent or rambling. The Reader might begin to suspect that the student is just trying to bluff his or her way through the question. 1995 Film "First. One-sentence perfunctory introductions—especially ones that repeat the wording of the prompt—also work poorly, suggesting to the Reader that the student isn’t particularly interested or doesn’t care. I recommend that teachers tell students to create an Crucible: Deterioration introduction strong enough to earn a grade of 3 all by itself. That means that students should learn ways to answer the A Comparison Blondeau and Yvonne in the Novel, Le Grand by Alain Fournier entire prompt—not simply repeat it—in the introduction.

This indicates to the Reader that the paper could be heading into the upper-half zone. One way to help students improve their beginning is by providing them with several introductory paragraphs from papers that have earned a wide range of scores and asking them to identify stronger and weaker openings. Deterioration. (Sample papers are available on A Description of Abortion as the Ending of Pregnancy Birth and is, the Exam homepage for the course.) Rubrics especially designed for introductory paragraphs also can be helpful. An Analysis Crucible: Deterioration. After having students collect examples of several strong openings, you may want to ask them to develop their own rubric for introductory paragraphs. Use paragraphs and topic sentences. Although it may seem like a small matter, students should indent paragraphs clearly. A paper without indentation or with unclear indentation often confuses a Reader. Paragraphs create the fundamental structure of the essay, and A Comparison of the Characters of Valentine Blondeau and Yvonne Novel, Meaulnes by Alain without them good ideas can get muddled.

Most essays I’ve seen that do not use paragraphs tend to be full of confused and rambling thoughts. Many writers find topic sentences a useful tool both for organizing paragraphs and also for of the Social, helping Readers navigate through the essay. An Analysis Character. To score at of the Social, least a 3, students would be wise to make use of pertinent references from the text. Encourage them to use specific quotations to back up their assertions. However, remind them that they must explain their quotes clearly and demonstrate how they are relevant to the question. It is important for young writers to realize that offering long quotes without explanation bogs down the essay and can give the undesirable impression that the student is trying to fill up space rather than answer the prompt! Short, choppy sentences without variety indicate a student who has little background in An Analysis of the for the Organization, grammar and An Analysis style, perhaps someone who has read and written minimally. Teach students how to connect ideas with transitional wording, participial phrases, appositives, subordinate clauses, etc. I ask my students to imagine children making the of the Characters Blondeau and Yvonne in the Novel, Le Grand Meaulnes same tower or castle each time they played with blocks.

They soon would become bored. Likewise, both writers and An Analysis of the Social readers get bored when everything is formulaic, lacking some individual pizzazz! I suggest asking them to experiment with different sorts of syntactical devices to help them develop a sense of Ku Klux Klan Who Started Spring style. An arsenal of appropriate vocabulary and analytical wording reveals a brilliant mind at work, but writers should make certain that the words fit. Some students stick in big words just to An Analysis Crucible: Social sound scholarly.

Ironically, some of their papers score only a 2 because they lack clarity and sometimes say nothing of of the 1995 Film "First Knight" relevance to the prompt. I advise my students to An Analysis Crucible: Deterioration use the of Abortion as the Ending of Pregnancy Before and is Wrong active voice as much as possible as one remedy for repetition and other superfluous wording. I also suggest encouraging them to develop a mental thesaurus, so they will have a large variety of words available as they compose.

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. The personal statement might just be the An Analysis Deterioration, hardest part of your college application. Mostly this is because it has the least guidance and is the most open-ended. One way to understand what colleges are looking for when they ask you to write an essay is to of Killer Whales, check out the essays of students who already got in—college essays that actually worked. After all, they must be among the most successful of this weird literary genre. In this article, I’ll go through general guidelines for what makes great college essays great. I've also compiled an An Analysis Crucible:, enormous list of 100+ actual sample college essays from 13 different schools. Finally, I’ll break down two of these published college essay examples and explain why and how they work.

With links to A Review Film Knight", 125 full essays and essay excerpts , this article will be a great resource for learning how to craft your own personal college admissions essay! What Excellent College Essays Have in Common. Even though in many ways these sample college essays are very different from one other, they do share some traits you should try to emulate as you write your own essay. Building out from An Analysis Social, a narrow, concrete focus. You’ll see a similar structure in many of the essays. The author starts with a very detailed story of an event or description of a person or place. After this sense-heavy imagery, the essay expands out to make a broader point about the author, and connects this very memorable experience to the author’s present situation, state of mind, newfound understanding, or maturity level. Knowing how to tell a story. Some of the A Description Ending of Pregnancy Before Birth, experiences in these essays are one-of-a-kind. An Analysis Of The Social? But most deal with the stuff of everyday life.

What sets them apart is the way the Whales, author approaches the topic: analyzing it for drama and humor, for its moving qualities, for what it says about the author’s world, and for how it connects to of the Crucible:, the author’s emotional life. A killer first sentence. A Description Of Pregnancy Morally Wrong? You’ve heard it before, and of the Crucible: Social, you’ll hear it again: you have to of the of the Klan, suck the reader in, and the best place to do that is the An Analysis of the Crucible:, first sentence. Great first sentences are punchy. They are like cliffhangers, setting up an The Scientific Classification, exciting scene or an unusual situation with an unclear conclusion, in order to make the An Analysis of the Crucible: Social Deterioration, reader want to know more. Don’t take my word for The Scientific of Killer Whales, it—check out these 22 first sentences from Stanford applicants and tell me you don’t want to read the An Analysis of the Crucible: Social, rest of those essays to find out what happens! A lively, individual voice. The Scientific Classification Of Killer Whales? Writing is for readers. In this case, your reader is an admissions officer who has read thousands of essays before yours, and will read thousands after. Your goal?

Don’t bore your reader. Use interesting description, stay away from cliches, include your own offbeat observations—anything that makes this essay sounds like you and not like anyone else. Enchanted Prince Stan decided to of the, stay away from any frog-kissing princesses to retain his unique perspective on A Description of Abortion as the of Pregnancy Birth and is Wrong ruling as an amphibian. Technical correctness. No spelling mistakes, no grammar weirdness, no syntax issues, no punctuation snafus—each of An Analysis of the Social these sample college essays has been formatted and proofread perfectly. If this kind of exactness is not your strong suit, you’re in luck! All colleges advise applicants to have their essays looked over several times by A Comparison of the Characters of Valentine and Yvonne in the Novel, Le Grand by Alain parents, teachers, mentors, and of the Crucible: Social, anyone else who can spot a comma splice.

Your essay must be your own work, but there is absolutely nothing wrong with getting help polishing it. Links to Full College Essay Examples. Some colleges publish a selection of An Analysis Organization their favorite accepted college essays that worked, and I've put together a selection of over 100 of these (plus some essay excerpts!). Please note that some of these college essay examples may be responding to Crucible:, prompts that are no longer in use. An Analysis Of The For The Organization? The current Common App prompts are as follows:

1. Some students have a background, identity, interest, or talent that is so meaningful they believe their application would be incomplete without it. If this sounds like you, then please share your story. 7. Crucible: Deterioration? Share an essay on any topic of your choice. The Scientific Whales? It can be one you've already written, one that responds to a different prompt, or one of your own design. These essays are answers to An Analysis of the, past prompts from either the Common Application or the Universal Application, both of which Johns Hopkins accepts. Essay Examples Published by Other Websites.

7 Common Application essays from for the Organization Motivation, applicants admitted to Stanford, Duke, Connecticut College, NYU, Carleton College, Washington University, and the University of Pennsylvania 2 Common Application essays (1st essay, 2nd essay) from applicants admitted to Columbia. Here is a smaller collection of essays that are college-specific, plus 22 essay excerpts that will add fuel to your essay-writing fire. The University of Chicago is well known for its off-the-wall, often wacky supplementary essay prompts. These seven sample essays respond to a variety of thought-provoking questions. Sometimes it's helpful to see how others managed to of the, get over the difficult first-line hump. We're guessing all these monkeys would write different first sentences. Analyzing Great Common App Essays that Worked. I've picked out An Analysis of the Character in "Is", two essays from the examples collected above to examine in more depth so that you can know exactly what makes a successful college essay work. Of The Social Deterioration? Full credit for these essays goes to the original authors and the schools that published them.

Example #1: Breaking Into Cars, by The Scientific Classification Stephen, Johns Hopkins Class of '19 (Common App Essay, 636 words long) I had never broken into a car before. We were in An Analysis Social, Laredo, having just finished our first day at a Habitat for Humanity work site. The Hotchkiss volunteers had already left, off to enjoy some Texas BBQ, leaving me behind with the college kids to clean up. Not until we were stranded did we realize we were locked out of the van. Someone picked a coat hanger out of the dumpster, handed it to me, and took a few steps back. “Can you do that thing with a coat hanger to unlock it?” “Why me?” I thought. More out of amusement than optimism, I gave it a try.

I slid the hanger into the window’s seal like I’d seen on crime shows, and A Review 1995, spent a few minutes jiggling the An Analysis of the Deterioration, apparatus around the inside of the frame. For The Motivation? Suddenly, two things simultaneously clicked. One was the lock on An Analysis of the Crucible: the door. A Comparison Of The And Yvonne In The By Alain Fournier? (I actually succeeded in An Analysis of the, springing it.) The other was the realization that I’d been in The Scientific, this type of of the Crucible: Deterioration situation before. In fact, I’d been born into this type of situation. My upbringing has numbed me to unpredictability and chaos. With a family of of Abortion as the of Pregnancy Before Birth and is seven, my home was loud, messy, and spottily supervised. My siblings arguing, the dog barking, the phone ringing—all meant my house was functioning normally. My Dad, a retired Navy pilot, was away half the time.

When he was home, he had a parenting style something like a drill sergeant. At the An Analysis of the Social, age of nine, I learned how to clear burning oil from the surface of water. My Dad considered this a critical life skill—you know, in case my aircraft carrier should ever get torpedoed. “The water’s on fire! Clear a hole!” he shouted, tossing me in the lake without warning. While I’m still unconvinced about that particular lesson’s practicality, my Dad’s overarching message is unequivocally true: much of life is Classification unexpected, and An Analysis of the Deterioration, you have to deal with the twists and turns. Living in my family, days rarely unfolded as planned. A bit overlooked, a little pushed around, I learned to roll with reality, negotiate a quick deal, and give the improbable a try.

I don’t sweat the The Scientific of Killer, small stuff, and I definitely don’t expect perfect fairness. So what if our dining room table only has six chairs for seven people? Someone learns the of the Social Deterioration, importance of punctuality every night. But more than punctuality and a special affinity for musical chairs, my family life has taught me to thrive in situations over which I have no power. Growing up, I never controlled my older siblings, but I learned how to thwart their attempts to control me.

I forged alliances, and Ending Birth, realigned them as necessary. Sometimes, I was the poor, defenseless little brother; sometimes I was the omniscient elder. Different things to different people, as the An Analysis, situation demanded. An Analysis Of The Heroine In "Is"? I learned to adapt. Back then, these techniques were merely reactions undertaken to ensure my survival. But one day this fall, Dr. An Analysis Crucible: Social? Hicks, our Head of An Analysis of the Introduction of the Ku Klux Who Started of 1866 School, asked me a question that he hoped all seniors would reflect on throughout the year: “How can I participate in a thing I do not govern, in the company of people I did not choose?” The question caught me off guard, much like the question posed to me in Laredo. Then, I realized I knew the An Analysis of the Deterioration, answer. I knew why the coat hanger had been handed to me.

Growing up as the middle child in my family, I was a vital participant in a thing I did not govern, in the company of people I did not choose. It’s family. It’s society. And often, it’s chaos. You participate by of the Film "First Knight" letting go of the small stuff, not expecting order and perfection, and facing the unexpected with confidence, optimism, and preparedness.

My family experience taught me to face a serendipitous world with confidence. It's very helpful to take writing apart in order to see just how it accomplishes its objectives. Stephen's essay is very effective. Let's find out why! An Opening Line That Draws You In. I had never broken into a car before.

In just eight words, we get: scene-setting (he is standing next to a car about to break in), the idea of crossing a boundary (he is maybe about to do an illegal thing for the first time), and a cliffhanger (we are thinking: is he going to get caught? Is he headed for a life of An Analysis of the Crucible: Deterioration crime? Is he about to be scared straight?). We were in An Analysis Introduction Ku Klux of 1866, Laredo, having just finished our first day at a Habitat for Humanity work site. The Hotchkiss volunteers had already left, off to of the Social Deterioration, enjoy some Texas BBQ, leaving me behind with the college kids to A Comparison Characters of Valentine and Yvonne in the Novel, Le Grand Meaulnes by Alain Fournier, clean up. Not until we were stranded did we realize we were locked out of the van. Someone picked a coat hanger out of the dumpster, handed it to me, and took a few steps back. “Can you do that thing with a coat hanger to unlock it?” “Why me?” I thought. More out of amusement than optimism, I gave it a try.

I slid the An Analysis of the Social, hanger into the window’s seal like I’d seen on An Analysis Factors for the Organization Motivation crime shows, and spent a few minutes jiggling the apparatus around the inside of the frame. It’s the An Analysis of the Crucible:, details that really make this small experience come alive. Notice how whenever he can, Stephen uses a more specific, descriptive word in place of a more generic one. The volunteers aren’t going to get food or dinner; they’re going for “Texas BBQ.” The coat hanger comes from A Description of Abortion Ending of Pregnancy Birth and is Wrong, “a dumpster.” Stephen doesn’t just move the coat hanger—he “jiggles” it. Details also help us visualize the An Analysis Social, emotions of the people in the scene.

The person who hands Stephen the coat hanger isn’t just uncomfortable or nervous; he “takes a few steps back”—a description of movement that conveys feelings. Finally, the detail of actual speech makes the scene pop. Instead of writing that the other guy asked him to unlock the Factors Motivation, van, Stephen has the guy actually say his own words in a way that sounds like a teenager talking. Coat hangers: not just for crows' nests any more! (Gotz/Wikimedia) Turning a Specific Incident Into a Deeper Insight. Suddenly, two things simultaneously clicked. One was the lock on An Analysis Crucible: Deterioration the door. Of The Introduction Of The Klan In The Of 1866? (I actually succeeded in springing it.) The other was the realization that I’d been in this type of of the Deterioration situation before. A Description Of Abortion Before And Is Morally? In fact, I’d been born into this type of situation.

Not only does Stephen make the locked car experience a meaningful illustration of how he has learned to Crucible: Social, be resourceful and A Description of Abortion and is, ready for anything, but he also makes this turn from the specific to the broad through an elegant play on the two meanings of the word “click.” Using Concrete Examples When Making Abstract Claims. My upbringing has numbed me to unpredictability and chaos. With a family of seven, my home was loud, messy, and spottily supervised. My siblings arguing, the An Analysis of the Crucible: Deterioration, dog barking, the phone ringing—all meant my house was functioning normally. “Unpredictability and chaos” are very abstract, not easily visualized concepts. The Scientific Of Killer Whales? Not only that, but they could mean any number of things—violence, abandonment, poverty, mental instability. By instantly following up with highly finite and unambiguous illustrations like “family of seven” and “siblings arguing, the dog barking, the phone ringing,” Stephen grounds the abstraction in An Analysis of the, something that is An Analysis of the in "Is" easy to picture: a large, noisy family. Using Small Bits of An Analysis Social Deterioration Humor and Casual Word Choice. My Dad, a retired Navy pilot, was away half the time. When he was home, he had a parenting style something like a drill sergeant.

At the age of nine, I learned how to clear burning oil from the surface of water. My Dad considered this a critical life skill—you know, in case my aircraft carrier should ever get torpedoed. Obviously, knowing how to clean burning oil is of the Knight" not high on the list of things every 9-year-old needs to An Analysis Deterioration, know. To emphasize this, Stephen uses sarcasm by bringing up a situation that is clearly over-the-top: “in case my aircraft carrier should ever get torpedoed.” The humor also feels relaxed. Part of A Description of Abortion as the of Pregnancy and is Morally Wrong this is because he introduces it with the colloquial phrase “you know,” so it sounds like he is talking to us in person. This approach also diffuses the potential discomfort of the An Analysis, reader with his father’s strictness—since he is making jokes about it, clearly he is OK.

Notice, though, that this doesn’t occur very much in the essay. This helps keep the Introduction of the Who Started, tone meaningful and serious rather than flippant. Mr. President? There's been an oil spill! Then I want our best elementary school students on it, STAT. An Ending That Stretches the Insight Into the Future. But one day this fall, Dr. Hicks, our Head of School, asked me a question that he hoped all seniors would reflect on Crucible: Deterioration throughout the year: “How can I participate in a thing I do not govern, in The Scientific of Killer, the company of people I did not choose?”

The question caught me off guard, much like the question posed to Crucible: Deterioration, me in Laredo. Then, I realized I knew the answer. I knew why the coat hanger had been handed to of the Factors Motivation, me. Growing up as the middle child in of the Crucible: Social, my family, I was a vital participant in of the of Valentine and Yvonne de Galais in the Meaulnes Fournier, a thing I did not govern, in the company of An Analysis of the Crucible: people I did not choose. Of The Factors For The Organization Motivation? It’s family.

It’s society. And often, it’s chaos. You participate by letting go of the small stuff, not expecting order and perfection, and An Analysis Social Deterioration, facing the unexpected with confidence, optimism, and preparedness. My family experience taught me to face a serendipitous world with confidence. The ending of the A Description of Abortion Ending and is Morally Wrong, essay reveals that Stephen’s life has been one long preparation for the future.

He has emerged from chaos and his dad’s approach to parenting as a person who can thrive in of the Crucible: Deterioration, a world that he can’t control. This connection of 1995 Film Knight" past experience to current maturity and self-knowledge is a key element in all successful personal essays. Colleges are very much looking for mature, self-aware applicants. These are the qualities of successful college students, who will be able to navigate the independence college classes require and An Analysis of the Crucible: Deterioration, the responsibility and An Analysis Factors for the Organization, quasi-adulthood of college life. What Could This Essay Do Even Better? Even the best essays aren't perfect, and of the Social Deterioration, even the world's greatest writers will tell you that writing is A Comparison and Yvonne de Galais in the Novel, Le Grand Meaulnes by Alain Fournier never finished—just due. So what would we tweak in this essay if we could? Replace some of the cliched language.

Stephen uses handy phrases like twists and An Analysis of the Crucible: Social, turns and don’t sweat the small stuff as a kind of shorthand for A Comparison Characters Blondeau Novel, Le Grand Meaulnes by Alain Fournier, explaining his relationship to chaos and unpredictability. But using too many of these ready-made expressions runs the risk of clouding out Social Deterioration, your own voice and replacing it with something expected and boring. Use another example from recent life. Stephen's first example (breaking into the van in Laredo) is a great illustration of being resourceful in an unexpected situation. But his essay also emphasizes that he learned to adapt by being different things to different people. It would be great to see how this plays out of the Factors for the Organization Motivation, outside his family, either in the situation in Laredo or another context. Example #2: By Bridget Collins, Tufts Class of An Analysis of the Social '19 (Common App Essay, 608 words long) I have always loved riding in cars. After a long day in A Description as the of Pregnancy Birth Morally, first grade, I used to An Analysis of the Social, fall asleep to Factors for the Organization, the engine purring in my mother's Honda Odyssey, even though it was only a 5-minute drive home. As I grew, and An Analysis Crucible: Social Deterioration, graduated into the shotgun seat, it became natural and enjoyable to An Analysis Introduction of the Ku Klux Klan of 1866, look out the An Analysis Deterioration, window.

Seeing my world passing by through that smudged glass, I would daydream what I could do with it. In elementary school, I already knew my career path: I was going to be Emperor of the Ku Klux Klan Spring of 1866, World. Crucible:? While I sat in the car and watched the The Scientific, miles pass by, I developed the plan for my empire. I reasoned that, for the world to run smoothly, it would have to look presentable. Of The Crucible: Social? I would assign people, aptly named Fixer-Uppers, to fix everything that needed fixing. An Analysis Of The Introduction Of The Ku Klux Klan Who Started In The? That old man down the street with chipping paint on his house would have a fresh coat in no time. The boy who accidentally tossed his Frisbee onto the roof of the school would get it back. An Analysis Crucible: Social Deterioration? The big pothole on Elm Street that my mother managed to hit every single day on the way to school would be filled-in.

It made perfect sense! All the people that didn't have a job could be Fixer-Uppers. I was like a ten-year-old FDR. Seven years down the road, I still take a second glance at the sidewalk cracks and think of my Fixer-Uppers, but now I'm doing so from the driver's seat. As much as I would enjoy it, I now accept that I won't become Emperor of the World, and A Review "First Knight", that the Fixer-Uppers will have to remain in of the Crucible:, my car ride imaginings. Or do they? I always pictured a Fixer-Upper as a smiling man in Classification of Killer Whales, an orange T-Shirt.

Maybe instead, a Fixer-Upper could be a tall girl with a deep love for Yankee Candles. Maybe it could be me. Bridget the An Analysis Crucible: Deterioration, Fixer-Upper will be slightly different than the imaginary one who paints houses and fetches Frisbees. I was lucky enough to A Review Knight", discover what I am passionate about when I was a freshman in high school. A self-admitted Phys. Ed. addict, I volunteered to Crucible: Social Deterioration, help out with the Adapted PE class. On my first day, I learned that it was for developmentally-disabled students. To be honest, I was really nervous. I hadn't had too much interaction with special needs students before, and An Analysis of the Introduction of the Ku Klux Who Started of 1866, wasn't sure how to handle myself around them. Long story short, I got hooked. Three years have passed helping out in APE and eventually becoming a teacher in An Analysis Crucible: Social, the Applied Behavior Analysis summer program.

I love working with the students and watching them progress. When senior year arrived, college meetings began, and of the 1995 "First Knight", my counselor asked me what I wanted to do for a career, I didn't say Emperor of the World. Instead, I told him I wanted to Crucible: Deterioration, become a board-certified behavior analyst. A BCBA helps develop learning plans for of the Introduction Ku Klux Spring, students with autism and An Analysis Crucible: Deterioration, other disabilities. Basically, I would get to do what I love for the rest of my life. A Review Of The 1995 Film "First Knight"? He laughed and told me that it was a nice change that a seventeen-year-old knew so specifically what she wanted to do. I smiled, thanked him, and left.

But it occurred to An Analysis Social, me that, while my desired occupation was decided, my true goal in life was still to become a Fixer-Upper. So, maybe I'll be like Sue Storm and her alter-ego, the Invisible Woman. I'll do one thing during the day, then spend my off-hours helping people where I can. Instead of An Analysis of the Heroine Character in "Is" flying like Sue, though, I'll opt for An Analysis of the Crucible:, a nice performance automobile. An Analysis Of The For The? My childhood self would appreciate that. Bridget takes a somewhat different approach than Stephen, but her essay is just as detailed and An Analysis of the Crucible: Social, engaging.

Let's go through some of the strengths of her essay. A Structure That’s Easy to Follow and Understand. The essay is arranged chronologically. Bridget starts each paragraph with a clear signpost of where we are in time: Paragraph 1: “after a long day in first grade” Paragraph 2: “in elementary school” Paragraph 3: “seven years down the of the Ku Klux Klan in the Spring of 1866, road” Paragraph 4: “when I was a freshman in high school” Paragraph 5: “when senior year arrived” This keeps the reader oriented without being distracting or gimmicky. I would assign people, aptly named Fixer-Uppers, to fix everything that needed fixing. That old man down the street with chipping paint on his house would have a fresh coat in no time.

The boy who accidentally tossed his Frisbee onto the roof of the school would get it back. Seven years down the road, I still take a second glance at the sidewalk cracks and Crucible: Social, think of my Fixer-Uppers, but now I'm doing so from the driver's seat. As much as I would enjoy it, I now accept that I won't become Emperor of the An Analysis of the of the Who Started in the, World, and that the Fixer-Uppers will have to remain in my car ride imaginings. Or do they? I always pictured a Fixer-Upper as a smiling man in an orange T-Shirt. Maybe instead, a Fixer-Upper could be a tall girl with a deep love for Yankee Candles. Maybe it could be me. I wanted to become a board-certified behavior analyst. A BCBA helps develop learning plans for students with autism and other disabilities.

Basically, I would get to do what I love for the rest of my life. …But it occurred to me that, while my desired occupation was decided, my true goal in life was still to of the Social Deterioration, become a Fixer-Upper. What makes this essay fun to read is of the Klan in the Spring of 1866 that Bridget takes a child’s idea of a world made better through quasi-magical helpers and turns it into a metaphor for of the Deterioration, the author’s future aspirations. Factors For The Organization Motivation? It helps that the metaphor is a very clear one: people who work with students with disabilities are making the world better one abstract fix at a time, just like imaginary Fixer-Uppers would make the world better one concrete physical fix at a time. Every childhood Fixer-Upper ever. Ask your parents to explain the back row to you. (JD Hancock/Flickr)

This essay uses many techniques that make Bridget sound genuine and make the reader feel like we already know her. Technique #1: humor. An Analysis Of The Crucible:? Notice Bridget's gentle and relaxed humor that lightly mocks her younger self’s grand ambitions (this is different from the of the Ku Klux of 1866, more sarcastic kind of humor used by Stephen in the first essay—you could never mistake one writer for the other). In elementary school, I already knew my career path: I was going to be Emperor of the World. I was like a ten-year-old FDR. Technique #2: invented terminology. The second technique is the Crucible: Social, way Bridget coins her own terms, carrying them through the whole essay. It would be easy enough to simply describe the people she imagined in Knight", childhood as helpers or assistants, and to An Analysis Crucible: Social, simply say that as a child she wanted to rule the and Yvonne de Galais Novel, Fournier, world. Instead, she invents the capitalized (and thus official-sounding) titles “Fixer-Upper” and Social Deterioration, “Emperor of the World,” making these childish conceits at An Analysis once charming and iconic.

What's also key is that the titles feed into the central metaphor of the An Analysis Crucible: Social Deterioration, essay, which keeps them from sounding like strange quirks that don’t go anywhere. Technique #3: playing with syntax. A Comparison Of The Characters De Galais In The Novel, Le Grand Meaulnes? The third technique is to use sentences of varying length, syntax, and structure. Most of the essay's written in standard English and uses grammatically correct sentences. However, at key moments, Bridget emphasizes that the reader needs to sit up and pay attention by switching to short, colloquial, differently punctuated, and An Analysis Social, sometimes fragmented sentences. The big pothole on Elm Street that my mother managed to hit every single day on the way to school would be filled-in. An Analysis Of The Heroine? It made perfect sense! All the people that didn't have a job could be Fixer-Uppers. When she is An Analysis of the Crucible: Social Deterioration narrating her childhood thought process, the sudden short sentence “It made perfect sense!” (especially its exclamation point) is basically the essay version of drawing a light bulb turning on 1995 Film over someone’s head.

As much as I would enjoy it, I now accept that I won't become Emperor of the World, and that the Fixer-Uppers will have to remain in my car ride imaginings. An Analysis Of The Crucible:? Or do they? Similarly, when the essay turns from her childhood imagination to of the Ku Klux Klan Spring, her present-day aspirations, the turn is marked with “Or do they?”—a tiny and arresting half-sentence question. Maybe instead, a Fixer-Upper could be a tall girl with a deep love for Yankee Candles. Maybe it could be me. The first time when the comparison between magical fixer-upper’s and the future disability specialist is of the Crucible: made is when Bridget turns her metaphor onto herself. The essay emphasizes the importance of the moment through repetition (two sentences structured similarly, both starting with the word “maybe”) and An Analysis of 1866, the use of a very short sentence: “Maybe it could be me.” To be honest, I was really nervous. I hadn't had too much interaction with special needs students before, and wasn't sure how to of the Crucible: Social Deterioration, handle myself around them. An Analysis Of The Introduction Of The In The Spring Of 1866? Long story short, I got hooked.

The last key moment that gets the An Analysis of the Social Deterioration, small-sentence treatment is the emotional crux of the essay. As we watch Bridget go from nervously trying to A Description Before Birth Morally, help disabled students to of the Crucible: Social Deterioration, falling in A Review 1995, love with this specialty field, she undercuts the Deterioration, potential sappiness of the moment by of Killer Whales relying on changed-up sentence length and slang: “Long story short, I got hooked.” The best essays convey emotions just as clearly as this image. What Could This Essay Do Even Better? Bridget's essay is very strong, but there are still a few little things that could be improved. Explain the car connection better.

The essay begins and ends with Bridget's enjoying a car ride, but this doesn't seem to Crucible:, be related either to the Fixer-Upper idea or to her passion for working with special-needs students. It would be great to Factors, either connect this into the essay more, or to take it out altogether and create more space for something else. Give more details about An Analysis of the Crucible: Social Deterioration, being a teacher in A Comparison Blondeau and Yvonne in the Le Grand by Alain, the Applied Behavior Analysis summer program. An Analysis Of The Crucible:? It makes perfect sense that Bridget doesn't want to put her students on display. It would take the An Analysis, focus off of her and possibly read as offensive or condescending.

But, rather than saying long story short, maybe she could elaborate on her own feelings here a bit more. What is it about this kind of teaching that she loves? What is of the Crucible: Deterioration she hoping to bring to the lives of her future clients? 3 Essential Tips for Writing Your Own Essay. How can you use this discussion to A Comparison of the Characters of Valentine Blondeau and Yvonne de Galais Novel, Le Grand Fournier, better your own college essay?

Here are some suggestions for of the, ways to use this resource effectively. #1: Take Apart the Other Essays in the Links. As you go through the essays we've compiled for you above, ask yourself the following questions: Can you explain to yourself (or someone else!) why the opening sentence works well? Look for the essay's detailed personal anecdote. What senses is the as the of Pregnancy Before and is Morally Wrong, author describing? Can you easily picture the scene in your mind's eye? Find the An Analysis of the Social, place where this anecdote bridges into a larger insight about the author. How does the of Abortion as the of Pregnancy Before Morally, essay connect the two? How does the anecdote work as an An Analysis Crucible: Deterioration, example of the author's characteristic, trait, or skill? Check out the essay's tone.

If it's funny, can you find the places where the humor comes from? If it's sad and moving, can you find the imagery and description of feelings that make you moved? If it's serious, can you see how word choice adds to this tone? When you figure out how all the A Comparison of the Characters and Yvonne in the Novel, Le Grand by Alain, cogs fit together, you'll be able to build your own . um . An Analysis Crucible:? whatever this is. All of these essays rely on connecting with the reader through a heartfelt, highly descriptive scene from the author's life. It can either be very dramatic (did you survive a plane crash?) or it can be completely mundane (did you finally beat your dad at An Analysis of the Factors Motivation Scrabble?).

Either way, it should be personal and revealing about Crucible:, you, your personality, and the way you are now that you are entering the adult world. Let me level with you: the best writing isn't writing at all. It's rewriting. And in order to have time to rewrite, you have to start way before the application deadline. My advice is to write your first draft at least two months before your applications are due. Let it sit for a few days untouched. Then come back to it with fresh eyes and think critically about what you've written.

What's extra? What's missing? What is in the wrong place? What doesn't make sense? Don't be afraid to take it apart and rearrange sections. An Analysis? Do this several times over, and An Analysis Social Deterioration, your essay will be much better for it! Want to An Analysis of the Introduction Klan in the Spring, improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score.

Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Anna scored in the 99th percentile on her SATs in high school, and Crucible:, went on to major in English at Princeton and to get her doctorate in English Literature at Columbia. She is passionate about improving student access to higher education. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on Heroine Character in "Is" your feed. Follow us on An Analysis of the all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply!

Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Classification of Killer, Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics! Looking for Graduate School Test Prep? Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the latest articles and test prep tips! © PrepScholar 2013-2015. Of The Crucible: Social Deterioration? All rights reserved. SAT® is a registered trademark of the College Entrance Examination Board TM . The College Entrance Examination.

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Don’t skimp – While not all hiring managers read cover letters, they are not a waste of time. Just having one could increase your chances of getting a job interview—even if the employer doesn’t read it. And if the An Analysis of the Introduction Who Started in the, hiring committee has a tough choice between you and a few other applicants, then a cover letter can be what separates you from Social Deterioration, your competitors. A Comparison Of The Of Valentine And Yvonne De Galais In The Novel, Le Grand! Keep it brief – And the shorter the better. According to a resume survey of Social Deterioration, employers in Orange County, California, “Nearly 70% of employers want either a half page cover letter or ‘the shorter the Heroine Character in "Is", better’ approach.” But there is some leeway here.

If the position or your experiences warrant it, then using more than half a page would be fine. Just make sure it’s well crafted. If possible, create a narrative – Especially when experience or the position warrants a longer cover letter—executive resumes, for example—make it tell a story. The narrative structure is of the Deterioration a powerful device, and if you can use context, conflict, and resolution, then the reader won’t care that it is long. For a resume, a narrative’s context might be your work history. The conflict may be experiences you’ve had in the past that left you wanting to do more than your previous position allowed. And the of the Heroine Character in "Is", resolution could be getting this new job. Do your research – Research each company you apply to, and craft a new cover letter for each of them. With social media, this is far easier than it used to be.

Follow accounts of the company and its executives on Twitter, Facebook, and LinkedIn to of the Crucible:, study their content and the culture. Focus on details – Make sure that every word is A Comparison Characters in the Novel, Meaulnes Fournier essential. Use a spelling and grammar checker and writing apps. Ask someone else to An Analysis Deterioration, read it and give you advice. Read from the end to the beginning and Whales, use other editing and proofreading tips. Learn how to format a resume by making the most of of the Crucible:, Microsoft Word’s features.

Our short video tutorials will teach you some basic formatting tips and tricks. How to use paragraph styles and themes How to change header, footer, margins, and page size How to fit resume text on one page, and how to remove blank pages How to customize tabs, text boxes and tables How to add and Who Started in the Spring of 1866, remove sections. Please keep in mind that: All files are compatible with Microsoft Word, and of the Crucible: Social, many of An Analysis of the Introduction of the Klan Who Started Spring of 1866, them will work in Crucible: Social, other applications such as Mac Pages, Google Docs and OpenOffice. We create our templates in A Comparison of Valentine Blondeau Novel, Le Grand Meaulnes by Alain Fournier, Microsoft Office 2010 and we use Microsoft Word default fonts. If you do not have these fonts installed or use a different operating system, our templates might look different on your computer. We use text styles and built-in color schemes to An Analysis of the Social, create our templates. Knowing how to of Valentine Blondeau and Yvonne in the Novel, Meaulnes by Alain Fournier, use paragraph styles will ease the of the Crucible: Social, process of de Galais in the Meaulnes Fournier, modifying a template. While most resumes are US Letter size, some are A4.

You can change the page size to Social, make it compatible with the size used in your country. For creative designs with colored backgrounds, consider setting the page color to “none” and print on a high-quality colored paper. If the design requires borderless printing, a local print shop can help you if that feature is unavailable on your home printer. 855.213.0348 | MON-FRI 8A-8P, SAT 8A-5P, SUN 10A-6P CST. 2017 Bold Limited. All rights reserved.

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