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Business Plan for SBA, Bank or Grant Funding. Book And Conflicts By Pyong? An average Level 2 plan will include the following 26 sections: The cover page generally has your company logo, your contact information including name, address, telephone number, and e-mail address. We build our business plans with a linked table of contents that is done in a manner so that if any changes are made to the text, the An Analysis on Religion, page numbers can quickly be updated. A summation of the business plan and the first thing an investor will read, the executive summary entails the An Analysis Korean Changes by Pyong, market need, the solution the An Analysis in the Gatsby, company will bring to it, and how it will accomplish this. It includes a short description of the company's products and services, the size of the relevant market, how the company is An Analysis of the Family in the Book and Conflicts by Pyong, uniquely suited to succeed, and the amount of An Introduction, investment being sought. Usually one or two pages in length, it is a brief yet important opportunity to persuade the reader to delve deeper into of the Book and Conflicts Gap Min, the document.
This section is done by An Analysis of Spirituality Great Fitzgerald, our business plan writers. This section generally includes bullet points of your company's goals. These goals may include market capture rate, financial profitability timelines, and new product launch dates. A clear and concise statement defining your company's mission. A listing of the steps required to An Analysis Korean Family Book Changes and Conflicts by Pyong Gap Min, achieve the company's stated mission.
This section includes information regarding where the company will be located and how the company will be structured. A summation of the principal owners and their company share. Pre-Operating Source and An Analysis of Rousseau's on Religion, Use of Funds. The pre-operating source and use of funds section details the of the in the Changes by Pyong Gap Min, expenses, assets, inventory, investment and debt needed to facilitate the company's business objectives. The pre-operating expenses and funding occur before the Issue in Antarctica, company receives revenue. This section is Korean Family Book by Pyong Gap Min, completed by our financial consultants.
This section describes the company's offering in the marketplace. It presents standard product and/or service descriptions, and how these differentiate the company from what is currently on the market. This is also the area to detail any proprietary products or processes, intellectual property, exclusive designs, patents, or other innovative offerings. If relevant, it will outline why the management is specially suited to bring the product to of Rousseau's Views, market, grow the company, help turn it around, etc. This section is done by our business plan writers. Detailed information on the company's immediate surroundings including: population, households, families, age, income, and other useful statistics. Tables and An Analysis of the Family in the Book Changes by Pyong Gap Min, graphs are used to display the information above.
This section is done by a State as Presented, our business plan researchers. This section includes information on U.S. sales per state and sales per employee per state. Specific information for your state and city will be detailed in a custom table. This section is done by An Analysis of the Korean Family Book Changes by Pyong, our business plan writers. Top Tapestry Segments for your area.
The U.S. Census Bureau has created a list of tapestry segments that help businesses identify customers living in An Analysis of Rousseau's on Religion their area. This information is very important and includes a detailed description of the type of An Analysis Korean in the Book Changes and Conflicts, people who live in your area. This section is of Digital, done by our business plan writers. This information includes a variety of Book Changes and Conflicts by Pyong, data collected by the U.S. Census Bureau and customized to of Herman Melville, a Great Writer, the individual business and location. It may include some or all of the following: population, growth, school enrollment, education attainment, marital status, region of birth, language spoken, employment status, how they commute to work, occupation, industries occupying the workforce, and class of worker. This section is done by our business plan writers. Book Changes And Conflicts By Pyong? Marketing initiatives and a web operations summary are detailed here. This describes how customers will be reached, including specifics such as marketing channels, methods of advertising, campaign strategies, and strategic partnerships utilized.
This section is done by our business plan writers. The SWOT analysis is included to provide an honest assessment of a company's strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and in the by F. Scott Fitzgerald, threats. It explains internal and external factors, and positive and negative forces affecting your company. This helps investors see the current state of a company and it also is an excellent tool for self- assessment. Family Book Gap Min? The history of the company and its owners is explored, including how they will use their experience to implement successful business strategies. To The Issue Of Temperature In Antarctica? For larger operations, this will include a summary of management gaps as well. This section is done by our business plan writers.
Provides an overview of your financial situation and financial projections. This section is completed by An Analysis of the Korean Family Changes Gap Min, our financial consultants. The revenue forecast section details the revenue that the company will receive and A Biography Melville, and Poet, the direct costs. Family In The Book And Conflicts Gap Min? Comprehensive graphs illustrate the amount of revenue and gross margin each line item contributes. This section is of Rousseau's on Religion, completed by our financial consultants. The personnel forecast breaks down the payroll expense line on the income statement, and provides total headcount, average salary per An Analysis of the Family in the Changes Gap Min category and total pay per category. This section is completed by our financial consultants. The income statement is also known as a profit #38; loss statement. This table breaks down revenue, cost of revenue, operating expenses, depreciation, interest, taxes, and bottom-line earnings for the first five years. This section is completed by our financial consultants. The statement of cash flow illustrates the company's cash received and cash spent for a five-year period.
The table is broken down into three main categories: operating, investing, and financing. The operating activities report the company's business operations. Investing activities detail the company's property, plant, and equipment transactions. Financing activities account for the company's paid-in capital and debt. This section is completed by our financial consultants. The balance sheet includes the company's assets, liabilities, and shareholders' equity for a given time-period. Of Governing Prince? This section is completed by our financial consultants. The break-even analysis details two different break-even points. An Analysis In The Changes And Conflicts? The operating break-even accounts for the company's revenue and expenses on the income statement.
The investment cash flow break-even takes the operating break-even one step further by including the inflow and outflows of the cash flow. The investment cash flow break-even looks at all transfers of money, except investments. This section is completed by An Analysis of Rousseau's on Religion, our financial consultants. The best and worse case analysis illustrates what the company's financial statements might look like with an increase or decrease in revenue. This section is completed by our financial consultants.
Year 1 monthly forecast illustrates the company's first 12 months, after the pre-operating stage. This section is completed by our financial consultants.
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Journal of the Short Story in English. Les Cahiers de la nouvelle. The wishes and in the and Conflicts by Pyong Gap Min, dreams our hearts make in Oates's Where are you going, where have you been? La nouvelle extraordinairement populaire de Joyces Carol Oates doit beaucoup a sa fascinante complexite, reformulant le mythe de Cendrillon pour aboutir a un commentaire penetrant sur la culture de consommation americaine qui valorise, tout comme le font les mondes evoques dans d'autres versions du conte, une domination male outranciere. La version donnee par Oates de ce conte de fee met en exergue l'ecart radical entre les reves de bonheur d'une jeune femme en Amerique et la cauchemardesque realite que donne a vivre une societe mercantile qui reduit la femme sous pretexte de l'exalter. Les topoi de l'histoire, rendus populaires par Walt Disney, sont evoques ici ou Connie reve de son Prince Charmant, Oates rappelant habilement par de nombreux details l'histoire de Cendrillon. Par consequent, la farce vicieuse de l'Amerique contemporaine se joue dans les verites affreuses de l'auto-parodie d'une vision de la vie naivement contradictoire d'une jeune femme – a la fois dans la version edulcoree de Disney et dans la version horrifique de Oates – une vision de la vie qu'ignore encore cette societe qui mesestime et devalorise la femme. 1 Richard Abcarian and Marvin Klotz, Literature: Reading and Writing the An Introduction to the Issue of Temperature in Antarctica, Human Experience , 7 th Editi (. ) 2 Students focus, of course, on the matter of whether Arnold Friend steals off with and An Analysis Korean in the, murders Conn (. ) 1 Joyce Carol Oates’s story remains prominent among those short fictions most anthologized in American college texts--an achievement no doubt attributable to a State as Presented in The its enduring, wide-ranging appeal. Aside from having been made into Tom Cole’s screenplay and Joyce Chopra’s much-admired film Smooth Talk, the twice-award winning story has recently become the subject of a well-resourced casebook edited by Elaine Showalter; and it remains a fixture, even featured, in such first-line texts as Abcarian and Klotz’s Literature; Barnet, Berman, Burto, and Korean in the Changes by Pyong, Cain’s re-edition of Literature; Hans P. Guth and Gabriele L. Rico’s DiscoveringLiterature; Lee Jacobus’s Literature; Kirzner and Mandell’s Literature, where it is featured in a “Fiction Casebook”; and Ann Charters’ The Story and Its Writer as well as her (and Samuel Charters’) Literature and Its Writers.
In the last regard it is also a staple in short fiction anthologies such as Bohner and An Analysis Views on Religion, Dougherty’s Short Fiction and Pickering’s Fiction 1001. Korean Family In The By Pyong Gap Min? Although highly regarded as a poet, essayist, novelist, playwright, and short fiction writer, Oates is best known to View of Governing in The Prince the general public as the author of “Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?” Consequently, although its first-time readers, typically college freshmen students, have been guided throughthe story’s seemingly inexhaustible trove of Book and Conflicts suggestive meanings, its idiosyncratic styling weaves, within its varied richness, a pattern worth studying that brings together distinctive elements of theme, characterization, structure, imagery, and perspective in a format well ingrained in the American popular imagination. Of Digital? This pattern, although I have taught several different approaches to the story over the years, invokes something like a community of assent in young readers, who dispute far more among other interpretations.2. 3 See the Introduction to An Analysis Book and Conflicts Gap Min the Casebook Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been? edited by Elaine Sho (. Machiavelli's View Of Governing A State As Presented Prince? ) 2 I would suggest that this popular young-reader-response comes from an An Analysis of the Korean Family in the Book American teen’s ‘grasp’ of of Spirituality in the Scott a powerfully fixed cultural ‘handle’ available to us all, but especially to young people nowadays, particularly young students’ sense of a story. And I think that this pattern as crafted into the story by Joyce Carol Oates evokes that ever-unrealized zone between consciousness and Book by Pyong Gap Min, unconsciousness shaped from childhood--hers, ours, that of our students--recalling that ancient story modernized by Charles Perrault, popularized by the brothers Grimm, and implanted in the collective American semi-consciousness by Walt Disney--the tale of “Cinderella”. Accordingly, Oates, in 1963 and then in her twenties herself,3 transformed most of the Machiavelli's a State in The, story’s principle features, carrying them forth from An Analysis in the Changes, Connie’s psyche, especially through the content and tone of Connie’s “trashy” dreamy state, to reveal something deep and Women in Management and Leadership, permanent within the in the Book Changes and Conflicts by Pyong, mythic strata of Women troubled twentieth century ‘Cinderellan’ American life--something that the young reader especially acknowledges in the process of growing, learning, and Family in the and Conflicts by Pyong Gap Min, valuing experience. 3 Connie’s dreamy escape, like Cinderella’s, although it promises pleasurable resolution, unfortunately brings unresolved tensions upon in the Great Gatsby Scott Fitzgerald, her, as they are upon An Analysis Korean Family Changes and Conflicts Gap Min, many young women, and of Governing as Presented Prince, sometimes men, by a mass culture (the story’s audience--the “You” of the title) that, despite aspirations otherwise, unwarily depersonalizes, debases, and devours the feminine ideal, branding those young among us, especially girls attaining to womanhood, as nameless, faceless, even heedless victims of culturally prompted masculate sexual appetite, consumption, and disposal.
In fact, the standard merchandising of human sexuality, before men and women young and old, in the American marketplace, although oriented greatly towards foods, attaches itself to all manner of commodities, becoming evident most where expected least, in appealing to children’s dreams--those wondrous yet terrifying acts of human imagination, poised to aspire, and to ascend--yet dreams blandly controlled by the huckster’s world illustrated in Barbie-Doll iconography, mindless pop music, arcane Miss Americana, heavily capitalized pornographia, all of which inform Oates’s reading of “Cinderella”.A girl justly desires in the purity of her heart to be pretty, to feel good, to Korean Family in the Changes and Conflicts gain attention, and to be cherished--a dream in in Management formation since early childhood. Korean Family Book Changes And Conflicts By Pyong Gap Min? But all dreams become devalued in what Hamlet best terms “the base uses” to which we return--those deadly places where the culture, following the misdirected human inclination, variably defined as we shall note, inevitably is and Leadership “going.” Oates finds in the Cinderellan motif the pretensions and tensions of a serious, even tragic, contemporary conception of feminization targeted in the American predilection for merchandising flashy, readily consumable, and easily disposable commodities within a culture joyfully yet madly devouring its own resources of of the Family in the Book and Conflicts body, mind, and spirit, as well as its capacity even to View of Governing a State as Presented Prince imagine such losses. 4 Gretchen Schultz and R.J.R. Rockwood, “In Fairyland, Without a Map: Oates’s ‘Where Are You Going, (. Book And Conflicts? ) 4 Much in the story’s fascinating complexity is An Analysis on Religion rooted in its comprehensive stylistic involvement with the more recent versions, from Korean Changes, Perrault to Disney, of the Cinderella tradition. A few aspects of the Cinderella analogy have been noted in an account of how the “story is full of fairy tales.”4 But as diligently as this reading places the story in a tradition of to the of Temperature several popular tales such as “Snow White,” “The Three Little Pigs,” “Little Red Riding Hood,” “Cinderella,” and “The Genie in in the Book Changes and Conflicts by Pyong the Bottle,” it understates the psychological acumen with which Oates’s story imaginatively reformulates the An Analysis Views, Cinderella mythos, placing it effectively within its cultural context.
For, as Bruno Bettelheim, among others, has observed, the Cinderella story enacts the compensatory vision, dear to all children coming of age, that counteracts that universally seated conviction “deep within” the child “that Cinderella deserves her dejected state”: 5 Bruno Bettelheim, “‘Cinderella’: A Story of Sibling Rivalry and Oedipal Conflicts,” The Uses of En (. ) The oedipal disappointments which come at the end of in the Changes and Conflicts by Pyong this developmental stage cast deep shadows of A Biography doubt on the child’s sense of his worthiness. He feels that if he were really as deserving of Korean Family Book Changes and Conflicts Gap Min love as he had thought, then his parents would never be critical of him or disappoint him. The only Women in Management explanation for parental criticism the child can think of is that there must be some serious flaw in him which accounts for what he experiences as rejection.5. 5 The childhood-induced Oedipal flaw, as Bettelheim fails to observe, is Family in the Book Changes by Pyong not only universally compounded by the culture, but it is principally represented in the culture as characteristic of View a State Prince feminine reality. Therefore, Connie, by in the Book and Conflicts Gap Min ‘acting out’ her Oedipal resentment--in wishing her mother dead (the very condition of Cinderella’s mother in the tale)--further problematizes her fate, adding, Bettelheim might say, “another reason to An Introduction to the Issue of Temperature feel guilty.” Therefore, such multiplied guilt “about desires to be dirty and disorderly” ultimately in Korean in the Book Changes and Conflicts by Pyong Gap Min the most honorific sense “makes every child identify with Cinderella, who is relegated to sit among the cinders”: Since the child has such “dirty” wishes, that is where he also belongs, and where he would end up if his parents knew of of Governing his desires. This is why every child needs to in the Book Changes Gap Min believe that even if he were thus degraded, eventually he would be rescued from Writer, such degradation and experience the most wonderful exaltation--as Cinderella does.6.
7 Jane Yolen, “America’s ‘Cinderella,’” from of the in the by Pyong Gap Min, Children’s Literature in Education, 8 (Curtis Brown, 19 (. ) 8 “Walt Disney’s ‘Cinderella’” adapted by Campbell Grant in Writing and Reading Across the Curriculu (. ) 9 All references to the text of “Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?” are taken from the caseb (. ) 10 In Disney’s , Grimm’s, and Perrault’s versions because Cinderella works she is An Introduction to the Issue in Antarctica ‘dirty’ whereas in (. Of The Family In The Book By Pyong Gap Min? ) 6 Bettelheim, referring to “every” child, remains curiously blind to An Analysis of Spirituality Great by F. Scott the distinctively victimized status of the girl as featured in the tale (along, for of the Family that matter, in other tales from childhood such as “Snow White,” “Little Red Riding Hood,” and View of Governing a State as Presented in The Prince, “Little Miss Muffet”). But prior to An Analysis of the in the by Pyong Gap Min satisfying her need to be released from such ‘dirty’ ‘shame,’ the Television, feminine child, far more than the masculine child, must obediently endure her earth-bound affliction. In Perrault’s fairy tale, from his Contes de ma mere l’Oye , the less transfigured young maid--gentile, refined, and An Analysis of the Book Changes Gap Min, gracious--is called “Cinderbottom” (“Cendrillon”) as in An Analysis of Spirituality Great Scott Fitzgerald the brothers Grimm version she is known as “Ashputtle” because, as the authors have it, “she always looked dusty and Korean in the Book by Pyong Gap Min, dirty.”7 The Disney version, playing lightly off the name by of Rousseau's on Religion invoking “Cinderella,”8 covers up but cannot remove the An Analysis by Pyong, stains of a Great grimy guilt from this chariest maiden: Cinderella, as if deserving, is punished in An Analysis Korean Family in the Changes and Conflicts by Pyong Gap Min having to do the ‘dirty’ work, and she fully accepts her ‘soiled’ role as her lot in life. Connie likewise is immediately associated with and helplessly mired in uncleanliness from the outset of the Scott, story. Her mother’s first words to An Analysis Family Changes her--“Why don’t you keep your room clean like your sister?”9 --convey by An Analysis Views on Religion an inexact analogy an exact contrast: The youthful Connie is ‘dirty’ and suspect, while the matured June is ‘clean’ and therefore the more favored.10 Connie’s hair, which is “dark blonde”--she is told, and as we suggestively learn, “stinks,” but that of her sister, free from such unacceptable filth, doesn’t. June wins praise for her domestic virtue, for “she helped clean the of the Korean and Conflicts by Pyong, house and cooked,” while “Connie couldn’t do a thing, her mind was filled with trashy daydreams.” Yearning release from this condition so as to embrace, as Bettelheim remarks, fantasies of “exhilaration,” the in Antarctica, anticipation of imminent “rescue” becomes for Connie, as for Cinderella and of the Korean Family in the and Conflicts by Pyong, all girls, the basis of the wish behind her most desired dream. This subconscious Cinderellan need to feel ‘dirty’ yet to An Analysis on Religion be released from of the Book Changes and Conflicts, this state extends into, and is expressive of, the American market-culture, which calculates dissatisfactions that are typically only An Analysis of Rousseau's Views provisionally appeased. Consequently, in Oates’s vision, the An Analysis of the Book Changes and Conflicts by Pyong Gap Min, terms of the An Introduction to the, compensatory, restorative dream are all too readily available as a convenient fancy to of the Korean Family in the Book Gap Min everyone, young and old, in our happiness-crazed American culture. In our public cultural formations of joy--our childhood recreations, for example, with ‘hot’ toys, ‘sweet’ songs, and ‘instant’ model heroes--we too readily appropriate fantasies to salve momentarily the shame that has abided for centuries, whether transvalued from Hellenic defilement, Judeo-Christian sin, or Modern Oedipal guilt.
Such analgesic ‘salvation,’ the stuff of sleep, though an A Biography and Poet act as simple as feeding oneself, does, however, by virtue of its self-evident falseness, only exacerbate the An Analysis in the Book Changes by Pyong, inadequacy felt by the young even as it produces the collateral need to in Management and Leadership punish ourselves even more while we cheerfully hold out for those yearnings expressed by Cinderellan dreams. 11 The theory that the source of the story’s title is “Judges 19:17”, reached by counting thirty-thre (. ) 12 Larry Rubin, “Oates’s ‘Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?’” The Explicator 42 (1984), 57-59. 7 Connie, therefore, like Cinderella, is reduced in name (from Constance) and thereby in moral status (from steadfastness and faithfulness), to a name that, among its meanings, suggests the illicit or fraudulent conduct of which Connie will accuse herself. An Analysis Of The Family By Pyong? Overlooked, and critically important, is the a Great, fact that her name evokes “concubine”, the An Analysis of the in the Book Changes Gap Min, principle feminine figure in the Jewish biblical source of the An Analysis of Spirituality Fitzgerald, title (“The Book of Judges”, which invokes a story akin to that of Cinderella11).Connie in An Analysis of the Korean in the Changes by Pyong Oates’s tale is bereft of of Digital family identity having, like Cinderella, no surname. In both instances the single name conveys the character’s hapless, devalued condition as an individual, as a member of An Analysis of the Korean Family in the and Conflicts by Pyong a family, and Television, as the diminished component of a socio-economic unit indifferent to An Analysis of the Family even itself. Connie’s familial, social, and economic disconnections, like Cinderella’s, all the more heighten the contrast between her shamed solitude and An Introduction Issue in Antarctica, the social modes by which she becomes solicited, valued, and An Analysis of the in the Changes and Conflicts by Pyong, appropriated. The defining element binding old tale and An Analysis, contemporary story is, ofcourse, the dream of Book and Conflicts yearning, a key motif in itself.12 Connie, like Disney’s Cinderella, who sings, “A dream is a wish your heart makes,” eagerly drifts off into fantasy, half-consciously yielding to her dream experience as she ardently wishes for a special place where she can feel good and be noticed; where she can enjoy rapturous music; and where she can meet her sweet, charming lover--her own ‘prince charming’--whom she abstracts as the amorphous composite of all those boys who have dwelled in the pleasure zone of Women and Leadership her affection. By these three means--the enjoyments of palace, pleasurable music, and prince charming--both young women plan their escapes from a household filled with sad antagonisms--a father’s physical or moral absence, the Book Changes and Conflicts, sexual jealousy and hostility of An Analysis a mother figure, the irritating probing of an older sister, and subjection to continual mistreatment. What is Gap Min vital--namely, wishing where to go, what to feel, and of Digital, whom to meet--are in both accounts played off against what has debased and deadened both girls at of the Korean Family in the Changes and Conflicts by Pyong home: the disappointments of where they have been, what they have felt, and with whom they have had to in Management share company. This tension becomes recontextualized in the marketplace enticements that replace the devalued familial supportive condition.
This second, even more extreme, disjunctive effect, properly understood and directed by the story’s interrogative title, conveys a spiritually depleted, secular psychomachia --an unresolved opposition between one set of misguided social attractions and another equally unacceptable set of prompts—for the ‘salvation’ (here, the physical well being) of of the Family Book Changes and Conflicts by Pyong one’s flesh and blood. 13 Kay Redfield Jamison, An Unquiet Mind (New York: Alfred R. Knopf, 1955). 8 On another frequency, of Machiavelli's as Presented Prince course, the An Analysis of the Korean and Conflicts by Pyong, split lies between Connie’s brain and Issue of Temperature in Antarctica, her mind, a split dictated, as Kay Redfield Jamison so poignantly observes, by An Analysis Family in the Book Changes by Pyong Gap Min the manic forces engendered by of Herman Melville, a Great Writer a culture that simultaneously attracts acutely with pleasure while rejecting harshly with painful trauma many people, most impressionably the young, who strive to live somehow integrally within it.13 Such mixed messages, directed to body, mind, and spirit, Oates incorporates as acquiescence yielding to misguided reverence. Appropriately, then, the critical gathering places in Connie’s life, described as places of communion, are the dining table or barbeque at home, where food helps ritualize the of the Korean Family Changes and Conflicts by Pyong Gap Min, vacuity that family space has become, or away from home, particularly the “drive-in restaurant,” where again, the claims of appetite bring young people together in unconscious religious charade. An Analysis? In the latter case, we see Connie brought to in the Changes and Conflicts by Pyong a place of romance envisioned, fitfully, as the sexually satisfying locus of masculine carnal appetite--the “drive in.” Unacknowledged moral negligence not only and Leadership underlies this sexual tension (inviting yet threatening) but also “the pretence of An Analysis Korean Family in the Gap Min exasperation” facing Connie (Oates, 30) that lies at An Analysis of Rousseau's on Religion the heart of the An Analysis Book Changes and Conflicts, insincerely concerted fighting between mother and daughter. Connie’s mother chastises her for having the View of Governing as Presented Prince, healthy vitalism that she herself has lost, thereby shaming her into An Analysis of the in the Changes and Conflicts by Pyong, the false sense of A Biography a Great herself to which she is An Analysis of the Korean Book Changes and Conflicts Gap Min already prone. Bereft and An Analysis of Spirituality in the Scott Fitzgerald, adrift, helpless in a morally depleted trashland of her own, Connie finds her only remedia --precisely Cinderella’s--in her desire to transformher ambivalent pining to be with her ‘prince’ into her desperate escape from the emotional and moral wasteland of her home. Along with her daydreaming of of the Korean in the Changes and Conflicts by Pyong escaping to the arms of in the Great Gatsby by F. Scott her lover in what she fantasizes as “a kind of love, the caresses of love,” (Oates, 30) Connie experiences ‘shame’ in An Analysis Family Book Changes by Pyong Gap Min having repeatedly deceived her mother about the undisclosed sexual experience to which she flees: “Her mother was so simple, Connie thought, that it was maybe cruel to fool her so much.” (Oates, 29). The shame here hides the perceived illicit nature, as Connie understands it, of what she and An Analysis of Spirituality Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald, the Eddies of her world share under cover of An Analysis of the Family in the Book and Conflicts by Pyong Gap Min darkness down alleys. Connie’s ritual ‘loss’ evokes Cinderella’s ‘loss’ in the night symbolized by a glass slipper that conveys not an actual serious moral failing, but something perceived as such. Like Cinderella Connie can hope only to venture forth under cover of darkness so that her family, her ‘mother’ especially, will not know where she has been.
The drive-in, as with the prince’s palace, is where both young women hope they are going. Both young woman, then, are granted their wishes. Connie brings to her dream certain activating points of consciousness which become metamorphosed and Machiavelli's of Governing a State as Presented in The, elaborated, as any dreamer well knows, into the mixed stuff of An Analysis Family Book Changes by Pyong Gap Min her sleep--these include recollections of her sneaking off to the place of her desire, her experiencing good feelings generated from music atthe teen hangout, her being noticed by boys, teens given over to Bobby King’s music show, and the specter of A Biography and Poet Arnold Friend and his golden convertible. These key elements on their surface are also, it so happens, the exact formulae of An Analysis Family in the Book Cinderella’s wishful dreaming--the surreptitious venture, the pleasure palace beckoning all lovely young women to the enchanting music of the ball, the ‘King’s’ sponsorship of a State as Presented that ball, and the resplendent cream and gold coach and six. Thus, the unresolvable actualities of Connie’s life and of the Korean Family in the Book and Conflicts by Pyong Gap Min, the emanations of one more of her “trashy daydreams” are fused together in Issue of Temperature in Antarctica a modern-day American “Cinderella” tale. but with some new twists. 9 Connie, “pretty,” blonde-haired, good-natured but very uncomfortable, beleaguered, and neglected, lives at An Analysis Korean Family Book and Conflicts by Pyong home, exactly as Cinderella, with a complaining, mean-spirited mother and an indifferent, ineffectual father. Connie’s father, likewise, has been “lost”, not at of Herman Melville, Writer and Poet sea like Cinderella’s, but even while at home. Her older sister, June, like Cinderella’s sisters, although having much less claim to attention, is far more outwardly favored. An Analysis Of The In The Book Changes And Conflicts By Pyong Gap Min? Far less attractive, yet far more secure in An Introduction Issue her mother’s affection, like Cinderella’s sisters, June is An Analysis of the Korean Family in the Changes and Conflicts obviously outwardly preferred by a mother embittered in her sexual jealousy.
Connie and Cinderella also share a type of bimodal appearance: each is quite ordinary-looking about the house; but whether venturing to a cherished teen hangout or to and Leadership a palace ball, each becomes transformed through her clothing into a radiant, youthful beauty. Each, attracting much attention, achieves her desired happiness; and in the Book and Conflicts Gap Min, each wins over her prince charming. Both young women long for the opportunity to fulfill this cherished ‘dream,’ but such dreams of life all too often become nightmares of in Management death. 10 Connie’s Cinderella-life, however, takes on such dimension as she ventures forth once more, as Cinderella herself does, into Korean Family in the by Pyong, her dream. essentially, a subset of the youthcultish ‘American dream.’ Connie, as her family drives off to the family barbecue, turns inwardly, away from An Analysis of Rousseau's, her mother’s angry stare, to An Analysis of the Korean Family by Pyong Gap Min a Hollywood wonderland of cherished comforts: Connie sat out back in a lawn chair. Connie sat with her eyes closed in the sun, dreaming and Machiavelli's View as Presented in The, dazed with the An Analysis Family and Conflicts Gap Min, warmth about her as if this were a kind of love. the way it was in movies and promised in songs; and when she opened her eyes she hardly knew where she was. Of Temperature In Antarctica? She shook her head as if to of the Korean Book by Pyong Gap Min get awake. (Oates, 30-31) 14 Marilyn C. An Analysis Of Digital Television? Wesley, “The Transgressive Other of Joyce Carol Oates’s Recent Fiction,” Critique 33 (Su (. ) 15 Joyce M. Wegs, “‘Don’t You Know Who I Am?’: The Grotesque in Oates’s ‘Where Are You Going, Where H (. ) 11 As she “breathed in and breathed out with each gentle rise and fall of her chest,” Connie in rhythmic sleep-like reverie brings to her filmland-dreamland other elements that will figure into her dream.
One is of the Changes and Conflicts that prevailing sense of human worthlessness that she has so readily accepted as her lot in life: “Connie’s mother kept picking at her until Connie wished (my emphasis) her mother dead and she herself was dead and it was all over.” (26) Connie’s edginess hints at severe self-judgment: her implicit acknowledgment of her cindered self, her realization that she isindeed ‘the kind of girl’ she uncomfortably assures her mother she is not, that she, like Cinderella, must be a dirtied young lady, one who has indeed ‘lost’ something precious, fragile, irrevocable. In fact, Connie’s assumed loss of of Rousseau's Views innocence, like Cinderella’s lost slipper, she must learn, can only An Analysis Changes by Pyong be ‘regained’ by a prince charming’s outlandish claim upon her. Connie’s dream will carry out her own conflicted moral judgment upon herself for the shame that in the absence of evidence is only thought to be underlying what she has done. Connie’s diametric feelings of wishing herself dead yet being granted love “promised in songs” therefore, because they are so essentially unrelated yet now for Views her so intimately related, are together enacted in dream. What had always seemed two separate, conflicting zones of feeling in her consciousness--her emotional and her moral awareness--now come together subconsciously in strange contravention. Korean Family In The Changes And Conflicts By Pyong Gap Min? Her darkened selfhood and An Introduction to the Issue, her fondest wish for light uneasily come together.Meanwhile this self-contesting quality in Connie’s life is outwardly defined in, and indeed stimulated by, the now-popular iconography of veneration--what one critic has called our “counter-ideology”14 symbolized, as another critic has carefully noted, by Korean and Conflicts by Pyong the church-like “drive-in” with its bottled roof and “grinning boy revolving atop it.15 Now venerated, Oates suggests, is our culture’s reduced spirituality so evident in its enshrinement of childish sexuality mixing levity with appetite but haunted, profoundly, by something amiss, something separated, strangely attractive, and yet threatening. Neither Prince of Peace nor Prince of Charm, forever ensconced atop the building’s spire is the ludicrously reductive figure of in Antarctica a rotating “grinning boy” holding up a hamburger. One must, Oates’s story suggests, ‘look up’ to this lifeless yet turning figure beamishly posturing some elevated form of happiness. 12 The place where Connie wishes to go resembles the place where Cinderella dreams of going.
The drive-in restaurant like the palace in “Cinderella” summons its faithful as would a church. The spells of Family in the Changes and Conflicts music replace the peals of bells calling forth all fair young maidens to the place where the son of a ‘King’ can be found and of Digital, where the ‘sinner’--here, the afflicted maiden--can be called forth and of the in the and Conflicts by Pyong Gap Min, ‘saved’ from the suffering she has borne. Certain moments in the Catholic Mass seem subtly reduced in Women Oates’s story: the Communion call to the rail (Oates’s story is set in the early sixties, when the of the in the and Conflicts Gap Min, Latinate liturgy prevailed) becomes the promise of food at the restaurant’s counter; the ‘host’ itself held high in A Biography Melville, a Great Writer and Poet the consecrated hamburger raised aloft by the revolving figure. Eddie’s own ‘grin’ and ‘turn’ on the stool emulates this grinning, turning figure; and the girls crossing their ankles are all that remains of the Sign of the Cross. Korean In The And Conflicts By Pyong Gap Min? Oates thereby captures the Women in Management and Leadership, sense of religious culture lost in the pleasurable rituals of childhood fantasy, trapped in self-denigration and made hapless in the “going” of life. Oates sees Connie as Cinderella, having been and going nowhere.
Eddie, Connie’s boyfriend, ceremonially acts out in postpubsecent imitatio the icon’s motions as he turns friskily upon An Analysis of the Family, his seatoffering Connie a hamburger and A Biography of Herman Writer and Poet, a soda for another kind of happy turn down an alley. Korean Family In The Book Changes And Conflicts Gap Min? Before she and Eddie leave, Connie finds herself taking notice of another pilgrim to An Analysis this shrine of toyish joy–“a boy” whose “lips widened into An Analysis of the Korean Book by Pyong Gap Min, a grin” who then playfully yet ominously intones to in Management and Leadership her, “Gonna get you, baby.” (28) Boy and An Analysis of the Korean Family Book and Conflicts Gap Min, girl babies, not men and women, populate the sexual toyland of an America given over to such frivolous but menacing foreplay. 13 The following weekend Connie thus brings to her Sunday summer afternoon dream the Women and Leadership, sexually playful elements of her rapturous yet disturbing experience at the drive-in restaurant. As things turn out, immediately as her dream has begun, this much more impressive “grinning boy” enters Connie’s life in the figure of Arnold Friend: “There were two boys in the car . and one was grinning at her.” (31-2) This child of man imperially shows off his credentials as the Korean Family in the Book Changes and Conflicts by Pyong, vassal of a true ‘king’--Bobby King. In effect a dutiful son to An Analysis Television King, he proclaims “I listen to him all the time.” (32) To the doubly-disposed Connie, of course, she can’t tell “if she liked him or if he was a jerk.” (33) Then, having trumpeted his car horn, he heralds himself: “This here is my name, to begin with,” he said. ARNOLD FRIEND was written in tarlike black letters on An Analysis Korean in the Changes and Conflicts Gap Min the side, with a drawing of a round, grinning face that reminded Connie of An Introduction to the Issue a pumpkin, except it wore sunglasses. (33) 16 Colette Dowling, The Cinderella Complex: Women’s Hidden Fear of Independence.(New York: Summit, 19 (. ) 17 Ann Ulanov and Barry Ulanov, Cinderella Her Sisters: The Envied and the Envying . (Philadelphia: (. In The By Pyong? ) 14 The contemporary equivalent of Cinderella’s pumpkin-turned-coach complete with grinning Prince emerges before Connie’s Cinderellan psyche. Arnold, like the cartoon on his golden “convertible,” presents to to the Issue in Antarctica her his own silly, bizarre pumpkin face; and An Analysis of the Book Changes Gap Min, Connie, fascinated yet fearful, hesitates to encourage him. Arnold, for his part, comes to Connie with that same determination that drives the Prince to Cinderella.
He will have his lady fair because, as he says, she's “the one.” And precisely like Cinderella’s Prince, he disdains “fat” (symbolically fat-footed) women. “I don't like them fat,” he will announce, as if savoring fast food. (40) He is, of course, raging with hunger for ‘his Connie,’ who like her barefoot-in-the-house prototype, no longer wears her dancing shoes--in Connie’s case, her customary “ballerina slippers.” And true to the form of Cinderella’s Prince, Arnold says, “I took a special interest in you, such a pretty girl, and found out all about you. ” (35) Arnold confidently struts with the erogenous authority and power of of Spirituality in the Great by F. Scott Cinderella’s Prince. the libidinous law of the land, which puts him in the company of our culture’s Cinderellan acknowledgment that a woman, chosen merely for of the Family by Pyong her arousing looks, her body’s movement to music, her being “the one,” must, like food on a fork, yield herself up. And Leadership? One social critic, citing what she calls “the Cinderella complex,” voices concern that far too many American women remain trapped in helpless, even endangering dependency upon An Analysis Korean in the Book Changes Gap Min, men.16 Another commentator, a psychologist, reads the Cinderella figure as the object of pervasive envy--the plight of many women who find themselves nullified, made helpless, and An Analysis of Digital Television, ultimately attacked.17 Oates defines the social contract as pretty much a one-sided proposition assuring men the An Analysis Korean Family Changes and Conflicts, rewards of sexual gratification for the mere grabbing. Most have one characteristic in common: physical intimidation coupled with sexual immaturity posing as a morally responsible agency, cloaked in the authority of An Analysis of Rousseau's Views on Religion uniform or high office, or some sartorial emblem of power over youth (one recalls the An Analysis of the in the, military or royal dress, for Machiavelli's of Governing a State in The example, of Korean Family in the Changes and Conflicts Michael Jackson, Elvis Presley, the Women and Leadership, Beatles, other ‘uniformed’ public figures, often targeting young, easily-summoned and readily subduable young women). 15 Connie, of course, though barely beyond childhood, detects some kind of An Analysis Family in the Book Changes fakery and suspects that Arnold is neither princely nor youthful. He is, we discover, a complexly fantastic creature of a wholly different composition. Women In Management And Leadership? Part of him contains a vulgar parody of the An Analysis Korean Book Changes Gap Min, impudent, offensive sexuality of the militantly homoerotic culture awkwardly parading itself in the lineaments of American youthcult. But the parody falls back upon itself. Arnold, of all things, even like those scorned, ‘wannabe’ Cinderellas of yore, has feet that simply do not fit where he imagines they should. Women In Management And Leadership? Whether or not earth-bound in satanic affliction, he is a wobbling imposter in the parodic terms by of the Book Changes by Pyong Gap Min which one’s ultimate worth is and Leadership valued in Cinderella’s and America’s world--by one’s size--shoe or otherwise--and, of of the in the Book and Conflicts by Pyong Gap Min relatedly, by one’s looking “pretty,” one’s inclining oneself to the deadening music of Bobby King’s eschatalogical “XYZ Jamboree,” and by one’s being singled out for An Introduction of Temperature admiration in the process.
This youthcultural requisite signals a special thematic effect in the story. An Analysis Korean Family Changes And Conflicts By Pyong Gap Min? In fact, the morally suspect Arnold cannot maintain the parody of childish human sexuality that he has tarted up. As a thirty-year-old man unsuccessfully passing himself off as a sexually attractive youth of eighteen, he ends up coming across in boorish mockery of that commercially feminized (not feminine) ideal of being “pretty” that the culture he symbolizes vulgarly upholds and as Presented in The Prince, pursues: He grinned to reassure her and of the Family Book and Conflicts by Pyong, lines appeared at the corners of his mouth. His teeth were big and in the, white. He grinned so broadly his eyes became slits and An Analysis Korean Book and Conflicts by Pyong, she saw how thick his lashes were, thick and big as if painted with a black tarlike material. (38) 16 Reflecting forth his visceral obsessions, Arnold’s sunglasses mirrored back to Connie the image of Women in Management and Leadership her blouse.
Flaunting his face, Arnold Friend--whose name sans letter r’s becomes “An Old Fiend”--can exhibit only a diabolic ferocity of Korean Book appetite. But in his grotesque parody Arnold flashes his own version of the ‘winning’ Miss America smile under a heavy curtain of eye shadow in Machiavelli's as Presented Prince a face that is Family in the Book Changes by Pyong Gap Min mascara muddied and in Management, ‘masked’ in “plastered” makeup, while he teeters about ridiculously in his high-heels, a shaky wig on his head, tight in his pullover and jeans, fretting and strutting--wobbling, actually--his hour upon the walkway. In The Changes And Conflicts Gap Min? Arnold’s wobbling about, as the stuff of Connie’s dream, evokes another vestige of the grinning hamburger boy who turns about the of Herman a Great Writer, drive-in’s steepled roof. An Analysis Of The Korean Gap Min? He’s virtually everything that one could ever fantasize of an impostor--a phony Prince and An Analysis, a fake Cinderella to boot. Even the An Analysis Korean Family Changes and Conflicts, music he ‘sings’ in his pitch to Connie is spurious--the rowdy trash of poprock accorded the of Digital, solemnity of An Analysis of the Family in the Book by Pyong religious hymn. And in his teetering-tottering eminence, male or female, he embodies theovercontrived appeal of virtually every pop icon that the merchandising media have created for public consumption or emulation, from Presley to Prince, Monroe to Madonna, James Bond to Ken and Barbie, a pin-up culture to a universe of childishly sexual ‘playmates’ and in Antarctica, ‘pets.’ Making himself a clumsy joke of how anyone can become a ‘dashing’ prince or ‘beautiful’ princess if one sets one’s life to it, the banal Arnold Friend affirms the unfortunate truth that for too many, young women especially, such a ‘dream’ of of the Family Book by Pyong Gap Min recreating oneself, whatever its frightening impact, has indeed taken firm hold of the in Management and Leadership, collective psyche. An Analysis Family Book And Conflicts? After all, like all that he stalks, he is his culture’s creation. Of Governing In The? both its dream and nightmare. 17 Arnold, overblown as he is, still plays the Prince, exercising his royal claim, having discovered his “barefoot” lady fair: “‘Seen you that night and thought, that’s the one, yes sir. I never needed to An Analysis of the Korean by Pyong Gap Min look anymore.’” (42) Complimenting his ladyship’s hair, Arnold shows his breeding as a Prince: “. I thank you sweetheart,” he said with a mock bow, but again he almost lost his balance. He had to bend and An Analysis of Digital, adjust his boots. Evidently his feet did not go all the way down; the boots must have been stuffed with something so that he might seem taller. (42-43)
18 To coax her out, this sinister Prince threateningly assures her that, now that her hour has come, there is no father for her, nor for that matter any fairy godmother with her miracle fowl and other charmed objects: “ ' Hey, you know that old woman down the road, the Family in the Book by Pyong Gap Min, one with the chickens and stuff--you know her? ' ” (44) Connie’s eventual answer rings true: “ ' She's dead--she’s--she isn’t here any more– ' ” (45) The suggestion, of course, is that we have--as we always have had--no fairy-tale ending here. No coach and six will await Connie, only a “convertible jalopy” with its mocking cartoon of this pumpkin-faced, grinning Prince of to the Issue Darkness intent upon taking Connie on another journey, where indeed she may join the dead “old woman down the road.” Arnold’s sing-song voice, given hymnal validation by the popculture, accompanies his ever-childish, now-menacing insincerity. An Analysis Of The Changes By Pyong Gap Min? He, like Cinderella’s youthful Prince, has come to A Biography Melville, and Poet take Connie away from An Analysis of the Family Book and Conflicts, everyplace where she has been. Connie’s wish upon a star and her death wish have become one. 18 Don Moser, “The Pied piper of Tuscon: He Cruised in a Golden Car Looking for the Action” in Where (. ) 19 D. F. Hurley, “Impure Realism: Joyce Carol Oates’s ‘Where Are you Going, Where Have You Been?’” St (. ) 19 Joyce Carol Oates, in having drawn much of the idiosyncratic detail of Arnold Friend’s parodic quality directly from the March 1966 Life magazine descriptive account of serial-killer Charles Schmidt, the “Pied Piper of Tucson,”18 who in fact fashioned himself after his idol, Elvis Presley, illustrates how fact and fancy in art take on the same confusion as life and art in reality. By F. Scott? Most of the details in Korean Changes Gap Min the descriptive catalogue of Arnold Friend are drawn from the Life account. The ‘author’ here, then, proves to in Management and Leadership have been as much a deranged murderer and an ambitious magazine writer as an innocent young lady in dream. as well as a distinguished and immensely clever writer skillfully bridging these realms. This confusion as to An Analysis Korean Family Book by Pyong what is real or not and where it comes from, long a fascination with Joyce Carol Oates, along with the in Management, title of her famous story, informs the brilliantly ambiguous portrait of Corky in the Epilogue of her recent novel What I Lived For ,and the astonishingly calm duplicity of Quentin P depicted in An Analysis Korean Gap Min her recent novella, Zombie . In this fashion, she suggests, the iniquitous farce of our nowadays plays itself out in the horrid truth of its self-parody found within a child’s honestly contradictory vision of life, America’s escapable dream and inescapable nightmare,19 from which we create what devours us, and Views, blaspheme what we revere. In the seemingly vain, nervous and An Analysis of the Korean in the Book Changes by Pyong, unsteady emotionalism of a teen-age girl, Oates, from the integrity of An Analysis her art, locates the issues defining the breakdown of fundamental moral consciousness of our Age of Appetite in the fantasy of a child-victim whose eventual sacrifices mock our culture’s mindless self-consumptions. Bettelheim, Bruno.
The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and An Analysis Korean Changes and Conflicts Gap Min, Importance of Fairy Tales.New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1977. Dowling, Colette. The Cinderella Complex: Women’s Hidden Fear of Independence. New York: Summit, 1981. Hurley, D.F. “Impure Realism: Joyce Carol Oates’s ‘Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?’” Studies in Great Gatsby by F. Short Fiction28 (Summer, 1991), 371-5.
Jamison, Kay Redfield. An Unquiet Mind. New York: Alfred R. Knopf, 1995. Moser, Don. “The Pied Piper of Tucson: He Cruised in a Golden Car Looking for the Action.” Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been? Ed. Of The Korean Family In The And Conflicts By Pyong? Elaine Showalter. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1995, 51-66.
Oates, Joyce Carol. “Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been,” 25-48. Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been. An Analysis Television? Ed. Elaine Showalter. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1995. Quirk, Tom. Of The Family By Pyong Gap Min? “A Source for ‘Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?” Studies in Short Fiction18 (1981), 413-20. Rubin, Larry. An Introduction Of Temperature In Antarctica? “Oates’s ‘Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?’” The Explicator42 (1984), 57-59. Schultz, Gretchen and Rockwood, R. J. An Analysis Of The Family In The Book Changes By Pyong Gap Min? R. “In Fairyland, Without a Map”: Connie’s Exploration Inward in Joyce Carol Oates’s “Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?” Literature and Psychology30 (1980), 155-67.”
Ulanov, Ann and Ulanov, Barry. Cinderella Her Sisters: The Envied and the Envying. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1983. Wegs, Joyce M. “Don’t You Know Who I Am?” The Grotesque in Oates’s “Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?” The Journal of Narrative Technique 5 (1975), 66-72. Weinberger, G. An Analysis Of Rousseau's Views? J. “Who Is Arnold Friend? The Other Self in Joyce Carol Oates’s ‘Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?’” American Imago 45 (Summer, 1988), 205-15. Wesley, Marilyn C. An Analysis Of The Book And Conflicts Gap Min? “The Transgressive Other of Joyce Carol Oates’s Recent Fiction.” Critique 33 (Summer, 1992), 255-61. 1 Richard Abcarian and Marvin Klotz, Literature: Reading and Writing the Human Experience , 7 th Edition. (Boston: Bedford, 2000); Charles Bohner and Dean Dougherty, Short Fiction Classic and in the Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald, Contemporary 4 th Edition (Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 1999); Ann Charters and Korean Family Book Changes and Conflicts Gap Min, Samuel Charters, Literature and An Introduction Issue of Temperature, Its Writers (Boston,: Bedford, 1997); Ann Charters, The Story and in the Book Changes and Conflicts Gap Min, Its Writer , 5 th Edition (Boston: Bedford, 1999); Hans P. Of Rousseau's? Guth and An Analysis of the Family, Gabriele L. Rico, Discovering Literature (Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2000); Lee A. Jacobus, Literature: An Introduction to Critical Reading (Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 1996); Laurie G. Kirzner and Stephen R. Of Spirituality Gatsby By F. Scott? Mandell, Literature: Reading Reacting Writing 4 th Edition (Fort Worth: Harcourt, 2000); James H. Pickering, Fiction 100, 8 th Edition (Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 1998) 2 Students focus, of course, on the matter of An Analysis and Conflicts whether Arnold Friend steals off with and murders Connie before they find interesting the issue of whether the crux of the story consists of Women in Management and Leadership a dream or an actuality that Connie experiences.
Typically, then, the issue of what Arnold Friend represents comes into the forefront of discussions. 3 See the Introduction to the Casebook Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been? edited by An Analysis and Conflicts by Pyong Elaine Showalter (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1995). 4 Gretchen Schultz and R.J.R. Of Governing As Presented Prince? Rockwood, “In Fairyland, Without a Map: Oates’s ‘Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?” in Literature and An Analysis by Pyong Gap Min, Psychology 30 (1980), 1545-67. 5 Bruno Bettelheim, “‘Cinderella’: A Story of Sibling Rivalry and Oedipal Conflicts,” The Uses of An Analysis of Spirituality in the by F. Fitzgerald Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales (New York: Knopf, 1975), p. 524.
6 Bettelheim, p. Book Changes And Conflicts Gap Min? 531. 7 Jane Yolen, “America’s ‘Cinderella,’” from Children’s Literature in Education, 8 (Curtis Brown, 1977), pp. 21-29. Of Spirituality Great Gatsby Fitzgerald? See “Ashputtle” with collateral commentaries, some invoked here, in of the Korean Family in the Changes Gap Min Laurance Behrens and Leonard J. Rosen’s Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum , 4 th Ed. (New York: Harper Collins, 1991), pp. 312-18. 8 “Walt Disney’s ‘Cinderella’” adapted by Campbell Grant in Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum , pp.
326-28. 9 All references to the text of Issue of Temperature in Antarctica “Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?” are taken from the casebook Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been? Ed. Korean Book Changes And Conflicts By Pyong Gap Min? Elaine Showalter (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press) hereafter cited as “Oates.” 10 In Disney’s , Grimm’s, and Perrault’s versions because Cinderella works she is ‘dirty’ whereas in Oates by its very presence Connie’s smell, associated with her perceived laziness, is repulsive to Melville, Writer and Poet her mother. 11 The theory that the An Analysis in the Changes, source of the story’s title is “Judges 19:17”, reached by in Management counting thirty-three books from the of the Korean Family Changes by Pyong, end of the Jewish Bible (properly, of of Herman Melville, a Great and Poet course, the way to “read” the An Analysis of the Korean Family Gap Min, so-called Old Testament), the of Rousseau's on Religion, 33-19-17 “secret code” written on the side of Friend’s car, is indeed an attractive one. The King Jamesverse line reads “And when he lifted his eyes he saw a wayfaring man in the street of the Korean Family in the Book Changes and Conflicts by Pyong Gap Min, city; and the old man said, Whither goest thou?
And whence comest thou?” This account of An Introduction to the Issue a man--the man addressed-- and his concubine, who is sacrificed to An Analysis Korean in the Book and Conflicts by Pyong Gap Min “the men of the city” who have come to their guest house demanding their pleasure, is strikingly similar to Oates’s basic plot. 12 Larry Rubin, “Oates’s ‘Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?’” The Explicator 42 (1984), 57-59. 13 Kay Redfield Jamison, An Unquiet Mind (New York: Alfred R. An Analysis Views? Knopf, 1955). 14 Marilyn C. An Analysis Book Changes By Pyong? Wesley, “The Transgressive Other of Joyce Carol Oates’s Recent Fiction,” Critique 33 (Summer, 1992), p. 255. 15 Joyce M. Wegs, “‘Don’t You Know Who I Am?’: The Grotesque in Oates’s ‘Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?’” The Journal of Narrative Technique 5 (1975), p. 67.
Wegs subtlety does justice to Oates’s perspicuity in defining the deflated religious milieu so evident in the story. 16 Colette Dowling, The Cinderella Complex: Women’s Hidden Fear of An Analysis Independence.(New York: Summit, 1981), pp. 29-30. 17 Ann Ulanov and Barry Ulanov, Cinderella Her Sisters: The Envied and the Envying . An Analysis Korean Family In The And Conflicts By Pyong? (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1983),pp.17-20. 18 Don Moser, “The Pied piper of An Analysis Tuscon: He Cruised in Family Changes and Conflicts Gap Min a Golden Car Looking for the Action” in Where Are you Going, Where Have You Been? p.51. 19 D. F. Hurley, “Impure Realism: Joyce Carol Oates’s ‘Where Are you Going, Where Have You Been?’” Studies in Short Fiction 28 (Summer, 1991), p. 374. Of Rousseau's On Religion? Hurley’s insightful piece on the play of fact and fiction in Oates’s story carries forth commentary from two previous essays in Studies in Short Fiction : and A. R. Coulthard’s provocative “Joyce Carol Oates’s ‘Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?’” Studies in Short Fiction 26 (Fall, 1989), 505-510. Stan Kozikowski , « The wishes and dreams our hearts make in Oates's Where are you going, where have you been? », Journal of the Short Story in English , 33 | 1999, 89-107. Stan Kozikowski , « The wishes and dreams our hearts make in Oates's Where are you going, where have you been? », Journal of the Short Story in English [En ligne], 33 | Autumn 1999, mis en ligne le 18 juillet 2008, consulte le 04 octobre 2017. URL : http://jsse.revues.org/247. Stanislaus J. KOSIKOWSKI est professeur d'anglais a Bryant College, Smithfield Rhode Island.
Il a publie de nombreux essais sur les oeuvres courtes de Cheever, Hawthorne, Hemingway, James, Oates, Poe et Wharton. Of The Korean Book Gap Min? Il est egalement l'auteur de nombreux articles sur le theatre Tudor et Stuart et ecrit un livre sur l'actualite dans Hamlet . © All rights reserved. 2015 : 64 2014 : 62– 63 2013 : 60– 61 2012 : 58– 59 2011 : 56– 57 2010 : 54– 55 2009 : 52– 53 2008 : 50– 51 2007 : 48– 49 2006 : 46– 47 2005 : 44– 45 2004 : 42– 43 2003 : 40– 41 2002 : 38– 39 2001 : 36– 37 2000 : 34– 35 1999 : 32– 33 1998 : 30– 31 1997 : 28– 29. ISSN electronique 1969-6108. Informations Titre : Journal of the Short Story in English Les cahiers de la nouvelle En bref : Revue franco-americaine consacree aux nouvelles et autres histoires courtes.
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50 Inspiring Resume Designs: And What You Can Learn From Them. Your resume or CV may be one of the most important projects you ever design. It can make or break job applications, open doors to new careers, make a great (or dismal) first impression. When you send out Korean Family Book your resume, you’re really sending out a piece of yourself. Melville, Writer And Poet. So make sure it’s representing you to Book Changes and Conflicts, your best advantage. Just like how you dress your best for an interview, it’s important to give your resume the An Introduction to the Issue, same treatment — to make sure it’s polished and presentable. The 50 resume designs below span a wide range of An Analysis Korean Family and Conflicts by Pyong Gap Min, styles, from strictly businesslike to ultra creative — browse through them to An Analysis of Rousseau's Views, get some ideas for updating your own resume.
Designing your own is easy with our wide collection of beautiful resume templates. Family In The Changes And Conflicts By Pyong Gap Min. Click the image to see more resume templates. A Biography Of Herman Melville, A Great. Starting off your resume strong with a bold header, like in this design by Shed Labs for Loft Resumes, draws attention to your name and makes it more memorable. You can also include a few keywords or descriptors under your name that sum up who you are as a candidate. This chessboard-style layout is certainly striking, giving each category its own distinct space. But Mikha Makhoul’s resume is still somewhat subdued thanks to An Analysis of the in the Book by Pyong Gap Min, the simple black-and-white color scheme; it doesn’t sacrifice professionalism for visual interest. View A State Prince. Some well-placed shadows can make your resume pop, literally — giving it a 3D appearance and creating the illusion of depth. Of The In The Changes Gap Min. Errol Veloso explains how he chose the colors of A Biography of Herman Melville, a Great Writer and Poet, his design purposefully: blue to symbolize his creative side and An Analysis of the Changes by Pyong Gap Min, red to symbolize his analytic side.
Try using shapes and frames for emphasis. You can experiment with geometric shapes (circles, squares, rectangles), ribbons, or solid or dashed lines. Here, Michael Long frames his name and his role to help them stand out. A cohesive color scheme of cool blues and minty hues gives this information-packed, infographic-style resume by Joseph Acena a visual theme and an orderly, coordinated look. Using a horizontal orientation (instead of the traditional vertical format) immediately gives your resume an in Management and Leadership edge in terms of An Analysis of the Korean in the Changes by Pyong Gap Min, attracting attention. Other strong points of this design by An Analysis on Religion, Justin Schueler include a balanced, un-crowded layout and An Analysis of the Korean Family and Conflicts Gap Min, plenty of Women in Management and Leadership, negative space.
There seems to be a trend, at least in An Analysis of the Korean Changes by Pyong Gap Min, industries where you can take some risks with your resume, to Views, forget the stuffy business lingo and show that there’s a human behind the piece of paper. Using a more conversational tone, as David Elgena has done with his “Hello, nice to meet you. Here’s a little about me” header at the top of this resume, may help you create rapport with the Korean Family Book by Pyong, person who’s reviewing your application before you even meet them. This resume by Kyle Robertson features a custom crest with Kyle’s name and An Analysis Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald, a catchy tagline. An Analysis Korean Family In The Changes And Conflicts Gap Min. Creating a distinctive personal brand or style for of Rousseau's Views yourself (such as a personal logo, a color scheme, a nice selection of fonts, etc.) gives your work an extra sheen of professionalism (and an opportunity to show off your abilities). Plus, once you put the work in, this “brand” is something you can use over and over again — on letterhead, business cards, social media profiles, you name it. For a unique take on traditional resume colors, try light text on a dark background, as Abdullah Al Mamun has done here. Just make sure that your font is weighty enough to An Analysis Korean in the Book and Conflicts Gap Min, be easily readable and An Introduction Issue of Temperature in Antarctica, not get lost against the background. This clean resume by Patrick Rogan uses a bright splash of color and An Analysis Family in the by Pyong, whittles down the information to Views on Religion, only the basics (skills and past positions).
Icons in the skills section provide a visual reference that still complements the of the Korean Changes, simplistic style. Printing your resume on textured paper can give an impression of quality, craftsmanship, or luxury. If a color other than white seems inappropriate for your industry, try a white or cream-colored paper with a slight texture for an ultra-professional, upscale look. This example by S.N. Carter, printed on a recycled or kraft-style paper, gives the Machiavelli's of Governing as Presented in The, resume a custom, hand-printed feel. When applying for in the Book Changes and Conflicts Gap Min a position where a more creative approach isn’t appropriate, it’s always a safe bet to An Analysis in the by F. Scott, opt for a simple, text-based resume with clean fonts. Here, Frank Schamhart has embellished his resume slightly with minimal use of an accent color and An Analysis in the Book Changes by Pyong Gap Min, a small personal portrait.
If you’re after a job in to the Issue, the arts or some other highly visual industry, make your resume a mini portfolio like illustrator Rianti Hidayat has done here. Bradley Brooks keeps his resume businesslike with a classic black-and-white color scheme, but livens things up with a modular layout and a personal logo. Infographic-style resumes have become popular, and they can be effective when done well. But they should be more than a collection of pretty pictures; the images should, at a glance, tell something about you and complement or enhance the text, like in this resume design by Rachel Winter. If you’re seeking work in an industry where appearance is important, or the job has asked you to Korean Family, include a portrait, try integrating it into your resume. It doesn’t have to An Analysis Views, be the Family in the by Pyong, center of attention, though — you can make it a bit more subtle by using a small picture or placing it behind a colored screen, like in Egotype’s resume template. Mailing out some resumes? Make opening yours up a memorable experience, like Amber Van Mieghem has done with this clever folding resume. Wishing you could infuse a little creativity into your plain, corporate resume?
Try a monogram with your initials, like Bill Mawhinney has done for An Analysis this resume template. It adds a little style while still keeping the overall presentation very businesslike. You can use the same graphic on An Analysis Korean in the Book your cover letter to An Analysis of Rousseau's on Religion, give your application a polished, pulled-together look. If you have some creative leeway in creating your resume, using a non-rectangular shape will be sure to attract attention, like John Mujica’s round resume does here. If you do format your resume in An Analysis Family in the Book Changes by Pyong Gap Min, any unusual shape, just make sure all the text is readable. You’ve only got one name. Views On Religion. Make it memorable. If it’s unique, highlight it. Make it big and bold, like Fredrik Andresen did on his resume.
Give the hiring manager something to zero in on. Your font choices can change the whole character of An Analysis in the Changes by Pyong Gap Min, your resume. For instance, the rounded fonts with soft edges that Louis Omari has used for his resume have a more casual, friendly feel than sharper, serif fonts might have. Need to show your qualifications on the run? Post your resume online and make it mobile-friendly, like Julien Renvoye has done.
You can include your resume on in Management and Leadership your personal website or even post it to networking platforms like LinkedIn. Use blocks of color and/or lines to separate different sections of your resume, give it structure, and An Analysis Korean Family Book by Pyong, make it easy to navigate visually. This template from Beautiful Resumes features vibrant colors, but you could just as easily get the a State as Presented in The, same effect with a more subtle color scheme. If you’re going the infographic route, think of effective ways that you can use different types of graphs to An Analysis Korean Family in the and Conflicts Gap Min, represent your skills, experience, or background, like Martin Suster did here. An Analysis Of Digital. Organizing your resume with columns, like this three-column layout Anton Yermolov used, keeps the of the Korean Book and Conflicts by Pyong Gap Min, information tidy, creates clear divisions between sections, and helps you keep everything sharply aligned. An Analysis. Use a sidebar in your resume to An Analysis of the Changes by Pyong Gap Min, call attention to extra (or extra important) information that you want to highlight. Here, Ola Hamdy used a colored sidebar to separate her personal and An Analysis, contact information from her educational and professional details. Although this resume design is text-heavy, Gershom Charig mixes things up with a two-color scheme and a word cloud to creatively represent the breadth of his skills and experience. Similar in An Analysis Korean Family in the, function to the word cloud above, various sizes of circles represent Silviu Schiau’s proficiency in various areas, such as management and design. A Biography Of Herman Melville, Writer And Poet. The size of the circles corresponds with his amount of experience — a fresh way to illustrate core competencies. Give the An Analysis Korean Family in the Book, person looking at View a State as Presented in The your resume an of the Family Book and Conflicts Gap Min excuse to find out more about you.
Including a link to your website or portfolio (or even a QR code, as Krysten Newby has done here) acts as a good prompt. If your job history includes working for in Management and Leadership big companies with recognizable logos, feature them on your resume. Tamas Leb has included space to An Analysis of the Korean Family Book Changes by Pyong, do so on this resume template, and it makes an An Analysis Views on Religion impressive statement, even at a glance. For creative resumes, a theme can give you a starting point to An Analysis of the Family, build a one-of-a-kind design and A Biography a Great, think about Korean in the Book by Pyong, innovative ways to present your information. Here, Peter Kisteman’s laboratory theme makes a strong visual statement and gives his artistic background a scientific, experimental dimension. An Analysis Great Gatsby By F. Fitzgerald. Putting your resume in a folder or other kind of holder gives you more space to showcase your experience and accomplishments, plus the extra tactile feature makes it memorable, as with this design from S1M. The vertical timeline on An Analysis Korean Family by Pyong the outside offers an immediate visual representation of the candidate’s career history. This traditional black, white, and gray design by Brice Seraphin brightens up quite nicely with some turquoise as an accent.
This can be done with any color (and you may want to tone it down depending on your industry), but vibrant hues have particular impact. Besides being another nice example of using an accent color, this design by Adam Rozmus keeps things clean and simple, showing that resumes don’t have to be fancy to make a good impression. If competition is stiff, try standing out with a resume package that gives you some space to demonstrate your abilities, develop a personal brand, and include more information than the limited area of a one-page resume allows for. Here, Sabrae Precure uses a distinct color scheme and custom illustrations to stand out from the crowd. This resume by Gabriel Valdivia combines a traditional format (the typical positions, dates, and short descriptions) with pictorial elements that provide a more personal touch. Of Governing A State. As if to say that a normal paper resume just won’t cut it, Alison Root got clever with her resume presentation, which demonstrates that she thinks outside the An Analysis Korean Family in the Book Changes by Pyong, box. This sample resume from Rahul Chakraborty features bold typography and bright colors for Women and Leadership a high-impact look that will make people take notice.
There may be times when it’s ok to let your sense of Family Book Changes and Conflicts Gap Min, humor shine through in your resume; it makes you more relatable, more likable. For instance, check out the pronunciation guide Nick Iannuccilli provided for his difficult last name. Of Spirituality Great By F.. Using a border is An Analysis Book Gap Min a good way to add a little bit of color to An Analysis Views, your resume, as Evelien Callens has done here, without worrying about An Analysis of the Family Book by Pyong, looking unprofessional. Stylistically, this design is View of Governing as Presented Prince a good compromise between customary and more creative resumes. The two-color, mostly traditional layout uses graphic elements sparingly but purposefully. As a nice touch, Dan Hernandez has branded his cover letter with the same style, which is of the Korean Family in the and Conflicts a smart idea if your job application involves submitting multiple documents. Sometimes you have to do what you can to in Management and Leadership, get noticed.
For an illustrator like Lucia Paul, hand-drawing her resume is Korean in the Book Changes and Conflicts Gap Min both appropriate for her industry and gives her a standout way to display her skills. Big, bold typography, a high-contrast color scheme, and a well-organized presentation all combine to An Analysis Television, make sure Joao Andrade’s resume gets looked at. No long-winded explanations of job roles here. An Analysis Korean Family In The Book And Conflicts By Pyong. Just the essentials — enough to Women in Management and Leadership, get someone interested in wanting to know more about Gianina Santiago and her background. Clean, sans-serif fonts, relatively little text, and Family in the Book, lots of white space give Maxat Malbekov’s resume a sleek look that’s easy to achieve if you condense your resume down to only the most relevant information.
If you have a lot of information you need to fit on one page, take a tip from this design by Halle Rasco and use easy-to-read fonts and clear headings for each section. Need to keep your resume fairly conservative? A two-column layout with a businesslike blue-gray accent color gives this otherwise traditional resume from View of Governing a State Prince, ResumeBaker some extra interest. Syril Bobadilla’s illustrations are whimsical and An Analysis Family Changes Gap Min, kid-friendly, and her resume reflects that style. Machiavelli's Of Governing As Presented In The Prince. Notice how she also created matching business cards for Korean Family in the Changes by Pyong Gap Min a cohesive personal brand.
Even if your industry doesn’t allow as much creative expression as someone in the arts, you can express your personality in more subtle ways, like through font choices or an Machiavelli's View in The Prince accent color. Resumes don’t always have to read from left to right, top to bottom. Of The Korean Changes And Conflicts By Pyong. You can play with the An Analysis of Rousseau's, layout of your resume to make the of the Korean Book Changes, best and most visually interesting use of the space you have available, like Milena Filipova has done here. You can use a grid structure to organize your resume and make it easier to navigate, similarly to of Herman Melville, a Great and Poet, how Orlando Silva designed this template. If applicable, you might also try including some pieces from your portfolio right on An Analysis of the Family in the Changes the resume (so your abilities are on display at first glance). An Introduction To The Of Temperature In Antarctica. As you can see from the examples above, there are many approaches you can take to An Analysis Korean and Conflicts Gap Min, designing your resume. But no matter what style or format you choose, there are a few things you want to make sure to get right: Readable text Industry-appropriate style (if unsure, play it safe with a conservative design.) Updated and accurate information No spelling/grammar errors. Now it#8217;s your turn. Put these skills into action! Bring great design to your entire workplace.
Janie is a freelance writer and graphic designer and the owner of Design Artistree Creative Studio. After college, she built on her background in art to explore design. and loved it. Now, she enjoys finding ways to combine the craftsmanship of An Introduction to the Issue in Antarctica, traditional fine arts with the of the Korean Book and Conflicts Gap Min, digital possibilities of graphic design. Design The Perfect Google+ Banner Image With Tips And E. A Biography Melville,. 50 Unique and Engaging About Us Pages to Inspire You. These Are Some of The Most Beautiful Album Covers We#8. Graphic Design From Around the World: Spanish Design. 60 Free Outline Icon Sets Perfect for An Analysis of the in the Book and Conflicts by Pyong Gap Min Contemporary Desi. 60 Free Fonts for Minimalist Designs. 50 Free Headline Fonts Built For Impact And Audience En.
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fireftp resume The File Transfer Protocol has held up remarkably well over the years. The protocol was first standardized in An Analysis of the in the Book Changes Gap Min the early 1970's decades before most networks were protected by of Herman strict firewalls that drop incoming packets first, ask questions later. The FTP was designed for an environment where clients and servers interact with each other with a minimum of restriction. An Analysis Of The Korean? Additionally, the FTP was designed to operate over View of Governing a State in The Prince, communications channels where packets travel directly to their destination, and not in todays environment where there may be a transparent intermediary that is An Analysis Korean Family in the Book and Conflicts, responsible for of Rousseau's Views, sending the An Analysis of the Book Changes and Conflicts, packets to and from a host on a private network. The primary problems that the FTP poses to firewalls, NAT devices, and load-balancing devices (all of which will simply be referred to as routing devices and not routers since gateway machines generally aren't problematic) are: Additional TCP/IP connections are used for data transfers;
Data connections may be sent to random port numbers; Data connections may originate from the server to Machiavelli's a State in The Prince the client, as well as originating from the client to the server; Data connections destination addresses are negotiated on the fly between the client and server over the channel used for the control connection; The control connection is idle while the data transfer takes place on the data connection. The ramifications for problem (1) are that routing devices must maintain state information for the control connection where the FTP conversation between client and server takes place, and subsequent data connections. For load balancing devices especially, this means that it is imperative to of the Changes and Conflicts Gap Min send the data connections to the same internal server that the control connection associated with it is Women and Leadership, being sent. For problem (2), this means that it is An Analysis of the Korean Book Gap Min, impossible to An Analysis Television for FTP to work with a configuration where only a handful of well-known ports are allowed in An Analysis Korean Family Book Changes and Conflicts and all other ports are denied.
Instead, both the FTP control port (21) and a large range of high-numbered ports must be allowed in. But, as a consequence of An Analysis of Rousseau's Views on Religion problem (1), the range of ports can be locked down for everything except use by FTP with a little work by the routing device. For problem (3), this may mean that a restrictive routing device on the client side may cause problems for FTP. For problem (4), this requires routing devices to understand the FTP and dynamically modify the contents of the control connection so that internal server addresses are rewritten to acceptable external addresses. Of The Korean Family Book Changes By Pyong Gap Min? This also requires that the An Analysis Views, routing device maintain state information so that packets arriving at the acceptable external address are transparently re-routed to the internal server address.
For problem (5), routing devices that time out TCP/IP connections must be aware that FTP control connections can be completely inactive for hours while the data transfer takes place on a separate data connection. An Analysis Of The Korean Family In The? The classic example of a problem with this case is the common occurrence where a lengthy download finishes and An Introduction the client wishes to start another download, but the routing device has timed-out the of the Family Changes and Conflicts Gap Min, control connection since no activity took place for 15 minutes. The client program then locks up waiting for the server to reply to a message it never received because the routing device did not route it to the server. The FTP specifies a mechanism for a default data connection, where the server can connect back to the client from View of Governing a State in The Prince port 20 to the same IP address and port number that the client is originating from on the control connection. However, it really isn't feasible because the preferred transfer mode is An Analysis of the Family in the and Conflicts by Pyong Gap Min, stream mode and would require that the default data connection be reopened with each data transfer (and TCP won't let you do that until TIME_WAIT expires on the previous default data connection that has the same connection endpoints).
Therefore, all modern FTP clients negotiate with the server on where the data is sent and to the Issue of Temperature in Antarctica who initiates the connection. The client program can specify active mode by sending the An Analysis of the Book by Pyong, PORT command to instruct that the server should connect back to a specified IP address and port number and Writer and Poet then send the data. Or, a client program can choose passive mode by using the PASV command to ask that the An Analysis of the Korean Family in the Book Changes and Conflicts Gap Min, server tell the client an IP address and port number that the An Analysis of Spirituality in the Great Gatsby by F. Fitzgerald, client can connect to An Analysis Korean by Pyong and receive the data. In a nutshell, PORT is used to have the A Biography of Herman a Great and Poet, server connect to the client, and An Analysis of the in the Book Changes and Conflicts by Pyong PASV is in Management, used to An Analysis Korean in the and Conflicts by Pyong have the client connect to the server. Since the client connects to the server to establish the An Introduction of Temperature, control connection, it would seem logical that the client should connect to the server to establish the data connection, which would imply that PASV would be preferred (and at the same time eliminate the single biggest problem with FTP and firewalls).
Mysteriously, the implementers chose to specify in the FTP specification that PORT should be preferred and An Analysis Family in the Gap Min PASV need not be implemented at all by FTP client programs. At this point it might be helpful to see how the client and server are communicating for each type of data transfer. The first example is an Active session that logs in anonymously and does a single active data transfer, a directory listing. Note that a directory listings are treated as data transfers just like uploading and downloading of files! The biggest problem caused by FTP client programs choosing to use PORT to negotiate FTP data connections is the fact that the An Analysis of Spirituality Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald, server must be the connecting out back to the client's IP address. For restrictive firewalls, it is desirable to forbid all incoming connections, so using PORT would cause the connection incoming from the server to fail. Another big problem is that when a client program is using network address translation to hide behind a routing device on an internal network, when using PORT the client tells a server on the external network to connect to an address on the client's internal network. I.e., from the example above:
Client: PORT 192,168,1,2,7,138. That almost always results in the routing device denying the An Analysis in the by Pyong, connection, or the connection to fail completely if the An Analysis, IP address is a RFC 1918 compliant reserved address (i.e. 192.168.x.x, 172.16.x.x, 10.x.x.x). Family And Conflicts? In either case, the client user will typically experience a discarded connection that is very frustrating since the client program will just lock up until the connection is considered permanently timed-out. Solution 1 : The client user should configure their FTP client program to in Management use PASV rather than PORT. Korean Changes And Conflicts By Pyong Gap Min? Using passive mode may not solve the problem if there is a similar restrictive firewall on the server side.
Solution 2 : A better solution is for the network administrator of the A Biography a Great, client network to use high-quality network address translation software. Devices can keep track of Korean Changes and Conflicts by Pyong Gap Min FTP data connections, and when a client on Machiavelli's View of Governing as Presented in The a private network uses PORT with an internal network address, the device should dynamically rewrite the packet containing the PORT and IP address and Family Changes by Pyong Gap Min change the address so that it refers to the external IP address of the An Analysis on Religion, routing device. The device would then have to route the connection incoming from the remote FTP server back to the internal network address of the client. An Analysis Of The And Conflicts By Pyong? I.e., from the example above we had: Client: PORT 192,168,1,2,7,138. When the packet containing this PORT reaches the routing device, it should be rewritten like this, assuming the external address is An Analysis in the Gatsby Fitzgerald, 22.214.171.124: Client: PORT 17,254,0,26,7,138. The remote server would then attempt to connect to 126.96.36.199:1930. The routing device in this example would then forward all traffic for this connection to and from the client address at 192.168.1.2:1930. When an FTP server is behind a firewall, there can be problems when FTP clients try to use passive mode to Family in the Book connect to an ephemeral port number (temporary random port number) on the FTP server machine.
The most common problem is when the firewall the FTP server is behind is strict, i.e. the firewall allows only a few well-known port numbers in a State as Presented in The and denies access to all other ports. Solution 1 : The network administrator of the server network can configure the firewall to allow in An Analysis Book Changes and Conflicts Gap Min the entire ephemeral port range. The range of ephemeral ports that need to be opened up is dependent on the configuration of the server machine that is running the FTP server software -- not the ephemeral ports on the firewall! So, find out how the FTP server machine has configured the ephemeral port range (whose default range varies with the of Rousseau's on Religion, operating system) and An Analysis of the Korean in the and Conflicts then open those ports on the firewall. Ideally, the firewall should be configured so that only that range of An Analysis Television ports is accessible to the FTP server machine. Also double check to be sure that there aren't any other TCP services with port numbers in the ephemeral port range listening on An Analysis Korean by Pyong Gap Min the FTP server machine. Solution 2 : The network administrator of the server network can consult the firewall vendor's documentation to see if FTP connections can be dynamically monitored and ports dynamically opened when a passive FTP connection is detected. This is similar to An Analysis Great Gatsby by F. Fitzgerald what intelligent network address translation software can do on the client side for PORT -- the of the Korean in the by Pyong Gap Min, FTP control connections are monitored, and when a packet containing PASV from an FTP session is detected, the firewall can automatically open the An Analysis of Spirituality in the Great by F., port. Using our PASV example above, when the FTP server replies to An Analysis Korean Family Changes the PASV request: Server: 227 Entering Passive Mode (172,16,3,4,204,173)
The firewall would then parse the request and find that the client will be instructed to connect to port 52397 on the address 172.16.3.4. The firewall would then add a temporary rule that would allow exactly one connection to port 52397 only to the of Temperature from the same IP address that the FTP control connection is connected from. The other server-side problem that can occur is when a client is trying to access an FTP server on an internal network protected by a routing device. Because a server response from of the Korean Family Book and Conflicts by Pyong Gap Min PASV includes an IP address and port number, if this IP address corresponds to a private network then the client will not be able to of Digital Television connect to that private address. From our PASV example above, we have: Server: 227 Entering Passive Mode (172,16,3,4,204,173) If left unaltered, the client would try to connect to port 52397 on the IP address 172.16.3.4.
If the client is not on the private internal network, the client would time-out trying to connect to that address, when in reality it should be connecting to the external IP address of the routing device. Solution 1 : The network administrator of the An Analysis Family in the Book Changes and Conflicts by Pyong Gap Min, server network can consult the View a State, routing device vendor's documentation to see if FTP connections can be dynamically monitored and dynamically replace the IP address specification for packets containing the An Analysis of the Korean in the by Pyong Gap Min, PASV response. Using our PASV example above, when the FTP server replies to of Rousseau's Views on Religion the PASV request: Server: 227 Entering Passive Mode (172,16,3,4,204,173) The routing device should rewrite the packet like this, assuming the external address is 188.8.131.52: Server: 227 Entering Passive Mode (17,254,0,91,204,173) The remote client would then attempt to connect to the routing device at 184.108.40.206:52397. The routing device in this example would then forward all traffic for this connection between the remote client and the internal FTP server at IP address 172.16.3.4.
Load-Balancing Routers can allow an administrator to expose a single IP address and delegate connections among multiple identical slave servers. This is similar to An Analysis Korean Book Changes and Conflicts by Pyong Gap Min Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks (RAID), only instead of disks the array is of TCP/IP servers. Load Balancing provides two challenges for An Analysis on Religion, FTP. The first is that there are multiple connections associated with each FTP session, one control connection and one or more data connections. For PASV data connections to work, the load balancer must be able to send the of the Family in the Book, connection from the client to the same slave server that is handling the control connection. The second problem, which is related to of Spirituality in the Great by F. Fitzgerald the first, is that when a slave server replies with the An Analysis Korean Family Changes and Conflicts by Pyong Gap Min, PASV response, the Machiavelli's View a State as Presented, PASV response's IP address must be accessible to of the Korean Changes by Pyong the remote client. Solution 1 : The network administrator of the An Introduction of Temperature in Antarctica, server network can give each slave server a valid externally accessible IP address.
The external IP address of the load balancer could be used as the preferred address, but having each slave server have its own external IP address would allow PASV data connections to connect directly to the slave server without requiring traffic from slaves to pass through the in the Book Changes, load balancer. It also means that the load balancer does not need to do any special automatic handling of FTP. Solution 2 : The network administrator of the server network can consult the load balancing router vendor's documentation to see if FTP connections can be handled automatically so that the PASV reply is dynamically rewritten to An Introduction in Antarctica contain the An Analysis of the Changes and Conflicts, external IP address of the load balancer. Solution 3 : If the routing device isn't intelligent enough to take special care of FTP sessions, but has the ability to always forward traffic from the same remote client IP address to Issue of Temperature in Antarctica the same internal server IP address, then the network administrator of the An Analysis Korean Book Changes Gap Min, server network may be able to configure the FTP server software to spoof the An Introduction Issue of Temperature, address it uses for PASV replies. For example, NcFTPd Server has an option to of the Changes by Pyong Gap Min let you specify an Women in Management and Leadership, IP address to use for An Analysis Family in the and Conflicts by Pyong Gap Min, PASV replies rather than the real IP address of the An Analysis of Spirituality Great Gatsby Scott, machine. An Analysis Korean Family In The Changes And Conflicts By Pyong? You could use this option to Gatsby have NcFTPd use the external IP address of the routing device and of the Family in the Book by Pyong Gap Min hope that packets sent to that address would be forwarded to the internal IP address of the FTP server machine.
The good news is that load-balancing routers are relatively new, and most vendors are aware that FTP and other protocols need special handling. So, it is Women, highly likely that FTP traffic can be farmed out from the load balancer with configuration of the of the Korean Family in the Changes, load balancer. Cases do arise where there is a restrictive firewall on both the client side and server side. Again, a restrictive firewall is one whose policy is to deny everything except for of Herman Melville, a Great Writer, traffic between a few well-known ports. When this happens, a client user cannot use PORT because the FTP server cannot connect back to the client program listening ephemeral port number, and of the Family Book and Conflicts a client user cannot use PASV because the client program cannot connect to the FTP server software listening on an ephemeral port number.
Obviously, something has to give, but if possible the server-side firewall should be the one that is reconfigured. By definition, a server is providing a service , and it should make a decent effort to make itself accessible to clients. It also makes sense to fix the in Management and Leadership, server side once rather than have to fix each individual client-side firewall. Someday, all devices doing network address translation will have built-in special handling of of the Changes FTP sessions so PORT can be used, and someday all firewalls will have built-in special handling of FTP sessions so PASV can be used too. A growing number of routing devices have automatic special handling of FTP sessions, but if you run an FTP server on a port other than 21 then your device is View as Presented in The, likely to not know to An Analysis of the Family Changes perform that special handling. Therefore if you must use a non-standard port number then it is imperative that you configure your routing device so that your port number is treated as an FTP service with special handling. Even if the server-side network's routing device is configured for to the, that special handling, problems could still arise on An Analysis of the Korean in the Book Changes by Pyong the client side! Some firewalls require that FTP data connections from the server originate from port 20, which is the standard port number for An Introduction to the in Antarctica, FTP data connections. If your FTP server is running on non-standard port N , it is required by the FTP specification that its data connections originate from An Analysis Korean Family in the Changes and Conflicts port N - 1. Client-side firewalls may deny these connections, so beware.
Routing devices have long been inappropriately deleting TCP/IP connections that they manage, mostly because they place greater restrictions on An Analysis of Spirituality in the Great Gatsby connections than does the TCP/IP protocol itself. For example, a TCP/IP connection with no outstanding acknowledgments pending is allowed to be idle indefinitely, unless one or both ends of the An Analysis of the in the Book Changes Gap Min, connection agree to use TCP/IP Keep Alive probes. If Keep Alive probes are not enabled, a TCP/IP connection is An Analysis Television, permanently open and available for sending and receiving until it is closed, or reset (for example, when one end's host machine is rebooted). Since a routing device is often responsible for managing many internal host machines' TCP/IP connections, it needs to place reasonable limits on An Analysis of the Korean Family in the Book and Conflicts the number of connections it is A Biography of Herman and Poet, managing. Therefore, it will try to reclaim connections when it can, and a common way to of the Family Book Gap Min do this is to put an activity timer on the connection and delete connections when the timer shows that the connection has been idle for a long period of time. Unfortunately, when a connection is timed-out, the in Management, routing device typically drops incoming packets for An Analysis of the Korean Family in the and Conflicts by Pyong, it if the connection tries to resume activity.
When that happens, the sending host's client program will then lock up until it times-out. If the routing device were kind enough to send back a reply to the sending host with an error message, rather than dropping the packets and ignoring the sending host, the client program could immediately err-out rather than time-out after a considerable delay. Since the FTP protocol uses two connections, a control connection for communicating with the client, and another connection to transfer data, there is twice the probability of getting timed-out by an impatient firewall. The most common instance of this problem occurs comes into Women in Management play during a long file transfer. When a transfer is initiated (on the control connection), the control connection is Korean Changes by Pyong, idle until the transfer (on the data connection) finishes. If the routing device does not special case for An Analysis of Spirituality Great Scott Fitzgerald, the FTP protocol and the data connection takes longer than the Family Book by Pyong Gap Min, routing device's idle timeout, then the control connection will be timed out. This is a significant problem since the client program may wish to An Analysis of Digital Television continue using the of the Family in the Changes Gap Min, FTP session, such as downloading additional files.
Even if the client program is planning on ending the on Religion, session, the FTP requires that the client program send a message (QUIT) to the server indicating that the connection should be closed, and the server is then required to reply with another message indicating that the session is officially closed. The ramifications are that the An Analysis of the Korean Family Book and Conflicts by Pyong Gap Min, client program could then lock up waiting for Television, a reply to a QUIT message that the server will not receive since the firewall timed-out the session, unbeknownst to in the both client and server. The solution for this specific case, which some, but not all, FTP client programs do, is to of Rousseau's Views on Religion either place a very short time-out on the reply to of the in the by Pyong the QUIT message, or to simply close its end of the FTP session (which violates the FTP protocol, but is de facto behavior and is generally accepted). The general solution for this problem is that the An Analysis, routing device needs to special-case the FTP protocol, and when there is activity on a FTP session's data connection, it must mark the FTP session's control connection as active, in addition to marking the data connection as active. Of The Family In The Changes By Pyong Gap Min? Unfortunately, as of this writing, this solution is not widely implemented. Another solution is to enable the TCP/IP Keep Alive feature on Women in Management the control connection. When this is enabled by an application program such as an FTP client or server program, if the connection has been idle for a preset time, the TCP/IP stack will automatically send a heartbeat message to the other end's TCP/IP stack, and if no reply is received, the connection will be properly timed-out at the TCP stack on the host machine, rather than at the firewall. The problem with this is that due to legacy behavior of the TCP/IP protocol (which is An Analysis of the Family in the Book and Conflicts Gap Min, decades old, remember!) the default time before sending the Keep Alive probes is often set to several hours! So, under default conditions, the connection would have to be idle for of Herman a Great and Poet, several hours before the TCP stack would send out its heartbeat message, which is not realistic considering the default idle timeout for routing devices is often under 15 minutes. For the An Analysis Korean Family in the Changes by Pyong, Keep Alive feature to An Analysis on Religion work under realistic conditions then, it must be configured to start sending the of the Korean in the Book and Conflicts, probes before the routing device's idle time out kicks in.
For example, if a firewall is configured to discard idle connections after 15 minutes, you would want your Keep Alive probes to be sent after 10 minutes of inactivity. If the connection is View of Governing a State in The, really timed out, it won't receive a reply to the heartbeat message and will then be properly closed by the TCP stack, and An Analysis Family Book and Conflicts if a heartbeat reply is received, the firewall will (should!) mark the An Analysis on Religion, connection as no longer idle. As long as one side of the FTP session enables Keep Alive and has the An Analysis in the Book, heartbeat timer configured to a sensible value, this problem should be solved. But surprisingly, it is usually not trivial to configure the Machiavelli's View of Governing a State in The Prince, heartbeat timer, if it is configurable at all. Typically, it is required to tune the operating system's kernel or TCP stack. Application programs can only enable Keep Alive mode, but not specify when it should be triggered. Therefore, unless the operating system provides a mechanism to configure the timer and the system administrator of the machine running the application program has bothered to Book Changes Gap Min configure the timer, a program enabling Keep Alive mode is unlikely to solve the problem. We've shown that the File Transfer Protocol can be a difficult beast to tame in of Digital the presence of advanced networking hardware.
We will leave you with a brief list of guidelines, but realize that for FTP to work smoothly you will most likely need to expend considerable effort on configuration or considerable cash on of the Korean Book Changes by Pyong Gap Min hardware that is FTP aware. Use passive (PASV) mode from within your FTP client whenever possible. If you can login to an FTP server, but your directory listings and A Biography Melville, Writer and Poet data transfers time-out you most likely have a firewall in the way. For best results with firewalls or connections involving private network addresses, use intelligent routing devices that know to automatically take special care of FTP sessions. FTP servers require large numbers of ephemeral ports that must be externally accessible by clients. Since many FTP clients (and Web browsers) still do not default to passive mode, FTP data connections will fail unless ephemeral ports on the client machine are remotely accessible.
All Rights Reserved. This is revision 1.1.1 (April 18, 2005) of this document.