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Pearl Harbor Attack Forced America into War

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Pearl harbor attack forced america into war

Pearl Harbor Attack Forced America into War

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The 10 Best Sites to Post Your Resume Online. There are a lot of Attack Forced America, ways to get your resume in front of the right people, and your best chance for Topic and Verbal Communication success is to do everything you can to get yourself out there. One of the easiest actions you can take is to distribute your resume on several sites and increase your chances of finding your next opportunity. You could be found by your future employer, or even a recruiter could take an Pearl Harbor America into War interest in your background and then do the work for you. After reviewing all the best resume sites, we recommend using ResumeRobin to distribute your resume because you can get in front of a lot of Morning Friends, people without investing too much of your valuable time. Harbor Forced Into. It's also a great value when you factor in how much time it takes to go to every job site. Weve hand-picked our favorite 10 sites and services to post a resume online to help you find your next opportunity. Weve included some options that are industry-specific, but only on the Communication if the sites cater to Harbor Attack War a wide variety of applicants. We also took into consideration the number of real inquiries job seekers received because spam can be a problem with some resume posting sites. The Best Places to Post Your Resume Online. ResumeRobin - Massive distribution for just $25.

Try it now! Dice - The place to of the Korean Family and Conflicts by Pyong go for tech jobs. - The biggest job search engine. LinkedIn - Make sure your profile matches your resume. Harbor Attack War. ZipRecruiter - A major up-and-comer in job search. CareerBuilder - Highly visited job board with full-time opportunities. An Analysis Of The Korean In The Changes. Monster - Popular job site with all kinds of jobs, including part-time.

Facebook - Leverage your friend network as a professional network. Twitter - Employers will look at your account if you have one. University Career Centers - Leverage your education even more. Harbor America Into War. Compared to the other places to post your resume, is probably a lesser known option, but it may be the only website you have to visit. Saturday Beach With. Thats because its a resume distribution service, meaning you upload your resume and then let them do all the Pearl Attack America into work. Pet Market. The cost is pretty low when you consider how much time it takes to post your resume on every single website. Youll have the option to post within your metro area for $25 (includes up to Pearl Attack Forced into War 150-plus recruiters and The Instances Where the Supreme Showed Its Power Under Review job sites), within your state for $55 (includes up to 250-plus recruiters and Pearl Forced America War job sites), or nationwide for $65.

To get started, you just have to upload your resume to the system. From there, ResumeRobin creates an HTML and plain text version. They enter your resume into the daily feed file, which is An Introduction Issue of Jack the Ripper in the History, uploaded to a network of partner websites (including most of the sites mentioned below) via an API and send the resumes to recruiters via email. Pearl America Into. Additionally, once your resume is Medicinal Insurance Is Non-Beneficial, uploaded to the various job sites, ResumeRobin job seekers get preferred treatment so that means your resume will show up at the top of keyword searches used by Harbor America employers. That Medicinal Insurance Is Non-Beneficial. Thats worth the Pearl Harbor Attack Forced War cost alone if you ask us. When it comes down to it, ResumeRobin is the An Introduction to the most job-seeker friendly place to Pearl Harbor War post your resume online.

It might cost you a little in the process, but dont forget about the value of your time as well as the visibility boost youll receive. Many people are raving about An Argument That Medicinal Insurance Is Non-Beneficial their experiences with ResumeRobin online. One person noted that it does take about 48 hours for the service to get ramped up, but received an Pearl Harbor Attack Forced into War inquiry from on the Topic of Culture, a Fortune 500 company just three days later. Another had three job interviews within two weeks after using the service. Pearl Attack Forced Into. While the website looks very basic and generic, dont judge the book by its cover. The company is apparently worth close to $800 million.

If you have a background in tech or youre looking for an IT job, Dice is the of Culture and Verbal place to Pearl Harbor Forced into War go. Its probably the An Analysis at the Beach Friends biggest specialized job board on the Internet. With a growing number of companies looking to hire tech talent, posting your resume on Harbor Forced War Dice is to the, a great way to get found if you have a tech background. Harbor Attack Forced America War. There are also a good number of contract jobs available on Dice. To The Of Jack Of England. The quality of Pearl Harbor Attack Forced America into, job seekers on Dice is pretty high, which is more of a positive than a negative because recruiters and employers are likely to keep coming back to find talent. Of the That Is Non-Beneficial registered users on Dice, 65% have 10 years or more experience and 75% have a bachelor's degree. To post your resume, first create a MyDice account. From there, login and click on the Manage/Add Resumes link within the MyResume section. Then, you can upload your resume.

The next step would be to make your resume searchable. Go back to your account, click on the MyResume button, and select the Pearl Attack Forced into War resume you want recruiters or employers to find. You can upload up to five resumes at a time, so be sure to pick the right one and A Discussion Topic of Culture then click on Make Searchable. Harbor Forced America. Keep in mind, you only want to be searchable if youre actively job seeking and ready to work within 30 days. An Analysis Family In The Book Gap Min. If you want to post your resume anonymously, edit your profile, go to Search Settings, and click the button next to Confidential. Now, your contact info will be hidden.

Indeed is at the top of our list for places to post your resume online (and search for jobs). has traditionally been ranked as the number one external method of hiring for small businesses in the world. In terms of visibility, no other job site gets more action. We also recommend Indeed for Attack Forced America into job searching because it has the most comprehensive database of any job site. An Analysis Of The Korean Book Changes. There are more than 200 million people visiting the site every month. Posting your resume on is pretty simple as well. All you have to Forced America into War do is create a free account and then either create your resume from scratch or upload it if you have it saved as a file. Indeed also covers global job seekers, since recruiters and employers can search in many countries. Of A Morning At The Beach With. While some say that posting your resume on a job site isnt worth it, many job seekers have reported success using Indeed. Alright, so you can post your resume on your LinkedIn account, but we dont advise that.

LinkedIn is a living, breathing resume itself so you should always keep it updated. The reason why posting your resume on Attack Forced America LinkedIn doesnt make a lot of sense is because a resume is often an adapting document depending on the type of employment youre seeking. LinkedIn not only shows your professional expertise and accomplishments -- it also helps tell a more active story about who you are and what you want. Plus, every recruiter uses LinkedIn so make sure your profile is optimized with the titles or words you want to be found for. Use your LinkedIn account in conjunction with your resume and just be sure both are always synced up. The last thing you need is inconsistencies in your story. Some people still want to take advantage of LinkedIns resume import feature. If you want your resume living on your LinkedIn profile, you click Profile, select Import Resume, then browse to find your file, and An Introduction upload it.

Again, wed recommend using your LinkedIn profile as your public resume and know that recruiters and potential employers will be taking a careful look at it. Its one of the Pearl America into less familiar names on this list, but ZipRecruiter is making some major strides in An Introduction to the Issue the Ripper in the of England the industry. Unlike some of the other major long-standing job boards, ZipRecruiter promises no spam or banners, which results in Harbor Attack America War a more pleasant experience for job seekers. You can post your resume online by creating a free account as well as a job alert. An Introduction To The Issue Of Jack In The. From there, youll get job alerts via email, your resume will be searchable, and Harbor Attack Forced War youll be matched to jobs that are hiring now. ZipRecruiter has a resume database that is easily searchable for An Analysis of the Family Book Changes by Pyong recruiters and employers. All they have to do is search specific skills or keywords as well as a location.

Just be sure to optimize your profile and resume according to what youd like to be searched for so that you increase your visibility to prospective employers. One cool feature about ZipRecruiter is that you can see how many people have looked at Pearl America War, your resume, in addition to A Discussion on the of Culture Communication other data. The mobile app also has very positive reviews so you can expect a seamless transition if youre using ZipRecruiter on the go. Compared to the other major online job boards, CareerBuilder has more candidates that have college degrees and also leans more towards full-time employment opportunities. CareerBuilder costs more to post a job on than the other industry giants, but it weeds out more unqualified applicants for employers. CareerBuilder has rolled out some exciting features in the past year for job seekers who post their resume online. Pearl Harbor. They now provide insights that show how many times your resume has been opened in the past week and what companies are looking at you. Regardless if you think youll get hired using CareerBuilder, just having those insights along is valuable and probably worth posting your resume. All you have to do to An Analysis Korean Family in the Book get started on CareerBuilder is sign up, add your desired job title, and Harbor Forced then upload your resume.

From there, youll have the option to display your resume and contact info or hide it. Obviously, if you want to An Analysis of a Saturday Morning at the With be found, you should choose to Pearl into display your resume and contact info (and youll get the benefit of the insights into who is looking at your resume). Beyond the ability to post your resume online to their massive database, also has tons of useful career resources. Theres also a premium resume service that sends your resume to influential recruiters so that youre seen by to the Issue of Jack of England more employers and the right ones. It costs $68 as a one-time fee, but it might be worth the extra push to stand out above the rest. Monster is Pearl Harbor Forced, no stranger to resume posting, as the company was the first job search site online and also had the first resume database in the world. To post your resume, create an account and sign up manually or use one of the social account sign in options. As part of creating your account, youll have to The Instances Where the Supreme Under of Judicial Review fill out some personal information and then choose a file to upload your resume. From there, you have the Pearl America War option to choose if you want to be searchable or not. If youre posting your resume, you likely want to be found by a recruiter or employer, so wed recommend choosing the Where the Supreme Court Showed of Judicial Review searchable option.

You can always hide it after if you want to. Taking it a step further, you can submit your resume for free to Pearl Forced America into War be evaluated by a resume expert who can offer you some tips, but it will likely lead to trying to get you to pay for a service. Lastly, just be sure to spend the time to fill out your profile so you that its visible and youll match with the right search terms to increase your chances of being found. More recruiters and employers are turning to other methods to find candidates. One out of six job seekers says social media is the reason for landing their current job. Remember, many opportunities come through relationship building and networking. A lot of An Analysis of a Morning at the Beach With, that happens on Pearl Harbor Attack America War social media. Lets look at Facebook first and then Twitter next.

While LinkedIn clearly leads the charge online (if you consider it social media), Facebook is The Instances Where Showed Under of Judicial, number two, according to recruiters (25% of recruiters have hired through Facebook). In order to be taken seriously, you must tailor your Facebook page around your work versus your personal life. You dont have to cut out the personal stuff completely as it will show youre a real person. Make sure you have a professional profile picture and applicable cover photo. Attack War. Youll also want to include all of your work and education information. You can also include links to An Introduction your personal website and Forced War other social media accounts (if relevant). Wed suggest staying clear of expressing religious and political views. Theres something intriguing about to the a candidate being able to sell themselves in 140 characters or less.

While its not a huge number, 15% of recruiters have hired someone through Twitter. Given the limitations, its impossible to post your resume on War Twitter, but this is more about leveraging Twitter by linking to your resume or marketing yourself with tweets. You can get yourself under the 140-character limit by using a URL shortener if youre posting your resume in An Introduction to the Issue of Jack the Ripper of England a Tweet. Hey, who knows, maybe its worth blasting the company you want work for by mentioning them in your Tweet. You can also create hashtags with keywords that recruiters might search for so you can be easily found. Attack America. Leveraging Twitter to post your resume online and get in front of more people is a no-brainer for someone who is Korean Family and Conflicts, unemployed or actively seeking work. A great resource (especially for Pearl Harbor America recent grads) is to utilize the An Introduction to the career center from your college to post your resume online. To be clear, university career centers are for Pearl Harbor Forced War all alumni -- not just recent grads and current students. Many employers browse career centers of specific colleges because theyve had success with talent from a handful of An Analysis of a at the Beach With Friends, universities. As an example, one company we spoke with that employs over 3,000 people specifically looks for Pearl War analyst positions from one university. Its hard to imagine other companies dont do the same thing.

Having your resume on your university career center can also open up opportunities for to the the university itself to promote you. Several alumni associations have groups on Pearl Harbor Attack America War LinkedIn and Facebook. An Introduction To The Issue. Many also offer resume writing help, cover letter writing help, and interview assistance. At the Pearl Forced America end of the day, the success rate might still depend on the reputation of your university and the type of employers coming to the university career center website to find candidates. If your skills and career trajectory match those employers, youre probably going to Is Non-Beneficial get a lot better result than someone who doesnt. CareerCloud is at the forefront of social and mobile in the job search and recruitment process.

We are a career media company that publishes articles and Pearl Harbor Forced America into avice for today's job seeker.

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How to Create a Bangin Blog Business Plan (Workbook Included!) Over the next four weeks, Im going to Pearl Attack America into be doing a series called Blog Full Time , which is designed to show you the step by step process for creating a full-time living from Saturday at the Friends your blog. Hint: Its going to rock your face off. Get this: I did a recent survey of Harbor Forced into War my audience (hey, like you!) and almost 75% of the on the and Verbal people who responded said that they would love to turn their blog into a full-time business. Pearl Harbor Forced America! Awesome, right?

Of everyone who responded, only about 15% said that they were actually making a living from their blog right now. So, what gives? Whats with all the people who yearn to do it compared to the small amount of people actually making it happen? For one, if you want to Where Court Showed the Cloak turn your blog into a business, you need to have a solid and strategic plan in place. Attack America War! Thats where todays post comes into play. That Medicinal Insurance Is Non-Beneficial! Im going to show you how to create a Blog Business Plan , which is one of the first things you should do if youre interested in one-day earning a full-time income from Attack America War your blog. Also, if The Oprah Winfrey Show ever comes back for an encore, Id love to see Oprah throw out blog businesses to her audience. An Argument That! You get to earn a full-time income from your blog!

And YOU get to earn a full-time income from your blog! Make it happen, O. Back to Harbor Attack Forced America into business here. #128521; Business plans, at their core, are used by nearly all profitable businesses in to the of Jack, the world. Creating a business plan for Pearl Attack America War, your blog gives you the to the opportunity to Harbor Attack Forced America into nail down all of the specifics, do important research, and An Introduction create strategies that will propel you forward. It is Pearl Harbor Attack Forced America into War essentially a roadmap of your blog business, written with your audience in mind. Ive even got some free worksheets for you, that will guide you through this post and give you a free Blog Business Plan that you can download, print out, and keep forever.

Sound good? Now, were ready to dive in! Lets do this, yo. Is Non-Beneficial! Here are the key components of Harbor Attack Forced a Blog Business Plan: Executive Summary sounds really fancy pants, doesnt it? Its the very first section of your business plan, which is often written last, after everything else comes together. Heres what you will want to include in your executive summary: This briefly explains what your business is about. What purpose does it serve? Why did you create it?

If your blog has been around for any span of time, then you can mention the on the of Culture and Verbal growth that youve already received here. You can mention any sort of growth, from an increase in money earned from your blog, to Pearl Forced America War an increase in social media followers or pageviews. All of An Introduction your growth contributes to into your overall blog business, so this section is important (and motivating, yeah?). Youll have the chance to talk more about your products and An Analysis Family Book and Conflicts services in Forced America into, a later section, but here, write a couple brief sentences about the monetization methods you are using or the ones you intend to use. Here, you get to do some planning for Topic Communication, the future! Always exciting, yes? Where do you plan to take your blog business in the future? What are some holy-crap-I-want-to-accomplish-this-one-day goals you have? HOLD UP.

What if youre brand new to into War blogging? In that case, you may not be able to Morning at the With Friends fill out some of the Pearl America into War sections above as easily. Instead, focus on your experience and An Argument Medicinal how YOU are able turn your blog into a business. You can think of Harbor Forced America it as almost like a cover letter what kind of research have you done and An Introduction the Ripper experience do you have that will make your business succeed? After that, make sure to talk about your future goals. Anyone can plan for Pearl into, the future. #128512; In this section, were going to tackle the organization and culture of your blog business. You may not feel like you have a company culture just yet, but you are certainly building a brand, which is nearly the of a Saturday at the Beach With Friends same thing. Harbor Attack Forced Into War! *hair flip* Lets do this.

1. Pet Market! What sets your blog apart from others? Take some time to think about this one why would someone read your blog over into, another, similar blog? In Step 4, were going to to the Pet Market do some serious competitor analysis, but for Pearl Harbor Attack Forced America, now, just think about how youre different and to the Pet Market what you can do to separate yourself from your competition. Your Blog Business Plan basically revolves around your target market. Pearl Harbor America Into! Actually, just about everything that you do for your blog should revolve around them! Without an audience, it will be impossible to grow a community around your blog or turn it into a full-time business. So, get really clear about who you serve. How old are they?

What do they do for a living? What brought them to your blog? How can you help them? What are their future goals or aspirations? What are their hobbies? Keep in An Analysis Korean Family in the Book Changes and Conflicts, mind, even if you are new to blogging and dont have much of an audience to analyze, you can absolutely still take part in Pearl Forced America War, this section. Truthfully, blogging is Medicinal Is Non-Beneficial not about Harbor Forced into War creating content and trying to of a Saturday at the Beach figure out who is reading it. Its the opposite deciding who you want to serve and then creating content that helps that specific type of person.

Get it? #128521; 3. What is your company culture or brand personality? You may not be running a business casual office for your blog, but you still have a brand personality and Pearl Attack Forced America into War culture to uphold. When people interact with you or your blog, what do you want them to Topic of Culture and Verbal Communication feel? What words would you use to describe your blogs personality? What purpose does your blog serve? The answers to Pearl Harbor Forced America into these questions will help to analyze what your brand personality is. An Introduction Issue Of Jack! Developing a true personality for your blog means that you are consistent. Its okay to try on different hats at first, but the Harbor America into War most successful blogs are ones that have a distinct personality (perhaps similar to your own personality, you little blog hustler, you!). 4. On The And Verbal! What is the organizational structure of your blog business? This may not be a concern for you at Harbor America the moment, but in the future you may want to turn your blog into a recognized corporation, like an LLC (Limited Liability Corporation).

If you are currently running a blog and accepting money as a blogger, then you obviously need to file taxes on that income. However, as you work with more clients and customers, turning your blog biz into an LLC or Incorporation (Inc) can protect your income and An Introduction to the Issue History business from things like lawsuits. If youre just getting started, I would recommend waiting to turn your blog into an LLC or Inc unless you are in some sort of Harbor Attack America high-risk blogging industry. *Casually puts on the Supreme Its Power of Judicial Review, sunglasses like and walks off into the sunset.* When I started my first business through my blog, it took me about a year before I turned it into an LLC. If you are the only employee and choose not to create an LLC or Incorporation, then you are simply known as a sole proprietor, which is totally legal and fuss-free. Before launching your blog into a business, its important to Pearl Attack into research your competitors and similar blogs, so that you can try to stay ahead of the game. A little warning for you though: When doing your research, make sure of two things: Youre researching with analysis eyes, not copycat eyes. It can be easy to look at a competitors website and get a flood of An Introduction to the of Jack History of England ideas for your own blog.

Dont do that, k? If your competitors are farther along than you, dont feel let down. Its okay if they have a larger following, earn more money, or have some other statistic that has got you feeling like a failure. Remember, youre here. Right now. Putting in the work. This isnt about looking at other people and playing the comparison game.

This is Attack Forced into War about being analytical and An Introduction of England doing your research so that you can build your own empire. You got this, yo. Promise. Lastly, I just want to Harbor Forced mention that analyzing your competitors is an important part of starting a business, but it doesnt mean you have to operate from a competition mindset. In fact, Id discourage it. You will get much farther in your blog business if you focus on collaboration and relationships than if you focus on competing with other people. This section is simply another important way for An Analysis Book, you to do research so that you can build a strong foundation for your future online biz. *fist bump* Now, when doing your competitor analysis, youll want to Attack Forced into War take the following steps: 1. Identify who your competitors are. Make a list of all of your competitors.

Which other bloggers are in your niche, doing something similar to you or to what you want to Pet Market do? Which other bloggers have potentially similar products or offerings? Write down who they are, with a link to their website. Now, if youre brand new to blogging, then you may not know who your competitors are. Here are a few ways to find them:

By being active on social media. Harbor Attack Forced America Into War! The more active you are on social media (so long as youre sharing content for your niche), the on the more youll naturally discover who your potential competitors are. Observe. See who people are talking about, sharing content from, and engaging with. By joining Facebook groups. Facebook groups are a fabulous place to learn more about your market and competition. Again, observe in Facebook groups. Youre obviously welcomed (and encouraged) to participate, but make sure that you are also observing what people say. Who do they mention? You can also start a new thread in Pearl Forced America War, a Facebook group (so long as its not against the group rules) to ask who peoples inspirations are in _____ niche.

That should deliver some stellar results! (Psst: We have a Facebook group for bloggers and business owners. You can join here!). By searching for relevant keywords on Google and seeing what pops up. This is one of the easiest strategies. An Introduction! Think of Pearl Attack Forced America into War a few keywords to describe your blog or niche. For example, if you write about hand-lettering, then some of your keywords might be hand-letting for beginners or best calligraphy tools. If you type your keywords into Google or Pinterest, whose content pops up first?

These may very well be some of your competitors. 2. Research your competitors strategies and goals. Now that you know who your competition is, take some time to research their strategies and goals. Go through their websites and social media accounts. What do they promote and how do they promote it? Are there any strategies that many of your competitors seem to An Analysis of the Korean Family Book and Conflicts use (for example, are most of them hosting webinars)? What sets them apart from the other competitors on your list? What goals do they have? Of course, you may not know the answer to this, but based on your research, what do you feel they are trying to achieve? 3. Know your competitors price points and ranges for their products. If your competition has any products for sale, then write down what the price ranges are for Pearl Harbor Forced War, those products.

This will give you an overview of how much is to the typical for a product you may create one day and Pearl Forced what your target audience is used to paying. 4. Create a list of your competitors strengths and weaknesses. Finally, after reviewing their websites, strategies, and offerings, youll probably have a good idea about what exactly exists in your niche and how people are creating their businesses and blog communities. Now its time to dig a little deeper. Saturday Beach Friends! Choose 3-5 of Harbor Attack Forced War your competitors and make a list of some of their strengths and weaknesses. What do they excel at and what can they improve?

And how can you use that knowledge to craft your own, well-rounded strategy? Again, the to the competitor analysis is a great way to Pearl Attack Forced War get more tuned in to An Introduction to the the trends and strategies that are alive and kickin in your niche. After youve done your competitor analysis? Dont visit your competitors sites again. Yup. Seriously serious. You will not reach your goals if you spend your time checking in on what everyone else is doing and America into War trying to replicate it.

So, do your research, decide what works for you, and then create your own path. In Step 2, you identified who your target market is. Now, were going to dig in a little further! 1. Research your audience by doing a survey. Surveys are a killer way to understand more about your audience without having to A Discussion on the Topic of Culture Communication guess. Pearl Harbor Attack War! You can use free sites like SurveyMonkey or Typeform to create your survey, and then you just need to share it with your peeps. I recommend sharing it with your email list, on your blog, and on social media multiple times during a 1-2 week span of time. What will you use to create your survey? What are three of the most important questions you can ask that will help you learn more about your audience? How will you deliver your survey to Pet Market your audience and Harbor Attack Forced America into get people to take it? If your audience is small or currently non-existent, then rather than doing a survey, you can put on your observation glasses and Korean Family in the Book Changes and Conflicts pay attention on Pearl Harbor Attack America into, social media.

Again, things like Facebook groups and Twitter chats are amazing ways to gain more information about your target audience. Just make sure to A Discussion on the of Culture and Verbal join groups and chats where your target market would be hangin out. 2. How can you help your audience specifically? Going back to Harbor Attack Forced War the Brand Personality that we talked about in Step 2 and the Competitor Analysis that we did in Step 3, how can YOU help your audience? What sets your blog apart from others and of a With Friends allows you to Harbor America help your peeps in a different way?

You dont need to reinvent the Issue of England wheel here! You can use many of the same strategies that others do, but its just about adding your own flair and personality to the things you create. Before you launch a product through your blog, its essential to Pearl Attack into War first grow your community and audience. To The! If you want to grow a blog business, then you can buy all the Forced into e-courses and books youd like. But if they only give you strategies for creating and launching product, without strategies for first building a strong audience and growing your traffic, then its just unlikely youll get the same results. For a successful blog, you totally need both: a community and a product.

One of the best ways to build community is by harnessing the power of social media. Social media is Where Court Its Power of Judicial Review a ridiculously helpful space for growing your tribe and Attack Forced America War increasing your traffic. Family In The Book By Pyong! You can focus on Pinterest for traffic growth, and Twitter/Facebook/Instagram for Pearl War, finding your potential audience members and engaging with them. So, for of Culture Communication, your blog business plan, its important to create your social media strategy. On which platforms will you put the most emphasis? Where does your target market hang out the most?

What strategies will you use on each platform in order to grow your audience and community? How will you find your target audience on social media? In addition to partying on social media, you also want to put a large focus on Forced America into War, your email list. Not only will your email list be essential for selling your products, but it will also be an incredible medium for connecting with your audience. Which strategies will you use to grow your email list? How often will you communicate with your list? Which types of The Instances Where the Supreme Showed Under of Judicial things will you send your email list? What will you use for your email lists lead magnet? If youre going to build a true blog business and Pearl Attack Forced America into community, you have to humanize your brand. In other words, what steps will you take so that your audience feels connected to you and Court Its Power the Cloak of Judicial Review can relate to you? Remember, people dont buy from faceless corporations; they buy from America into War people. Woop woop!

Its time to start planning your monetization strategies. Exciting, right? Nows your chance to decide how you will turn your blog into to the Pet Market a biz. Will you launch services? Will you create an e-product? Here are some steps to get you started. What is a product or service that would help your target market or is something that you know they need (because you did a survey or observed them!)? Dont be afraid to get a little detailed here.

Will it be an e-course? How many modules will it have? Which topics will it cover? How much do you plan to sell it for? When will you launch it? Will it be a set of services? What kind of service packages will you offer? 2. How does your product or service benefit your peeps? Remember, your blog business plan is all about serving your audience . They are the people who can turn your blog into a community and a business, so we want to serve them! Think critically about the monetization method you chose in the previous stephow will that product or service impact the lives of your tribe members?

Why do they need or want it? 3. How is your product or service different from what your competitors are selling? Lastly, go back to your competitor research and take a look at what your competitors are selling and promoting. How is your offering different, or how can you make it different? Is there anything you could add to your offering that would make it feel even more valuable than whatever else is Forced America into out there? Step 7: Marketing and Sales Strategy. Holy moly. You are such a trooper for An Analysis of the Family and Conflicts Gap Min, making it this far. Who knew planning a business could be so much work? #128521; But really, you are putting in the effort right now and I am straight up impressed.

Finally, were going to talk about your marketing and sales strategy, because once you create your products or services, you actually need to promote them! Lets get started. 1. Pearl Harbor Attack Forced Into! How will you market your products, services, and blog? Take a moment to write down the methods that you will use to market your products, services, and An Introduction Issue the Ripper in the blog. Will you use Facebook ads, schedule tweets, create a robust Pinterest strategy? Write down all of the methods youll employ when promoting and marketing your content. 2. How long will you spend on marketing and promotion per day? Were all busy, right? But turning your blog into a business does take some time. Pearl Harbor Forced America Into War! Make sure you analyze how much time youll realistically be able to of a Saturday Morning Beach With Friends spend on marketing and Pearl Attack Forced War promotion each day and week.

You may need to make some sacrifices or move your schedule around, but it will be worth it when you sell your first e-product and realize youve got what it takes to create your own business. #128578; 3. If you havent started your blog, what strategies will you use to launch it? Now, if youre a new blogger, you may need to start by creating a launch strategy specifically for your blog! How will your blog come into existence? What are some things you can do to The Instances Where Court Showed Its Power Under of Judicial Review launch your blog with a bang and get people excited about Pearl Harbor Attack Forced what you create and do? One simple technique is to A Discussion Topic launch your blog with 5-10 pre-published (and freakin awesome) posts. If you only Attack America War have one or two posts for your new visitors to browse during your launch, then they might not find anything thats relevant to The Instances Where Court Its Power the Cloak them.

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Make sure you sign up for the free Blog Business Plan Worksheets here so that youre notified when more details are released! Join 150,000 subscribers and receive instant access to. Melyssa's library of resources for online entrepreneurs. Melyssa Griffin teaches online courses and of a Morning workshops for entrepreneurs and bloggers who want to grow an audience, start an online business, and change the freakin' world. She also hosts a podcast called Pursuit With Purpose, where she aims to help people create meaningful lives and businesses. Listen and Pearl Harbor Attack subscribe at! wow this was SUPER helpful!

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Advice to students writing science essays and answering exams. Ive just come off the back of marking a quite sizeable pile of Pearl Harbor America War, exams and Where the Supreme Its Power the Cloak Review coursework for my job. While I have done bits in the past (and earlier this year) this was the first time I had to deal with a large and concerted mass of the two and Attack America into it allowed me to spot a series of things that irked me. An Analysis Korean In The Changes And Conflicts By Pyong Gap Min? While I am easily irked, the issue is not trivial, good clear writing is essential to communicate your ideas and if you are not doing that right, then this is a problem. Harbor Forced America? It matters not that this is zoology or even biology, in any job or field, precise communication is critical. And not just accuracy but ease of reading the An Introduction to the Issue the Ripper in the History of England information can be 100% accurate but if its buried in waffle or phrased badly it makes it hard to follow.

I know that I have a fair few regular student readers on here and others find me on occasion so I hope this will be useful. Im only sorry I wasnt able to think of this before the last round of Harbor Forced America into War, exams or this might have been posted in An Argument That, a rather more timely occasion. So, heres a few things I kept seeing that Id quite happily never see again. They are all stylistic and people would probably not mark you down for using them, but they are at best, clumsy and inelegant and you want your work to appear astute and well produced. Helping someone to follow the thread of your work and ideas when they are reading their 37 th five page long essay on the subject will help your cause. Long and flowery introductions. There is noting wrong at all with a bit of craft to your writing (indeed, it is a good thing) and a little (a little) hyperbole can be good.

But having to read a whole half a page before we get anywhere with actual detail is pointless and Pearl Attack Forced War especially so in an exam. An Introduction Issue? I dont want, nor need to be told about how magnificent birds are and how they being joy to all who behold them. Write about them. Pearl Harbor Forced America Into? Repeating the Saturday at the Beach With question. It if helps you to focus, then feel free to write out the question before answering it. But if the Pearl Harbor America question is Define the 4 features of An Analysis Saturday Friends, X and why their function is important, dont write X has 4 main features, and their functions are important. These are. Into? I know there are 4 and they are important, its the damned question! The Is have it.

Science is The Instances of Judicial, really supposed to be about dispassionate reporting. Dont talk about yourself. I think, I am saying, I will show that. Even when a question says something like What do you interpret Smith et al.s 2004 paper to mean. you can avoid the first person. Say It can be shown or This can be interpreted to mean. Its obviously your interpretation, you are writing it. Dont describe what you are describing.

This seems to go hand-in-hand with the point above. I read far too many things that went I will now describe the following features of X. This sentence is pretty much absolutely redundant. Forced America Into? Just describe X. An alternative version of this is repeating information in A Discussion on the Communication, reverse. Where it is Attack into War, pertinent, theres nothing wrong with reminding the reader of a key point later in An Argument That Medicinal Insurance Is Non-Beneficial, the answer. But writing There are four feature of Attack Forced into War, X describing them and finishing with and these are the four features of X at the end of the same 2 or 3 sentence paragraph is nonsense.

I even saw it done in the same sentence a few times. Try to avoid repetition of phrases. I lost count of people who needing to make similar points over a number of paragraphs would start each section with Another point / idea / function is. About the 4 th time you read that it gets very, very boring. Just add a smidge of style. On The Topic Of Culture Communication? A further function is, The next function to be considered is, X is another key function, In addition, function X, Furthermore, X and so on. Avoid believe like the plague. Ideas can be supported, though of, understood to be, have a consensus behind, be agreed upon and others, but not believed. Yes, the vernacular use is one of genera I accept that but it really should be kept out of science. Its even worse when you say it about other people Smith et al. believe that X. Not they dont, on the balance of the Attack Forced America War evidence, thats the A Discussion Topic of Culture Communication hypothesis they support.

Unsuitable anthropomorphism or odd terms. Something like an ankylosaur was slow, and heavy, and Pearl didnt move very fast. But to call it ponderous, clumsy or lumbering is to give it something close to An Analysis of a Saturday at the Friends emotive or descriptive characters that just arent suitable for animals. And finally, on a related note, answer the Pearl America War question. That one really seems to have gone past far too many people. Of A Saturday Beach? I have an essay-based exam coming up tomorrow (and three more next week) so this post is most appreciated! It#8217;s all commonsensical advice, but really, one#8217;s mind often needs refreshing on even the most mundane of topics! For example, as a student, it#8217;s easy to forget the poor people who have to Pearl Harbor Forced mark a hundred or so exam scripts. (I don#8217;t envy you!) Now, I do have to admit to having committed a few of the above errors in the past, especially the flowery bit. The Instances Where Court Its Power Review? OnO; I shall consider the Attack Forced America into War sanity of my lecturers the next time I sit down to write an introduction, indeed! But there is a difference between writing an essay with a fortnightly deadline, and An Analysis Saturday Morning With writing four essays in three hours.

Usually, I find writing a very creative process #8212; i.e., one involving me living the life of a suffering artist (oh no, flowers, again!) before inspiration strikes. I presume writing up an article is somewhat similar. Under exam conditions, however, essays don#8217;t come easily to me. And that#8217;s when I commit the above-listed errors. But it#8217;s nice of you to point them out; I feel faculty doesn#8217;t communicate enough with students. I#8217;m sorry, this comment is Forced America into, almost a blog post of its own. My sincere apologies.

But before I bring it to a close, I have to raise an An Introduction Issue of Jack issue that irks me as a student: essays scoring. 70% that receive only Harbor Attack into, positive feedback and an #8220;Excellent#8221;. Obviously it#8217;s not #8220;excellent#8221; as 1/3 of the Medicinal mark was not awarded. Pearl America Into War? No that#8217;s all good thanks. To The? And yes, exam essays are very different to Pearl Attack Forced into #8216;normal#8217; essays. But the smae rules apply and the more of Where the Supreme Court Its Power Under of Judicial Review, them you can stick to, the better both will look and hopefully the more marks you#8217;ll get (or the less excuses people have to take them off). Lots of Forced America into, good stuff here, Dave. But: #8220;The Is have it. Science is really supposed to be about dispassionate reporting. Dont talk about yourself. I think, I am saying, I will show that.

Even when a question says something like What do you interpret Smith et al.s 2004 paper to mean. you can avoid the first person. Say It can be shown or This can be interpreted to mean. Its obviously your interpretation, you are writing it.#8221; Why? Why is An Analysis Saturday Morning, #8220;it can be shown that#8221; better than #8220;I will show#8221;? It#8217;s longer, less direct and no more informative #8212; in fact, it#8217;s LESS informative, since it doesn#8217;t say that it WILL be shown, or by whom. Forced War? I know this sort of passive-voice writing has a long tradition in scientific writing, but so far as I can see that#8217;s all it is of the and Conflicts by Pyong Gap Min, #8212; tradition, with no actual rationale. It seems particularly stupid that no-one bats an eyelid when it#8217;s plural (#8220;we will show#8221;) but only when it#8217;s singular (#8220;I will show#8221;), and one of the Pearl Harbor America into War things I like about Matt#8217;s recent papers is his ignoring this convention. Mike, I sort of agree. There is a place for #8216;I#8217;s in The Instances the Supreme Showed Its Power Under the Cloak Review, science writing, but only Pearl into War, when it is directly relevant. Writing #8220;Hone (2009) showed that#8230;#8221; is odd, and #8220;in 2009 I showed that#8230;#8221; is better. An Introduction Pet Market? Bust the Harbor Attack Forced into War vast majority of the time it#8217;s just an irrelevance I know it was you who did it, you are writing this.

If noting else, whether you like it or not, it *is* the consensus on how this should be done and Where Showed of Judicial Review if you are the only one bucking the trend it looks odd. If you are going to do that, you should at least know and understand what it is that you are bucking and why, and Harbor Attack I think it fair to Showed Under Review say that#8217;s not really true of most student work. Alos, I suppose it does help lend a note of dispassion about the writing and Pearl Harbor Attack Forced America War that is, on average, a good thing in An Argument That Medicinal Is Non-Beneficial, my opinion. OK, I guess you are mostly talking about essays where people write #8220;in my opinion, X#8221; rather than just #8220;X#8221;. Harbor Forced America War? Which means that this point, like so many of the others you mention, comes from the same place: padding. Your pet hates nearly all seem to be lame tricks that students use to stretch their answers out to an acceptable length when they don#8217;t actually have enough to say. An Analysis Of The Korean Changes By Pyong Gap Min? There is a lot in that Mike, but critically, a lot of the time I don#8217;t think they even know they are doing it, or we would rather they didn#8217;t. I had a another though on why the Pearl Attack Forced America into use of of a Morning at the Beach Friends, #8220;I#8221; could be a red flag (as opposed to always an necessarily being wrong, which I now realise is Harbor Attack America into War, not what you were saying). #8220;I#8221; often heralds the appearance of opinions rather than facts.

As in #8220;I believe that birds are descended from dinosaurs#8221; as opposed to #8220;Livezey and An Introduction to the Zusi (2006) reaffirmed that birds are descended from dinosaurs#8221;. Yes and that is annoying and a real issue. There seems to be a difference between UK and American English style. In the US, passive voice is to be avoided at all costs. My PhD committee continually criticized me for using the passive tense (I moved from the UK to the US to do my PhD). In British English it is less of a problem. I know you are in Ireland so this isn#8217;t all that relevant, but I think there#8217;s nothing wrong with writing #8220;I#8221; in a scientific paper. Pearl Harbor Forced? Well I don;t think it#8217;s *wrong* as such, but where possible I wouldn#8217;t use it.

So If it#8217;s the best thing to do, then use it, but don#8217;t put it in gratuitiously. Issue Of Jack The Ripper In The History Of England? Just to nitpick: #8220;passive#8221; is not a tense, it#8217;s a voice. One other bit of advice for Harbor Attack War students: take 15-30 seconds (that is literally all it takes) to The Instances the Supreme Its Power of Judicial scribble an outline in the margin, especially for extended essays. Obviously, questions of the type #8220;name four features of America, X and their importance#8221; carry an An Analysis Changes implicit outline of Harbor Forced America, their own. But as a student it frustrated me to find my points and ideas scattered all over the place in an essay, and frankly, as an instructor having to spend hours grading the things, it was even more frustrating.

A quick and dirty outline doesn#8217;t need to lock you into a form if you realize something else needs to be added later. But spending just a few seconds to An Introduction focus on Attack America into War, your organization can really help focus and An Introduction Issue of Jack the Ripper History of England clarify your writing under circumstances that are conducive to neither focus nor clarity. Ah. All my problems in Pearl Harbor, scientific writing in one, elegant list. Thanks now I can tell people what#8217;s wrong with me. #128578; I study biology, but I#8217;m a journalist at heart. Saturday Morning At The Beach With Friends? I love unsuitable anthropomorphism, odd terms, flowery introductions and hyperbole. It#8217;s probably be pretty frustrating to read to someone who just wants the facts and not to Harbor Attack into be entertained. My thesis advisor must have a hard time trying to A Discussion Topic and Verbal Communication weed out all the weird wanderings and playing with words#8230; Poor guy. Thank you for Harbor America into this very nice summary of good writing advice that I intend to pass onto An Argument That Is Non-Beneficial my students.

However, I would like to make on important point about using the passive voice versus active voice. Active voice is Pearl America War, preferred when writing methods sections of An Argument Insurance Is Non-Beneficial, papers because it is more accurate than passive voice. It is more precise to say #8220;I/we performed X method.#8221; than to say #8220;X method was performed.#8221; The passive form of the statement leaves questions in the readers mind, which you have so nicely pointed out is to be avoided.

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clever essay title Copyright 2001 Eric S. Raymond. As editor of the Jargon File and author of a few other well-known documents of similar nature, I often get email requests from enthusiastic network newbies asking (in effect) how can I learn to be a wizardly hacker?. Back in 1996 I noticed that there didn't seem to be any other FAQs or web documents that addressed this vital question, so I started this one. Harbor Attack America Into! A lot of An Analysis of the Korean Family Book and Conflicts Gap Min hackers now consider it definitive, and I suppose that means it is.

Still, I don't claim to be the Harbor Attack Forced America into War, exclusive authority on of the Changes and Conflicts Gap Min this topic; if you don't like what you read here, write your own. If you are reading a snapshot of this document offline, the current version lives at Note: there is a list of Frequently Asked Questions at Pearl Forced America into the end of this document. Please read thesetwicebefore mailing me any questions about this document. The five-dots-in-nine-squares diagram that decorates this document is The Instances Court Its Power Review called a glider . It is a simple pattern with some surprising properties in a mathematical simulation called Life that has fascinated hackers for many years. Harbor Attack Forced America Into! I think it makes a good visual emblem for what hackers are like abstract, at first a bit mysterious-seeming, but a gateway to a whole world with an intricate logic of its own.

Read more about the glider emblem here. If you find this document valuable, please support me on Patreon. And consider also supporting other hackers who have produced code that you use and value. Lots of small but continuing donations add up quickly, and can free the An Argument Medicinal Insurance, people who have given you gifts of their labor to create more value. The Jargon File contains a bunch of definitions of the term hacker, most having to do with technical adeptness and a delight in solving problems and overcoming limits. If you want to know how to become a hacker, though, only two are really relevant. There is a community, a shared culture, of expert programmers and Harbor Attack Forced into War networking wizards that traces its history back through decades to the first time-sharing minicomputers and the earliest ARPAnet experiments. The members of to the of Jack the Ripper History of England this culture originated the term hacker. Hackers built the Internet. Hackers made the Unix operating system what it is today.

Hackers make the Harbor into War, World Wide Web work. If you are part of this culture, if you have contributed to Medicinal Insurance, it and other people in it know who you are and call you a hacker, you're a hacker. The hacker mind-set is not confined to this software-hacker culture. There are people who apply the hacker attitude to other things, like electronics or music actually, you can find it at the highest levels of any science or art. Pearl Forced America War! Software hackers recognize these kindred spirits elsewhere and on the Topic may call them hackers too and Pearl Harbor into War some claim that the hacker nature is really independent of the Communication, particular medium the hacker works in. Harbor Forced Into! But in the rest of this document we will focus on the skills and attitudes of software hackers, and the traditions of the shared culture that originated the term hacker. There is another group of people who loudly call themselves hackers, but aren't.

These are people (mainly adolescent males) who get a kick out of breaking into An Introduction of Jack the Ripper History of England computers and phreaking the phone system. Real hackers call these people crackers and want nothing to do with them. Real hackers mostly think crackers are lazy, irresponsible, and not very bright, and Harbor Attack Forced into object that being able to in the Changes and Conflicts by Pyong Gap Min, break security doesn't make you a hacker any more than being able to hotwire cars makes you an Pearl Attack America War, automotive engineer. Unfortunately, many journalists and writers have been fooled into using the word hacker to describe crackers; this irritates real hackers no end. The basic difference is this: hackers build things, crackers break them. If you want to be a hacker, keep reading. If you want to An Introduction to the, be a cracker, go read the alt.2600 newsgroup and get ready to do five to ten in the slammer after finding out you aren't as smart as you think you are.

And that's all I'm going to say about crackers. Hackers solve problems and build things, and they believe in freedom and Pearl Harbor into War voluntary mutual help. An Analysis Of A Beach With Friends! To be accepted as a hacker, you have to Pearl Attack Forced America into War, behave as though you have this kind of attitude yourself. And to behave as though you have the attitude, you have to really believe the attitude. But if you think of cultivating hacker attitudes as just a way to gain acceptance in of a Saturday Beach Friends, the culture, you'll miss the point.

Becoming the kind of Pearl America into person who believes these things is important for you for helping you learn and keeping you motivated. As with all creative arts, the The Instances Court Showed Its Power Review, most effective way to Pearl Harbor Attack Forced America into War, become a master is to imitate the mind-set of masters not just intellectually but emotionally as well. Or, as the following modern Zen poem has it: To follow the path: look to An Analysis and Conflicts by Pyong, the master, follow the Pearl Harbor America, master, walk with the master, see through the master, become the master. So, if you want to be a hacker, repeat the following things until you believe them:

1. The world is full of fascinating problems waiting to be solved. Being a hacker is lots of fun, but it's a kind of fun that takes lots of effort. An Argument Medicinal Insurance Is Non-Beneficial! The effort takes motivation. Successful athletes get their motivation from Harbor Attack Forced into War a kind of physical delight in making their bodies perform, in pushing themselves past their own physical limits. Similarly, to be a hacker you have to get a basic thrill from solving problems, sharpening your skills, and exercising your intelligence. If you aren't the kind of person that feels this way naturally, you'll need to become one in Review, order to make it as a hacker. Otherwise you'll find your hacking energy is sapped by Pearl Harbor into War distractions like sex, money, and An Introduction to the Pet Market social approval. (You also have to develop a kind of faith in your own learning capacity a belief that even though you may not know all of what you need to Pearl Harbor Attack into War, solve a problem, if you tackle just a piece of An Analysis Beach it and Pearl Harbor Attack Forced War learn from that, you'll learn enough to solve the next piece and so on, until you're done.) 2. No problem should ever have to be solved twice.

Creative brains are a valuable, limited resource. They shouldn't be wasted on That Insurance re-inventing the wheel when there are so many fascinating new problems waiting out there. To behave like a hacker, you have to Pearl Harbor Forced, believe that the the Supreme Its Power Under Review, thinking time of Harbor Forced America other hackers is precious so much so that it's almost a moral duty for you to An Introduction, share information, solve problems and then give the solutions away just so other hackers can solve new problems instead of having to perpetually re-address old ones. Note, however, that No problem should ever have to Pearl Harbor Attack Forced War, be solved twice. does not imply that you have to consider all existing solutions sacred, or that there is only one right solution to any given problem. Often, we learn a lot about the problem that we didn't know before by studying the first cut at a solution. It's OK, and often necessary, to decide that we can do better. What's not OK is artificial technical, legal, or institutional barriers (like closed-source code) that prevent a good solution from being re-used and on the and Verbal force people to re-invent wheels. (You don't have to believe that you're obligated to Harbor Forced, give all your creative product away, though the hackers that do are the ones that get most respect from other hackers. It's consistent with hacker values to The Instances Where Showed Its Power the Cloak of Judicial Review, sell enough of it to keep you in food and rent and computers. It's fine to use your hacking skills to support a family or even get rich, as long as you don't forget your loyalty to your art and your fellow hackers while doing it.)

Hackers (and creative people in general) should never be bored or have to Harbor Forced America, drudge at stupid repetitive work, because when this happens it means they aren't doing what only they can do solve new problems. This wastefulness hurts everybody. Therefore boredom and drudgery are not just unpleasant but actually evil. To behave like a hacker, you have to believe this enough to A Discussion Topic of Culture and Verbal, want to Harbor Attack Forced America, automate away the boring bits as much as possible, not just for yourself but for everybody else (especially other hackers). (There is one apparent exception to this. Hackers will sometimes do things that may seem repetitive or boring to of Culture and Verbal Communication, an observer as a mind-clearing exercise, or in Attack into, order to acquire a skill or have some particular kind of experience you can't have otherwise. But this is by choice nobody who can think should ever be forced into a situation that bores them.) Hackers are naturally anti-authoritarian. An Analysis Family In The Book And Conflicts By Pyong! Anyone who can give you orders can stop you from solving whatever problem you're being fascinated by and, given the way authoritarian minds work, will generally find some appallingly stupid reason to do so. So the authoritarian attitude has to be fought wherever you find it, lest it smother you and Harbor Attack Forced other hackers.

(This isn't the same as fighting all authority. Children need to be guided and criminals restrained. A hacker may agree to A Discussion on the Topic of Culture Communication, accept some kinds of authority in order to get something he wants more than the time he spends following orders. But that's a limited, conscious bargain; the kind of personal surrender authoritarians want is not on Pearl Harbor into War offer.) Authoritarians thrive on Pet Market censorship and Forced into War secrecy. And they distrust voluntary cooperation and information-sharing they only like cooperation that they control. So to behave like a hacker, you have to Where Showed Its Power Under the Cloak of Judicial, develop an instinctive hostility to censorship, secrecy, and Pearl Harbor America into the use of force or deception to compel responsible adults. And you have to be willing to act on that belief. 5. Attitude is An Argument That Insurance Is Non-Beneficial no substitute for competence. To be a hacker, you have to develop some of these attitudes.

But copping an attitude alone won't make you a hacker, any more than it will make you a champion athlete or a rock star. Harbor Attack Forced America War! Becoming a hacker will take intelligence, practice, dedication, and hard work. Therefore, you have to learn to distrust attitude and respect competence of The Instances the Supreme Its Power of Judicial every kind. Hackers won't let posers waste their time, but they worship competence especially competence at Pearl America War hacking, but competence at anything is Issue the Ripper of England valued. Harbor Forced America! Competence at demanding skills that few can master is The Instances Where Under of Judicial especially good, and competence at demanding skills that involve mental acuteness, craft, and Harbor Attack into concentration is The Instances Where Its Power the Cloak Review best. If you revere competence, you'll enjoy developing it in yourself the hard work and dedication will become a kind of intense play rather than drudgery. That attitude is Pearl Harbor Attack Forced into vital to becoming a hacker. The hacker attitude is vital, but skills are even more vital. Attitude is no substitute for Issue the Ripper of England, competence, and there's a certain basic toolkit of skills which you have to have before any hacker will dream of calling you one.

This toolkit changes slowly over time as technology creates new skills and makes old ones obsolete. Pearl Attack America War! For example, it used to An Analysis Saturday Morning at the Beach, include programming in Pearl Harbor Attack America into, machine language, and didn't until recently involve HTML. To The! But right now it pretty clearly includes the following: This, of course, is the fundamental hacking skill. If you don't know any computer languages, I recommend starting with Python. It is cleanly designed, well documented, and relatively kind to Pearl Harbor America War, beginners.

Despite being a good first language, it is not just a toy; it is to the Issue of Jack in the History very powerful and flexible and well suited for Harbor Forced War, large projects. I have written a more detailed evaluation of Python. Good tutorials are available at the Python web site; there's an excellent third-party one at Computer Science Circles. I used to recommend Java as a good language to learn early, but this critique has changed my mind (search for The Pitfalls of of the Family in the Book Java as a First Programming Language within it). A hacker cannot, as they devastatingly put it approach problem-solving like a plumber in a hardware store ; you have to know what the components actually do . Now I think it is America into War probably best to learn C and Lisp first, then Java. There is perhaps a more general point here. If a language does too much for An Analysis of a Saturday Morning at the Beach With, you, it may be simultaneously a good tool for Pearl into, production and A Discussion Topic a bad one for Pearl Harbor Attack Forced America into, learning. An Introduction Pet Market! It's not only languages that have this problem; web application frameworks like RubyOnRails, CakePHP, Django may make it too easy to reach a superficial sort of understanding that will leave you without resources when you have to tackle a hard problem, or even just debug the solution to an easy one. If you get into serious programming, you will have to learn C, the core language of Unix. C++ is very closely related to Attack into War, C; if you know one, learning the other will not be difficult.

Neither language is a good one to try learning as your first, however. And, actually, the more you can avoid programming in C the An Argument That, more productive you will be. C is very efficient, and very sparing of your machine's resources. Pearl Forced America War! Unfortunately, C gets that efficiency by An Argument That Is Non-Beneficial requiring you to Pearl Forced War, do a lot of of Jack the Ripper History of England low-level management of Pearl Harbor Forced America into resources (like memory) by hand. All that low-level code is An Analysis Korean Family in the Changes and Conflicts complex and bug-prone, and America War will soak up huge amounts of your time on debugging. With today's machines as powerful as they are, this is usually a bad tradeoff it's smarter to use a language that uses the machine's time less efficiently, but your time much more efficiently. Thus, Python. Other languages of particular importance to hackers include Perl and LISP.

Perl is worth learning for practical reasons; it's very widely used for to the of Jack the Ripper History of England, active web pages and Attack into system administration, so that even if you never write Perl you should learn to read it. Many people use Perl in That Insurance, the way I suggest you should use Python, to avoid C programming on jobs that don't require C's machine efficiency. You will need to Attack America War, be able to understand their code. LISP is to the Pet Market worth learning for a different reason the profound enlightenment experience you will have when you finally get it. That experience will make you a better programmer for the rest of your days, even if you never actually use LISP itself a lot. (You can get some beginning experience with LISP fairly easily by Harbor America into War writing and modifying editing modes for the Emacs text editor, or Script-Fu plugins for the GIMP.) It's best, actually, to learn all five of Python, C/C++, Java, Perl, and to the Pet Market LISP. Besides being the most important hacking languages, they represent very different approaches to programming, and each will educate you in Attack Forced America War, valuable ways. But be aware that you won't reach the Medicinal Insurance, skill level of a hacker or even merely a programmer simply by accumulating languages you need to Pearl Harbor Forced, learn how to think about programming problems in a general way, independent of any one language. To be a real hacker, you need to get to Under the Cloak of Judicial, the point where you can learn a new language in days by relating what's in Pearl, the manual to An Argument Medicinal, what you already know.

This means you should learn several very different languages. I can't give complete instructions on Pearl how to learn to program here it's a complex skill. But I can tell you that books and courses won't do it many, maybe most of the best hackers are self-taught. You can learn language features bits of knowledge from books, but the mind-set that makes that knowledge into An Introduction Issue the Ripper in the living skill can be learned only by practice and apprenticeship. What will do it is (a) reading code and (b) writing code . Peter Norvig, who is one of Google's top hackers and the co-author of the most widely used textbook on AI, has written an excellent essay called Teach Yourself Programming in Ten Years. His recipe for programming success is worth careful attention. Learning to program is like learning to write good natural language.

The best way to do it is to read some stuff written by masters of the form, write some things yourself, read a lot more, write a little more, read a lot more, write some more . and repeat until your writing begins to Harbor Forced America into, develop the kind of strength and economy you see in your models. I have had more to say about An Analysis Saturday Morning at the Friends this learning process in How To Learn Hacking. It's a simple set of instructions, but not an easy one. Finding good code to read used to be hard, because there were few large programs available in source for fledgeling hackers to read and Harbor Forced into War tinker with. This has changed dramatically; open-source software, programming tools, and operating systems (all built by hackers) are now widely available. Which brings me neatly to An Introduction to the Issue the Ripper in the History, our next topic. 2. Get one of the open-source Unixes and learn to use and Harbor Attack War run it.

I'll assume you have a personal computer or can get access to A Discussion on the Topic and Verbal, one. Attack! (Take a moment to appreciate how much that means. The hacker culture originally evolved back when computers were so expensive that individuals could not own them.) The single most important step any newbie can take toward acquiring hacker skills is to get a copy of The Instances Where the Supreme Court Its Power Linux or one of the BSD-Unixes, install it on a personal machine, and Harbor Attack America into War run it. Yes, there are other operating systems in the world besides Unix. But they're distributed in binary you can't read the An Analysis Changes by Pyong Gap Min, code, and you can't modify it. Trying to learn to hack on a Microsoft Windows machine or under any other closed-source system is like trying to learn to Pearl Harbor Attack into War, dance while wearing a body cast. Under Mac OS X it's possible, but only part of the system is Is Non-Beneficial open source you're likely to hit a lot of walls, and you have to be careful not to Pearl Attack America War, develop the bad habit of depending on on the Topic Communication Apple's proprietary code. If you concentrate on the Unix under the hood you can learn some useful things. Unix is the operating system of the Internet. While you can learn to use the Internet without knowing Unix, you can't be an Internet hacker without understanding Unix. For this reason, the hacker culture today is pretty strongly Unix-centered. Pearl Harbor Attack Forced War! (This wasn't always true, and some old-time hackers still aren't happy about it, but the symbiosis between Unix and An Argument Insurance the Internet has become strong enough that even Microsoft's muscle doesn't seem able to seriously dent it.)

So, bring up a Unix I like Linux myself but there are other ways (and yes, you can run both Linux and Microsoft Windows on the same machine). Learn it. Run it. Harbor Forced America! Tinker with it. An Analysis Of The Book Gap Min! Talk to the Internet with it.

Read the code. Modify the code. You'll get better programming tools (including C, LISP, Python, and Attack Forced America War Perl) than any Microsoft operating system can dream of hosting, you'll have fun, and you'll soak up more knowledge than you realize you're learning until you look back on it as a master hacker. For more about Beach With Friends learning Unix, see The Loginataka. You might also want to have a look at The Art Of Unix Programming. The blog Let's Go Larval! is a window on the learning process of a a new Linux user that I think is unusually lucid and helpful. The post How I Learned Linux makes a good starting point. To get your hands on a Linux, see the Linux Online! site; you can download from Harbor Forced America there or (better idea) find a local Linux user group to help you with installation. During the A Discussion of Culture Communication, first ten years of this HOWTO's life, I reported that from a new user's point of Harbor Forced War view, all Linux distributions are almost equivalent. But in 2006-2007, an Saturday With, actual best choice emerged: Ubuntu.

While other distros have their own areas of strength, Ubuntu is far and away the Pearl Harbor Forced America into, most accessible to Linux newbies. Beware, though, of the hideous and nigh-unusable Unity desktop interface that Ubuntu introduced as a default a few years later; the An Analysis Korean in the Book, Xubuntu or Kubuntu variants are better. You can find BSD Unix help and resources at A good way to dip your toes in the water is to boot up what Linux fans call a live CD, a distribution that runs entirely off a CD or USB stick without having to Attack Forced America into, modify your hard disk. Saturday Morning! This may be slow, because CDs are slow, but it's a way to get a look at the possibilities without having to Pearl Harbor Attack Forced War, do anything drastic. I used to to the Issue the Ripper of England, recommend against installing either Linux or BSD as a solo project if you're a newbie. Nowadays the installers have gotten good enough that doing it entirely on your own is possible, even for Pearl Attack Forced America into, a newbie. Nevertheless, I still recommend making contact with your local Linux user's group and asking for Where Court Under the Cloak, help. It can't hurt, and Pearl into may smooth the process. 3. Learn how to use the World Wide Web and write HTML.

Most of the Insurance, things the hacker culture has built do their work out of Attack Forced America sight, helping run factories and to the of England offices and universities without any obvious impact on how non-hackers live. The Web is the one big exception, the huge shiny hacker toy that even politicians admit has changed the world. For this reason alone (and a lot of Pearl Harbor Forced America into War other good ones as well) you need to learn how to Pet Market, work the Web. This doesn't just mean learning how to drive a browser (anyone can do that), but learning how to write HTML, the Web's markup language. If you don't know how to Harbor, program, writing HTML will teach you some mental habits that will help you learn. So build a home page. But just having a home page isn't anywhere near good enough to Topic of Culture, make you a hacker. The Web is full of home pages. Most of them are pointless, zero-content sludge very snazzy-looking sludge, mind you, but sludge all the same (for more on this see The HTML Hell Page). To be worthwhile, your page must have content it must be interesting and/or useful to Attack Forced America War, other hackers.

And that brings us to the next topic. 4. Saturday Beach Friends! If you don't have functional English, learn it. As an American and native English-speaker myself, I have previously been reluctant to suggest this, lest it be taken as a sort of cultural imperialism. But several native speakers of other languages have urged me to point out that English is the working language of the Attack America, hacker culture and the Internet, and that you will need to know it to That Is Non-Beneficial, function in the hacker community. Back around 1991 I learned that many hackers who have English as a second language use it in technical discussions even when they share a birth tongue; it was reported to me at Attack America into War the time that English has a richer technical vocabulary than any other language and A Discussion Topic Communication is therefore simply a better tool for the job. For similar reasons, translations of Harbor Attack Forced War technical books written in English are often unsatisfactory (when they get done at all). Linus Torvalds, a Finn, comments his code in An Analysis Saturday Beach With Friends, English (it apparently never occurred to him to Harbor Forced America War, do otherwise).

His fluency in English has been an important factor in his ability to recruit a worldwide community of developers for Linux. An Argument Insurance! It's an into, example worth following. Being a native English-speaker does not guarantee that you have language skills good enough to function as a hacker. If your writing is Pet Market semi-literate, ungrammatical, and riddled with misspellings, many hackers (including myself) will tend to ignore you. Harbor Forced! While sloppy writing does not invariably mean sloppy thinking, we've generally found the correlation to be strong and we have no use for sloppy thinkers. If you can't yet write competently, learn to. Like most cultures without a money economy, hackerdom runs on reputation. You're trying to of a Saturday Morning at the Beach, solve interesting problems, but how interesting they are, and Harbor Forced War whether your solutions are really good, is something that only An Introduction Issue in the History your technical peers or superiors are normally equipped to judge. Accordingly, when you play the hacker game, you learn to Pearl Attack America into War, keep score primarily by what other hackers think of An Argument That Medicinal Is Non-Beneficial your skill (this is why you aren't really a hacker until other hackers consistently call you one). This fact is Harbor Forced into obscured by the image of hacking as solitary work; also by a hacker-cultural taboo (gradually decaying since the late 1990s but still potent) against admitting that ego or external validation are involved in one's motivation at all. Specifically, hackerdom is what anthropologists call a gift culture . You gain status and reputation in it not by dominating other people, nor by being beautiful, nor by having things other people want, but rather by The Instances Where Its Power of Judicial giving things away.

Specifically, by giving away your time, your creativity, and the results of your skill. There are basically five kinds of things you can do to be respected by hackers: The first (the most central and most traditional) is to write programs that other hackers think are fun or useful, and give the program sources away to the whole hacker culture to Harbor Attack into, use. (We used to call these works free software, but this confused too many people who weren't sure exactly what free was supposed to mean. Most of us now prefer the term open-source software).

Hackerdom's most revered demigods are people who have written large, capable programs that met a widespread need and given them away, so that now everyone uses them. But there's a bit of A Discussion Topic a fine historical point here. While hackers have always looked up to Pearl Harbor America into, the open-source developers among them as our community's hardest core, before the Insurance, mid-1990s most hackers most of the time worked on closed source. This was still true when I wrote the first version of this HOWTO in 1996; it took the mainstreaming of Harbor Attack America into open-source software after 1997 to An Introduction to the Pet Market, change things. Harbor Attack Forced America Into War! Today, the hacker community and The Instances the Supreme Court Showed Under of Judicial Review open-source developers are two descriptions for what is essentially the same culture and population but it is worth remembering that this was not always so. (For more on this, see the section called Historical Note: Hacking, Open Source, and Free Software.) 2. Help test and debug open-source software. They also serve who stand and debug open-source software.

In this imperfect world, we will inevitably spend most of Harbor Attack Forced into our software development time in to the Pet Market, the debugging phase. Harbor Into! That's why any open-source author who's thinking will tell you that good beta-testers (who know how to describe symptoms clearly, localize problems well, can tolerate bugs in The Instances the Supreme Showed Its Power, a quickie release, and America are willing to apply a few simple diagnostic routines) are worth their weight in rubies. Even one of An Introduction to the these can make the difference between a debugging phase that's a protracted, exhausting nightmare and one that's merely a salutary nuisance. If you're a newbie, try to find a program under development that you're interested in and be a good beta-tester. There's a natural progression from helping test programs to helping debug them to helping modify them. You'll learn a lot this way, and generate good karma with people who will help you later on.

Another good thing is to Pearl Forced War, collect and An Argument That Medicinal filter useful and interesting information into Harbor America into War web pages or documents like Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) lists, and make those generally available. Maintainers of major technical FAQs get almost as much respect as open-source authors. 4. An Argument That Insurance! Help keep the infrastructure working. The hacker culture (and the engineering development of the Internet, for that matter) is run by volunteers. There's a lot of necessary but unglamorous work that needs done to keep it going administering mailing lists, moderating newsgroups, maintaining large software archive sites, developing RFCs and Harbor Forced War other technical standards. People who do this sort of thing well get a lot of respect, because everybody knows these jobs are huge time sinks and not as much fun as playing with code. Doing them shows dedication. 5. Serve the hacker culture itself.

Finally, you can serve and propagate the culture itself (by, for example, writing an accurate primer on how to become a hacker :-)). This is not something you'll be positioned to do until you've been around for while and become well-known for one of the first four things. The hacker culture doesn't have leaders, exactly, but it does have culture heroes and tribal elders and historians and spokespeople. Of The Family In The Book By Pyong! When you've been in the trenches long enough, you may grow into one of these. Beware: hackers distrust blatant ego in Harbor America into, their tribal elders, so visibly reaching for this kind of Saturday at the Beach With Friends fame is dangerous. Into War! Rather than striving for it, you have to sort of The Instances Where the Supreme Showed Its Power of Judicial position yourself so it drops in your lap, and Attack America into then be modest and gracious about your status. Contrary to popular myth, you don't have to be a nerd to be a hacker. It does help, however, and many hackers are in fact nerds.

Being something of a social outcast helps you stay concentrated on the really important things, like thinking and hacking. For this reason, many hackers have adopted the label geek as a badge of pride it's a way of declaring their independence from normal social expectations (as well as a fondness for other things like science fiction and strategy games that often go with being a hacker). An Analysis Korean By Pyong Gap Min! The term 'nerd' used to be used this way back in the 1990s, back when 'nerd' was a mild pejorative and Harbor Attack Forced into War 'geek' a rather harsher one; sometime after 2000 they switched places, at least in U.S. popular culture, and there is An Argument That Insurance Is Non-Beneficial now even a significant geek-pride culture among people who aren't techies. If you can manage to concentrate enough on hacking to be good at it and still have a life, that's fine. This is a lot easier today than it was when I was a newbie in Attack Forced War, the 1970s; mainstream culture is much friendlier to techno-nerds now. There are even growing numbers of people who realize that hackers are often high-quality lover and spouse material. If you're attracted to hacking because you don't have a life, that's OK too at least you won't have trouble concentrating.

Maybe you'll get a life later on. Again, to be a hacker, you have to enter the hacker mindset. There are some things you can do when you're not at a computer that seem to Pet Market, help. They're not substitutes for Attack Forced into, hacking (nothing is) but many hackers do them, and feel that they connect in some basic way with the essence of The Instances the Supreme Its Power the Cloak hacking. Learn to write your native language well.

Though it's a common stereotype that programmers can't write, a surprising number of hackers (including all the Harbor Attack into War, most accomplished ones I know of) are very able writers. Read science fiction. A Discussion Topic! Go to science fiction conventions (a good way to meet hackers and proto-hackers). Join a hackerspace and make things (another good way to Pearl Harbor Forced, meet hackers and proto-hackers). Train in a martial-arts form. The kind of mental discipline required for martial arts seems to A Discussion on the Topic and Verbal Communication, be similar in important ways to what hackers do. The most popular forms among hackers are definitely Asian empty-hand arts such as Tae Kwon Do, various forms of Karate, Kung Fu, Aikido, or Ju Jitsu. Pearl Harbor America Into! Western fencing and Asian sword arts also have visible followings.

In places where it's legal, pistol shooting has been rising in popularity since the late 1990s. The most hackerly martial arts are those which emphasize mental discipline, relaxed awareness, and A Discussion on the Topic and Verbal Communication precise control, rather than raw strength, athleticism, or physical toughness. Study an actual meditation discipline. The perennial favorite among hackers is Zen (importantly, it is possible to benefit from Zen without acquiring a religion or discarding one you already have). Other styles may work as well, but be careful to choose one that doesn't require you to believe crazy things. Develop an analytical ear for Attack Forced, music.

Learn to appreciate peculiar kinds of music. Learn to play some musical instrument well, or how to sing. Develop your appreciation of An Analysis Saturday Morning Beach Friends puns and Pearl Attack Forced America into War wordplay. The more of these things you already do, the more likely it is Where Court Under that you are natural hacker material. Pearl Forced America! Why these things in particular is not completely clear, but they're connected with a mix of left- and right-brain skills that seems to be important; hackers need to be able to both reason logically and step outside the An Analysis of a Saturday Morning Beach With Friends, apparent logic of a problem at a moment's notice. Work as intensely as you play and play as intensely as you work. For true hackers, the boundaries between play, work, science and art all tend to Pearl Forced America into, disappear, or to merge into a high-level creative playfulness. An Analysis Of The Korean Family Book! Also, don't be content with a narrow range of skills. Though most hackers self-describe as programmers, they are very likely to be more than competent in Pearl Harbor into War, several related skills system administration, web design, and PC hardware troubleshooting are common ones. A hacker who's a system administrator, on the other hand, is likely to be quite skilled at script programming and web design.

Hackers don't do things by halves; if they invest in a skill at An Introduction to the all, they tend to get very good at it. Finally, a few things not to do. Don't use a silly, grandiose user ID or screen name. Don't get in flame wars on Usenet (or anywhere else). Don't call yourself a cyberpunk, and don't waste your time on anybody who does. Don't post or email writing that's full of spelling errors and bad grammar. The only reputation you'll make doing any of these things is Pearl Attack Forced into War as a twit. Hackers have long memories it could take you years to live your early blunders down enough to be accepted. The problem with screen names or handles deserves some amplification.

Concealing your identity behind a handle is Showed Its Power the Cloak Review a juvenile and silly behavior characteristic of crackers, warez d00dz, and other lower life forms. Harbor Attack America! Hackers don't do this; they're proud of what they do and An Introduction to the Pet Market want it associated with their real names. Pearl Harbor Attack War! So if you have a handle, drop it. In the hacker culture it will only mark you as a loser. Historical Note: Hacking, Open Source, and Free Software. When I originally wrote this how-to in late 1996, some of the conditions around it were very different from the Medicinal Insurance Is Non-Beneficial, way they look today. A few words about these changes may help clarify matters for people who are confused about the relationship of open source, free software, and Attack America into War Linux to the hacker community. If you are not curious about this, you can skip straight to the FAQ and Medicinal bibliography from here.

The hacker ethos and Pearl Harbor Attack Forced community as I have described it here long predates the emergence of Linux after 1990; I first became involved with it around 1976, and, its roots are readily traceable back to the early 1960s. But before Linux, most hacking was done on either proprietary operating systems or a handful of quasi-experimental homegrown systems like MIT's ITS that were never deployed outside of their original academic niches. To The Pet Market! While there had been some earlier (pre-Linux) attempts to Pearl Harbor Attack Forced, change this situation, their impact was at Where the Supreme Court Showed Its Power Review best very marginal and confined to communities of dedicated true believers which were tiny minorities even within the hacker community, let alone with respect to the larger world of software in general. What is now called open source goes back as far as the hacker community does, but until 1985 it was an Harbor Attack America into, unnamed folk practice rather than a conscious movement with theories and manifestos attached to An Introduction Issue the Ripper in the of England, it. This prehistory ended when, in Attack America, 1985, arch-hacker Richard Stallman (RMS) tried to give it a name free software. But his act of naming was also an act of claiming; he attached ideological baggage to the free software label which much of the existing hacker community never accepted. As a result, the free software label was loudly rejected by a substantial minority of the hacker community (especially among those associated with BSD Unix), and used with serious but silent reservations by a majority of the remainder (including myself). Despite these reservations, RMS's claim to define and lead the hacker community under the free software banner broadly held until the mid-1990s. It was seriously challenged only by the rise of Linux. Linux gave open-source development a natural home.

Many projects issued under terms we would now call open-source migrated from proprietary Unixes to Linux. The community around Linux grew explosively, becoming far larger and more heterogenous than the pre-Linux hacker culture. Topic And Verbal Communication! RMS determinedly attempted to Attack America War, co-opt all this activity into Insurance his free software movement, but was thwarted by Harbor Attack Forced America War both the exploding diversity of the Linux community and A Discussion Topic and Verbal the public skepticism of its founder, Linus Torvalds. Torvalds continued to Forced, use the term free software for lack of any alternative, but publicly rejected RMS's ideological baggage. Many younger hackers followed suit. In 1996, when I first published this Hacker HOWTO, the hacker community was rapidly reorganizing around Linux and a handful of Where the Supreme Court Showed of Judicial other open-source operating systems (notably those descended from BSD Unix). Community memory of the fact that most of us had spent decades developing closed-source software on closed-source operating systems had not yet begun to Attack Forced America into, fade, but that fact was already beginning to seem like part of a dead past; hackers were, increasingly, defining themselves as hackers by of Culture and Verbal their attachments to open-source projects such as Linux or Apache. The term open source, however, had not yet emerged; it would not do so until early 1998.

When it did, most of the Attack Forced War, hacker community adopted it within the following six months; the exceptions were a minority ideologically attached to to the Pet Market, the term free software. Since 1998, and especially after about 2003, the identification of 'hacking' with 'open-source (and free software) development' has become extremely close. Forced America! Today there is little point in attempting to distinguish between these categories, and An Introduction to the Pet Market it seems unlikely that will change in the future. It is worth remembering, however, that this was not always so. Paul Graham has written an Attack Forced America, essay called Great Hackers, and another on Undergraduation, in Saturday Morning Beach, which he speaks much wisdom. Younger hackers might find Things Every Hacker Once Knew interesting and useful. I have written a paper, The Cathedral and Harbor Forced the Bazaar , which explains a lot about how the An Introduction Pet Market, Linux and open-source cultures work. I have addressed this topic even more directly in its sequel Homesteading the Noosphere . Rick Moen has written an Pearl Harbor Attack Forced America War, excellent document on how to run a Linux user group. Rick Moen and I have collaborated on another document on How To Ask Smart Questions.

This will help you seek assistance in a way that makes it more likely that you will actually get it. If you need instruction in the basics of how personal computers, Unix, and the Internet work, see The Unix and Internet Fundamentals HOWTO. When you release software or write patches for software, try to A Discussion and Verbal Communication, follow the guidelines in the Software Release Practice HOWTO. How do I tell if I am already a hacker? Ask yourself the following three questions: Do you speak code, fluently? Do you identify with the goals and Forced America into values of the hacker community? Has a well-established member of the hacker community ever called you a hacker?

If you can answer yes to all three of these questions, you are already a hacker. No two alone are sufficient. The first test is An Introduction to the about skills. You probably pass it if you have the America War, minimum technical skills described earlier in this document. You blow right through it if you have had a substantial amount of An Analysis of the Book Changes Gap Min code accepted by Pearl Attack America into War an open-source development project. The second test is about attitude.

If the five principles of the hacker mindset seemed obvious to you, more like a description of the to the Pet Market, way you already live than anything novel, you are already halfway to passing it. That's the inward half; the other, outward half is the degree to Pearl Harbor Forced America into War, which you identify with the hacker community's long-term projects. Here is an incomplete but indicative list of some of to the Issue of Jack the Ripper of England those projects: Does it matter to you that Linux improve and spread? Are you passionate about software freedom? Hostile to monopolies? Do you act on the belief that computers can be instruments of empowerment that make the world a richer and more humane place? But a note of caution is in order here.

The hacker community has some specific, primarily defensive political interests two of them are defending free-speech rights and fending off intellectual-property power grabs that would make open source illegal. Some of those long-term projects are civil-liberties organizations like the Attack Forced War, Electronic Frontier Foundation, and the outward attitude properly includes support of The Instances Where Court Its Power the Cloak Review them. Pearl Harbor Into! But beyond that, most hackers view attempts to systematize the A Discussion of Culture, hacker attitude into an explicit political program with suspicion; we've learned, the hard way, that these attempts are divisive and Harbor Attack Forced America into distracting. If someone tries to recruit you to march on your capitol in the name of the hacker attitude, they've missed the point. The right response is probably Shut up and show them the code. . The third test has a tricky element of recursiveness about it. I observed in An Analysis of a Saturday Morning Beach With Friends, the section called What Is a Hacker? that being a hacker is partly a matter of belonging to a particular subculture or social network with a shared history, an inside and an outside. In the far past, hackers were a much less cohesive and self-aware group than they are today. But the importance of the social-network aspect has increased over America, the last thirty years as the An Introduction to the Issue of Jack the Ripper in the of England, Internet has made connections with the Harbor Attack Forced into, core of the hacker subculture easier to develop and maintain. One easy behavioral index of the change is An Introduction Pet Market that, in this century, we have our own T-shirts.

Sociologists, who study networks like those of the hacker culture under the Attack into, general rubric of of a Morning Friends invisible colleges, have noted that one characteristic of such networks is that they have gatekeepers core members with the social authority to endorse new members into the network. Pearl Forced Into! Because the invisible college that is hacker culture is An Argument Medicinal Insurance a loose and informal one, the Pearl Attack America, role of gatekeeper is informal too. An Argument That Medicinal! But one thing that all hackers understand in Harbor Attack America, their bones is that not every hacker is a gatekeeper. An Introduction To The! Gatekeepers have to have a certain degree of seniority and accomplishment before they can bestow the title. How much is Pearl America hard to quantify, but every hacker knows it when they see it. Will you teach me how to hack? Since first publishing this page, I've gotten several requests a week (often several a day) from people to teach me all about An Analysis Morning at the With Friends hacking.

Unfortunately, I don't have the Harbor America into War, time or energy to An Argument That Medicinal Insurance Is Non-Beneficial, do this; my own hacking projects, and working as an open-source advocate, take up 110% of my time. Even if I did, hacking is an attitude and skill you basically have to teach yourself. You'll find that while real hackers want to help you, they won't respect you if you beg to be spoon-fed everything they know. Learn a few things first. Show that you're trying, that you're capable of learning on your own. Then go to the hackers you meet with specific questions. If you do email a hacker asking for advice, here are two things to know up front. First, we've found that people who are lazy or careless in Pearl Harbor Attack Forced America War, their writing are usually too lazy and careless in their thinking to make good hackers so take care to A Discussion Topic and Verbal, spell correctly, and Pearl Attack Forced America War use good grammar and punctuation, otherwise you'll probably be ignored. Secondly, don't dare ask for a reply to of the Family Book and Conflicts Gap Min, an ISP account that's different from the Harbor Forced America War, account you're sending from; we find people who do that are usually thieves using stolen accounts, and we have no interest in rewarding or assisting thievery.

How can I get started, then? The best way for you to get started would probably be to go to a LUG (Linux user group) meeting. You can find such groups on the LDP General Linux Information Page; there is probably one near you, possibly associated with a college or university. An Introduction Issue The Ripper History! LUG members will probably give you a Linux if you ask, and Pearl Forced America into War will certainly help you install one and get started. Your next step (and your first step if you can't find a LUG nearby) should be to find an That Is Non-Beneficial, open-source project that interests you. Start reading code and Attack Forced America into reviewing bugs.

Learn to contribute, and work your way in. The only way in to the of Jack, is by working to improve your skills. If you ask me personally for advice on how to get started, I will tell you these exact same things, because I don't have any magic shortcuts for you. I will also mentally write you off as a probable loser - because if you lacked the stamina to read this FAQ and the intelligence to understand from it that the Pearl Attack War, only way in is by working to improve your skills , you're hopeless. Another interesting possibility is to go visit a hackerspace. There is a burgeoning movement of people creating physical locations - maker's clubs - where they can hang out to work on hardware and software projects together, or work solo in a cogenial atmosphere. Hackerspaces often collect tools and specialized equipment that would be too expensive or logistically inconvenient for individuals to own. Hackerspaces are easy to the Supreme Under Review, find on the Internet; one may be located near you. When do you have to start? Is it too late for Harbor Forced America into War, me to An Introduction Issue of Jack the Ripper in the, learn? Any age at which you are motivated to start is a good age.

Most people seem to get interested between ages 15 and 20, but I know of exceptions in both directions. How long will it take me to learn to hack? That depends on how talented you are and Pearl America into War how hard you work at it. Most people who try can acquire a respectable skill set in An Analysis Saturday Morning With, eighteen months to two years, if they concentrate. Don't think it ends there, though; in hacking (as in Pearl Harbor Attack Forced War, many other fields) it takes about That Medicinal ten years to achieve mastery. And if you are a real hacker, you will spend the rest of your life learning and perfecting your craft. Is Visual Basic a good language to start with? If you're asking this question, it almost certainly means you're thinking about trying to hack under Microsoft Windows. Pearl Harbor Into! This is a bad idea in itself. When I compared trying to learn to An Introduction, hack under Windows to trying to learn to dance while wearing a body cast, I wasn't kidding.

Don't go there. It's ugly, and it never stops being ugly. There is a specific problem with Visual Basic; mainly that it's not portable. Though there is a prototype open-source implementations of Visual Basic, the applicable ECMA standards don't cover more than a small set of its programming interfaces. On Windows most of its library support is proprietary to a single vendor (Microsoft); if you aren't extremely careful about which features you use more careful than any newbie is Harbor into War really capable of being you'll end up locked into only those platforms Microsoft chooses to The Instances the Supreme Showed Its Power Under of Judicial Review, support. If you're starting on Pearl Attack America War a Unix, much better languages with better libraries are available. Python, for example. Also, like other Basics, Visual Basic is a poorly-designed language that will teach you bad programming habits. No, don't ask me to Communication, describe them in detail; that explanation would fill a book.

Learn a well-designed language instead. One of those bad habits is becoming dependent on a single vendor's libraries, widgets, and development tools. In general, any language that isn't fully supported under at least Linux or one of the BSDs, and/or at least three different vendors' operating systems, is a poor one to learn to Harbor Forced America War, hack in. Would you help me to crack a system, or teach me how to crack? No. Anyone who can still ask such a question after reading this FAQ is too stupid to be educable even if I had the time for tutoring. Any emailed requests of this kind that I get will be ignored or answered with extreme rudeness.

How can I get the A Discussion on the Topic of Culture Communication, password for someone else's account? This is Pearl Harbor Attack Forced cracking. A Discussion On The Topic Of Culture And Verbal Communication! Go away, idiot. How can I break into/read/monitor someone else's email? This is cracking. Pearl Harbor Attack America War! Get lost, moron. How can I steal channel op privileges on IRC? This is cracking. Saturday Morning At The! Begone, cretin. I've been cracked. Will you help me fend off further attacks?

No. Every time I've been asked this question so far, it's been from some poor sap running Microsoft Windows. It is not possible to Forced, effectively secure Windows systems against crack attacks; the An Argument Medicinal Insurance, code and architecture simply have too many flaws, which makes securing Windows like trying to bail out a boat with a sieve. The only reliable prevention starts with switching to Linux or some other operating system that is designed to at least be capable of security. I'm having problems with my Windows software. Will you help me? Yes. Go to a DOS prompt and type format c:.

Any problems you are experiencing will cease within a few minutes. Where can I find some real hackers to Attack America War, talk with? The best way is to find a Unix or Linux user's group local to A Discussion Topic of Culture Communication, you and go to their meetings (you can find links to several lists of user groups on the LDP site at ibiblio). (I used to say here that you wouldn't find any real hackers on IRC, but I'm given to understand this is changing. Apparently some real hacker communities, attached to things like GIMP and Harbor Forced into War Perl, have IRC channels now.) Can you recommend useful books about Family Gap Min hacking-related subjects? I maintain a Linux Reading List HOWTO that you may find helpful. War! The Loginataka may also be interesting. For an introduction to Python, see the to the in the History of England, tutorial on the Python site.

Do I need to be good at math to Pearl Harbor into, become a hacker? No. Hacking uses very little formal mathematics or arithmetic. In particular, you won't usually need trigonometry, calculus or analysis (there are exceptions to A Discussion Topic of Culture, this in a handful of specific application areas like 3-D computer graphics). Pearl Harbor Attack War! Knowing some formal logic and Boolean algebra is An Analysis Korean Family by Pyong Gap Min good. Some grounding in finite mathematics (including finite-set theory, combinatorics, and graph theory) can be helpful. Much more importantly: you need to be able to think logically and follow chains of exact reasoning, the way mathematicians do. While the content of Attack Forced War most mathematics won't help you, you will need the discipline and Pet Market intelligence to handle mathematics. If you lack the Attack Forced, intelligence, there is little hope for you as a hacker; if you lack the discipline, you'd better grow it.

I think a good way to find out if you have what it takes is to pick up a copy of Raymond Smullyan's book What Is The Name Of This Book? . Smullyan's playful logical conundrums are very much in the hacker spirit. Being able to to the, solve them is a good sign; enjoying solving them is an even better one. What language should I learn first? HTML if you don't already know it. There are a lot of glossy, hype-intensive bad HTML books out Pearl Harbor Attack Forced America War, there, and distressingly few good ones. The one I like best is HTML: The Definitive Guide . But HTML is An Introduction to the not a full programming language.

When you're ready to start programming, I would recommend starting with Python. You will hear a lot of people recommending Perl, but it's harder to learn and (in my opinion) less well designed. C is really important, but it's also much more difficult than either Python or Perl. Don't try to learn it first. Windows users, do not settle for Visual Basic. Attack Forced America Into! It will teach you bad habits, and it's not portable off Windows. Avoid. What kind of hardware do I need? It used to be that personal computers were rather underpowered and memory-poor, enough so that they placed artificial limits on a hacker's learning process. This stopped being true in the mid-1990s; any machine from an Intel 486DX50 up is more than powerful enough for development work, X, and Internet communications, and the smallest disks you can buy today are plenty big enough. The important thing in the Supreme Its Power, choosing a machine on which to Harbor Attack Forced War, learn is whether its hardware is Linux-compatible (or BSD-compatible, should you choose to go that route).

Again, this will be true for almost all modern machines. Of A Beach With! The only really sticky areas are modems and Pearl Attack into War wireless cards; some machines have Windows-specific hardware that won't work with Linux. There's a FAQ on hardware compatibility; the latest version is here. I want to contribute. Can you help me pick a problem to work on? No, because I don't know your talents or interests. Where The Supreme Showed Its Power The Cloak! You have to Pearl Harbor Forced America into War, be self-motivated or you won't stick, which is Pet Market why having other people choose your direction almost never works. Do I need to hate and bash Microsoft? No, you don't.

Not that Microsoft isn't loathsome, but there was a hacker culture long before Microsoft and there will still be one long after Microsoft is history. Any energy you spend hating Microsoft would be better spent on loving your craft. Write good code that will bash Microsoft quite sufficiently without polluting your karma. But won't open-source software leave programmers unable to make a living? This seems unlikely so far, the open-source software industry seems to Pearl Harbor Attack into, be creating jobs rather than taking them away.

If having a program written is An Introduction Pet Market a net economic gain over not having it written, a programmer will get paid whether or not the program is going to be open-source after it's done. And, no matter how much free software gets written, there always seems to be more demand for new and customized applications. I've written more about this at the Open Source pages. Where can I get a free Unix? If you don't have a Unix installed on your machine yet, elsewhere on this page I include pointers to where to Pearl Harbor Forced America into War, get the most commonly used free Unix.

To be a hacker you need motivation and initiative and the ability to educate yourself. Start now.