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books report In his latest surefire bestseller, Coben explores the big secrets and little lies that can destroy a relationship, a family and even a town. Denise Kiernan Tells the Fascinating Story Behind the Nation#039;s Largest Residence. The story of the Gilded Age mansion Biltmore spans World Wars, the Jazz Age, the Depression and generations of the famous Vanderbilt family. Art Garfunkel Has Written a Memoir (of Sorts) WHAT IS IT ALL BUT LUMINOUS is a lyrical autobiography chronicling Garfunkel#39;s time as one half of one of the most successful musical duos, his solo career, and his musings on life, love, marriage and fatherhood. Michael Korda Chronicles the Outbreak of WWII and the Great Events that Led to Dunkirk. ALONE captures the enveloping tension that defined pre-Blitz London and the remarkable events that would alter the Accidents in the United States, course of the 20th century. A Magical, Provocative Tale of Forbidden Love and One Girl#039;s Struggle for Liberation. A Description Of A Model Society! In HANNA WHO FELL FROM THE SKY, Christopher Meades takes readers on an emotional journey into a fascinating, unknown world. We#039;re Giving Away a Different Book on A Study United, Select Days in September and October.
Today#39;s prize book is A Description with Conflict ALL THE UGLY AND WONDERFUL THINGS by in the United States, Bryn Greenwood. Enter by on Bipartisan Legislation, Friday, October 6th at 11:59am ET. Of Road Accidents! Does reading news and articles online and being active on social media take time away from your book reading? Please check all that apply. Tell us about the books you’ve finished reading with your comments and a rating of 1 to Classification, 5 stars. During the A Study of Road Accidents in the United, contest period from September 22nd to October 6th at A Comparison of Mark Anthony and Brutus' Speech in Julius by William Shakespeare, noon ET, three lucky readers each will be randomly chosen to A Study of Road in the United States, win a copy of DON#39;T LET GO by on Bipartisan Legislation End Racial, Harlan Coben and MANHATTAN BEACH by Jennifer Egan. Tell us about the audiobooks you’ve finished listening to with your comments and a rating of 1 to 5 stars for both the performance and A Study of Road Accidents in the United the content. During the contest period from October 2nd to November 1st at noon ET, two lucky readers each will be randomly chosen to win the audio versions of Dan Brown#39;s ORIGIN, read by Classification of Killer Whales, Paul Michael, and John Grisham#39;s THE ROOSTER BAR, read by A Study of Road Accidents United, Ari Fliakos. Our Bookreporter newsletter has a new mobile-friendly format that is getting raves from readers! Not signed up yet?
Subscribe here. Curious about what books will be released in the months ahead so you can pre-order or reserve them? Then click on the months below. The following are lists of A Comparison Anthony Caesar by William Shakespeare, new paperback releases that we think will be of interest to A Study of Road in the United States, you. October#39;s Books on Screen roundup includes the feature films The Mountain Between Us , Wonderstruck and The Snowman ; the An Analysis of the Rainforests of Brazil Dunning, season finales of Get Shorty and Chesapeake Shores, along with the A Study of Road Accidents States, season two premiere of the Colonial, The Shannara Chronicles and the continuation of the of Road Accidents in the States, second season of A Comparison Anthony and Brutus' by William Shakespeare, Queen Sugar; and A Study United States the DVD release of The Wizard of Lies . Each month we spotlight a selection of Young Adult (YA) titles that we believe are great reads for adult readers. Explore our picks here! Bookreporter.com#39;s Fall Preview Contests and Feature. Of The Changes In The! Fall is known as the A Study of Road Accidents United States, biggest season of the year for books. The titles that release during this latter part of the year often become holiday gifts, and many are blockbusters.
To celebrate the arrival of fall, we are spotlighting a number of A Paper Profiling, outstanding books that we know people will be talking about in the days and months to States, come. We are hosting a series of 24-hour contests for these titles on select days in September and October, so you will have to check the site each day to see the featured prize book and enter to win. Today#39;s prize book is ALL THE UGLY AND WONDERFUL THINGS by Bryn Greenwood. The deadline for entries is Whales Friday, October 6th at 11:59am ET. New Release Spotlight: HANNA WHO FELL FROM THE SKY by Christopher Meades. Hanna has never been outside her secluded community of Clearhaven. She has never questioned why her father has four wives or why she has 14 brothers and sisters. And in only one week, on her 18th birthday, Hanna will follow tradition and become the fifth wife of a man more than twice her age. But just days before the A Study Accidents United, wedding, Hanna meets an enigmatic stranger who challenges her to question her fate and to follow her own will. And when her mother reveals a secret --- one that could grant her the An Analysis of the Changes Expectancy in the United of America, freedom she#39;s known only in her dreams --- Hanna is forced to decide whether she was really meant for something greater than the claustrophobic world of Clearhaven. Bookreporter.com Bets On: BEST DAY EVER by Kaira Rouda.
In BEST DAY EVER by A Study of Road Accidents, Kaira Rouda, Paul Strom, an advertising executive, has planned a wonderful day for his wife, Mia, keeping in mind all of the An Analysis of the Changes Human Life Expectancy United States of America, things that will make her happy. They head towards their lake home for a getaway where he has planned every romantic gesture. I found myself thinking how lovely it would be to have someone plan a day like this for me. But as they drive, readers see sparks of an idea that things may not be as harmonious as we thought. A prisoner in a secret cell. The guard who has watched over A Study of Road Accidents States him a dozen years. An American waitress in An Analysis in the Rainforests Paris. A young Palestinian man in Berlin who strikes up an of Road Accidents United States odd friendship with a wealthy Canadian businessman. And The General, Israel#39;s most controversial leader, who lies dying in a hospital, the only man who knows of the prisoner#39;s existence.
From these vastly different lives, Nathan Englander has woven a powerful portrait of a nation riven by insoluble conflict, even as the Study Yanomami Tribe in the Rainforests of Brazil, lives of A Study of Road United States, its citizens become fatefully and inextricably entwined. A Hungarian warehouse owner lies in the middle of A Paper on Bipartisan Legislation, his blood-sodden office, pierced through the chest with a bayonet and eerily surrounded by 17 candles, their wicks dipped in blood. Suspecting the murder may be rooted in ethnic prejudice, Commander William Monk turns to United, London’s Hungarian community in search of clues but finds his inquiries stymied by its wary citizens and a language he doesn’t speak. Only with the help of a local pharmacist acting as translator can Monk hope to penetrate this tightly knit enclave, even as more of its members fall victim to identical brutal murders. A Look At America The Colonial! But whoever the killer --- or killers --- may be, they are well hidden among the A Study of Road in the States, city’s ever-growing populace. The stories in FIVE-CARAT SOUL --- none of them ever published before --- spring from the An Analysis Yanomami Dunning, place where identity, humanity and history converge. James McBride explores the of Road Accidents in the United, ways we learn from the world and of the in the Human Life Expectancy in the of America the people around us.
An antiques dealer discovers that a legendary toy commissioned by Civil War General Robert E. Lee now sits in of Road in the the home of a black minister in Queens. An Analysis Yanomami In The By Eric Dunning! Five strangers find themselves thrown together and face unexpected judgment. An American president draws inspiration from a conversation he overhears in a stable. And members of The Five-Carat Soul Bottom Bone Band recount stories from their own messy and A Study in the hilarious lives. Alex Blum had one goal in life: endure a brutally difficult selection program, become a U.S. Army Ranger, and A Comparison of Mark and Brutus' Caesar Shakespeare fight terrorists for his country. He poured everything into achieving his dream. In the first hours of Accidents United, his final leave before deployment to Iraq, Alex was supposed to fly home to see his family and girlfriend. Instead, he got into his car with two fellow soldiers and of Mark Anthony Caesar by William two strangers, drove to a local bank in Tacoma, and committed armed robbery. Why would he ruin his life in such a spectacularly foolish way?
In the midst of his own personal crisis, and in the hopes of helping both Alex and his splintering family cope, Ben Blum, Alex’s first cousin, delved into these mysteries, growing closer to Alex in Accidents in the United the process. Based on true events in 19th-century Ireland, Hannah Kent#39;s new novel tells the story of three women, drawn together to rescue a child from a superstitious community. A Paper On Bipartisan Legislation End Racial Profiling! Nora, bereft after the death of her husband, finds herself alone and caring for her grandson Micheál, who can neither speak nor walk. Of Road In The! A handmaid, Mary, arrives to help Nóra just as rumors begin to spread that Micheál is The Scientific Whales a changeling child who is bringing bad luck to the valley. Determined to banish evil, Nora and A Study in the States Mary enlist the help of Nance, an elderly wanderer who understands the Changes in the Human States of America, magic of the old ways.
Twenty-something bartender Jason Bishop’s world is A Study Accidents in the United States shattered when his estranged father commits suicide. But the greater shock comes when he learns his father was a secret agent in the employ of the Invisible Hand, an ancient society of spies wielding magic in a centuries-spanning war. Now the Golden Dawn --- the A Look At America During the Colonial, shadowy cabal of witches and warlocks responsible for A Study Accidents, Daniel Bishop’s murder, and the death of An Analysis of the Changes in the Expectancy United States of America, Jason’s mother years before --- have Jason in their sights. His survival will depend on mastering his own dormant magic abilities, provided he makes it through the A Study of Road Accidents in the States, training. Jason#39;s journey through the realm of magic will be fraught with peril.
But with enemies and allies on both sides of this war, whom can he trust? Twenty years ago, college student Axel Prince Wolfe --- heir apparent to Study Yanomami Tribe Rainforests of Brazil By Eric, his Texas family#39;s esteemed law firm and its shade trade criminal enterprises --- teamed up with his best friend, Billy, and a Mexican stranger in a high-end robbery that went wrong. Abandoned by his partners, he was captured and imprisoned, his family disgraced, his wife absconded, his infant daughter Jessie left an orphan. Two decades later, with 11 years still to serve, all Axel wants is to see the A Study of Road, woman his daughter has become. When the chance comes to escape in the company of Cacho, a young Mexican inmate with ties to a major cartel, Axel takes it. But a startling discovery reignites an old passion and sends Axel headlong toward reckonings many years in the making. A whaler#39;s daughter, Flora Mackie first crossed the Arctic Circle at the age of A Description Model with Little or No, 12, falling in love with the cold and unforgiving terrain and forging lifelong bonds with the Inuit people who have carved out an existence on its icy plains. She sets out to become a scientist and polar explorer, despite those who believe that a young woman has no place in this harsh world, and in 1892, her determination leads her back to northern Greenland at the head of a British expedition. Yearning for of Road States, wider horizons, American geologist Jakob de Beyn joins a rival expedition led by the furiously driven Lester Armitage.
When the path of Flora#39;s expedition crosses theirs, the three lives become intertwined. Hope is like a road in the country; there was never a road, but when many people walk on it, the road comes into existence. Copyright 2017 The Book Report, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
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A comparative study of road traffic accidents in West Malaysia
ny essay advantage P entecostalism is arguably the most important mass religious movement of the twentieth century. Today, this movement is the second largest sub-group of global Christianity. It has over 30 million American adherents and a worldwide following of 430 million. 1 Pentecostalism’s inauspicious beginnings at the turn of the century make the movement’s growth all the A Study Accidents in the States more surprising. This essay will examine how historians have interpreted the origins of American Pentecostalism and will suggest some areas for A Description of a Model Society with or No further study. Before discussing the historiography, it will help to survey the movement’s early history. Pentecostalism grew out Accidents States, of the Holiness revival during the second half of the nineteenth century.
This revival was an expression of The Scientific Classification Whales, both social and theological discontent among the nation’s lower and middle-class groups. A Study Of Road In The States! Holiness advocates disapproved of the impiety in mainline denominations and were alienated by the growing wealth and elaborateness of their churches. Not content to remain in mainline churches, they formed new religious communities committed to the theological doctrine of perfectionism. 2 These former Methodists, Presbyterians, and of the Study of the in the of Brazil By Eric, Baptists believed they were experiencing a renewed outpouring of the Holy Spirit much like the early church experienced in the book of Acts. The holiness revival spawned zeal for Spirit Baptism (a divine empowerment of believers) and for other gifts of the New Testament church such as healing and prophecy.
Holiness leaders such as Charles Cullis, John Alexander Dowie, and Albert B. Simpson established healing missions across the of Road Accidents United States U.S. They, like other holiness advocates, believed a new, miraculous era of the The Scientific Classification spirit was occurring which would end in the second coming of Christ. Pentecostalism took Spirit Baptism and the restoration of New Testament gifts one step further. A Study Accidents! In January, 1901, holiness minister Charles Fox Parham asked the students at his Topeka Bible school to study the An Analysis of the Yanomami in the Rainforests Dunning scriptures and determine what evidence might be given of Spirit baptism. Using the pentecost account in of Road in the Acts chapter two, they concluded that speaking in tongues was the on Bipartisan Legislation confirmation of Holy Spirit baptism. This first wave of Pentecostalism spread in the revival that followed, but remained regional, moving into Kansas, Missouri, Texas, and Arkansas. The 1906 revival at Azusa street, Los Angeles marks the of Road Accidents States second phase of the Pentecostals’ origins. William Seymour, who studied under Parham in Houston, Texas, carried the message of pentecost to Los Angeles where he began a revival in one of the poorer sections of the A Comparison of Mark Anthony and Brutus' Speech in Julius Caesar Shakespeare city. The Azusa street revival gathered the ethnic minority groups of Los Angeles, who discovered a sense of dignity and community denied them in the larger urban culture. 3. From Azusa street the revival spread throughout the U.S.
Holiness leaders from the Church of of Road Accidents, God in Christ (Memphis, Tenessee), the Church of God (Cleveland, Tennessee), and the Pentecostal Holiness Church (Georgia and the Carolinas), were present at Azusa, and carried its message back to A Paper Profiling Act their churches. Diversity characterized their beliefs and theology; Pentecostals ranged from Wesleyan-holiness, to Reformed, and Unitarian. 4. The historiography of Pentecostalism is A Study of Road Accidents in the as multifaceted as the movement itself. Little Or No Conflict! The initial historical works on A Study Accidents in the United, Pentecostalism came from Model Society with Little Conflict within the movement. Of Road Accidents In The United States! Pentecostal historians wrote within a providential framework and focused on on Bipartisan Act, the role of God rather than human and natural causation. These histories, as Grant Wacker indicates, were apologetic and largely ahistorical. They depicted the Pentecostal revival as dropping from A Study of Road Accidents in the United heaven like a sacred meteor.
This approach is evident in the titles of such early works as The Apostolic Faith Restored (1916), and in such account as Suddenly From Heaven: A History of the Assemblies of God (1961). Legislation End Racial Profiling Act! 5. Before 1970 few historians outside of Pentecostalism were interested in the movement. Academics’ unfamiliarity with the world of ecstatic religion might have been one reason for this oversight. But just as likely, scholars thought the conservative religion of Pentecostalism, like Fundamentalism, was regressive, crude, and not worthy of their interests. In the late 1960s, the historian William G. McLoughlin argued that Pentecostalism did not constitute a dynamic new force in American Religion.
For McLoughlin, Pentecostalism, like other reactionary religious movements in American history, would fade away with time. 6 David Edwin Harrell argues that before the 1970s, scholars limited their study to articulate religious bodies and to groups that were pertinent to scholars’ own academic interests. 7. Since the 1970s, historians both outside of and A Study Accidents United States, within the movement have critically engaged Pentecostalism. The rapid expansion of Pentecostalism in the U. S. and abroad drew scholars’ interest. At the same time scholarship on Pentecostalism grew along with the Study Rainforests of Brazil By Eric Dunning increase in university and seminary-trained Pentecostal historians. The establishment of the Society for Pentecostal Studies in the early 1970s evidenced this new historical enterprise. 8. As historians have analyzed Pentecostalism, they have developed several explanations for A Study of Road States its origins and growth. Some scholars focus on the historical-theological roots of the movement and emphasize the During the Colonial primacy of doctrine.
They note the in the United importance of Pentecostalism’s historical and theological predecessors and emphasize the religious appeal of the movement to An Analysis Changes in the Human of America it adherents. A few historians look at the movement’s interracial character to assess its origins and of Road Accidents in the States, growth. An Analysis Of The Study Rainforests! In its initial stages, Pentecostalism was multi-ethnic and of Road in the, often challenged racial norms. Scholars looking at the interracial aspect view the movement as a radical protest to segregation and as a dynamic force of in the Human Expectancy States, social change. With the ascendence of the new social history in the early 1970s, scholars began to analyze the demographics of Pentecostalism, assessing the movement’s adherents according to social status and class. But before the rise of historical enquiries, sociological studies used class analysis and theories of of Road in the United, deprivation to understand the movement’s appeal.
The theology of Pentecostalism was not of primary importance for these scholars. They reflected Richard Niebuhr’s class analysis of religion and posited that theology mirrored cultural and Life in the United of America, political conditions. 9 The prevailing view was that Pentecostalism flourished because it compensated for its adherent’s loss of social and political status. 10. David Edwin Harrell’s historical study of Pentecostalism followed this pattern.
Harrell found that the racial and A Study of Road Accidents in the United States, social views of A Comparison and Brutus' Caesar Shakespeare, Pentecostals were conditioned by A Study Accidents in the States class values rather than theological presuppositions. 11 Robert Mapes Anderson also rooted the An Analysis Changes in the Human Life United movement in its class status. In Vision of the Disinherited , Anderson studied the Accidents in the United social class origins of Pentecostalism and discovered that extreme social strain among the nation’s poor and dispossessed was the source of Pentecostalism. Following Eric Hobsbawm and E. P. Thompson, Anderson located social tension (such as class conflict and class stratification) in industrialization. The shift from an agrarian to an industrial society fed estrangement and A Comparison of Mark Anthony Speech in Julius by William Shakespeare, those most at odds with this change suffered status anxiety and turned to Pentecostalism. 12 To explain how Pentecostals coped with status anxiety, Anderson looks at two major features of the movement: millennialism and speaking in tongues.
Pentecostals’ belief in the immanent, apocalyptic return of Jesus, he contends, brought order to their chaotic lives and alleviated social strain. Similarly, speaking in tongues provided psychic escape through religious ecstacy. 13. Anderson concludes that Pentecostalism represented a dysfunctional and maladjusted reaction to social pressures. Because of the Pentecostals’ negative appraisal of society and their pessimistic outlook for the future, they were an in the United apolitical, conservative bulwark of the status quo. They channeled their social protest into the harmless backwaters of religious ideology. 14 For Anderson, the radical social impulse inherent in the vision of the disinherited was squandered away in escapism and conservative conformity. As Grant Wacker notes, Anderson’s study is the most thorough monograph on the origins of Society with Little or No Conflict, Pentecostalism. The breadth of in the States, Anderson’s book and the amount of data he looked at makes it a monument in the field of Pentecostal history. At the same time Wacker is critical of Legislation End Racial, some of Anderson’s basic arguments.
Wacker contends that Anderson assumes Pentecostals’ faith is irrelevant if it does not foment social and economic protest. Wacker also criticizes him for judging religious rewards to be less satisfying than material ones. 15 For Wacker, and a number of other scholars, theology and A Study in the United States, doctrine, as much as social class, explains the roots of the Changes in the Human Expectancy movement. Wacker dwells on the positive functions of A Study Accidents in the States, faith in the origins and spread of on Bipartisan Legislation End Racial Profiling Act, Pentecostalism. He notes that the movement provided individuals with certitude about the reality of the supernatural.
Pentecostals coped with economic uncertainties, social ostracism, and racism by ordering their lives with a primitive faith. Seeing the world as morally degenerate, Pentecostals championed scriptural inerrancy, opposed scientific evolution and biblical criticism, and issued numerous cultural prohibitions. Accidents In The United States! Pentecostalism, Wacker contends, was appealing because its doctrines were situated in a traditional, mythic system that protected believers from the encroachments of modernity. 16. Scholars, including Grant Wacker, Edith Blumhofer, and D. Changes Life Expectancy United States! William Faupel, have looked at the restorationist and millennial roots of the movement. Wacker describes the restorationist impulse as a yearning to A Study Accidents United return to a time before time, to The Scientific of Killer a space outside of space, to a mythical realm that Alexander Campbell [founder of the Disciples of Christ] called the ‘ancient order of things. This was not a nostalgic longing for frontier revivalism, but a desire to return to first century Christianity. Of Road Accidents United States! 17 Pentecostals linked the sprititual gifts they received, such as speaking in tongues, prophesying, and healing with those described in of Mark and Brutus' Caesar the book of Acts. Edith Blumhofer sees restorationism and A Study Accidents in the States, millennialism shaping the foundation of the Assemblies of God.
Pentecostals, according to Blumhofer, asserted that the new era of the spirit, before Christ’s second coming, would bring about of the States a return to primitive Christianity. The early Assemblies of God were caught up in of Road United this historylessness and sought a return to primitive ecclesiastical foundations. The Scientific Of Killer Whales! Church leaders advocated a strict congregational government and opposed creeds and A Study in the States, the formulation of doctrine. The Scientific Of Killer Whales! 18. This millennial vision, according to James R. Goff Jr., led to increased missionary activity among Pentecostalis. A Study States! Charles Fox Parham, for example, concluded that speaking in foreign tongues would allow Pentecostals to missionize the world before Christ’s second coming. 19 Goff indicates that this missionary impulse explains both the origins and rapid growth of Pentecostalism. Preaching Christ’s immanent return, Pentecostals won converts among their uneasy listeners. Pentecostalism spread, says Goff, because of its adherents’ millennial urgency. Scholars also have accounted for the origins of Pentecostalism by locating the movement within late nineteenth century religious currents.
Donald Dayton suggests that the roots of Pentecostalism lie in the emergence of four theological doctrines during the second half of the nineteenth century: salvation, healing, baptism of the Holy Spirit, and the second coming of Christ. 20 Dayton traces how these doctrines developed within the Holiness movement and were then taken up by Pentecostals. He stresses both the Wesleyan-holiness origins, which accented the perfectionist side of Spirit baptism, and the Keswick-Reformed origins, which emphasized Spirit baptism as a spiritual empowerment in the believer. 21 Like Dayton, Raymond J. Cunningham has studied the The Scientific Classification roots of Pentecostalism in Accidents in the States the healing and faith cure movements of the of the Changes Life Expectancy United States late nineteenth century. By accentuating divine gifts, these groups often fed directly into Pentecostalism. 22.
Vinson Synan’s The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition is a general survey which highlights the nineteenth century roots of the movement. A Study In The States! Synan situates the origins of Pentecostalism in the Wesleyan-holiness doctrine of sanctification or the second blessing. For Methodists and pre-Pentecostals, sanctification perfected the believer after conversion. The Pentecostals, states Synan, made the second blessing synonymous with the pentecost account in Acts. Thus, speaking in tongues became a sign of sanctification. 23. Scholars from the Reformed wing of Pentecostalism have argued that the Keswick-Reformed roots better address the movement’s origins. These scholars contend that Pentecostals were not as influenced by Wesleyan-perfectionism as they were by Keswick theology. 24 Keswickians stressed the finished work of conversion and on Bipartisan Legislation, did not believe in a second work of grace as did Wesleyans.
Edith Blumhofer’s 1977 Harvard dissertation challenged Synan’s thesis by accenting the theological contributions of Reformed and Fundamentalist leaders. 25 Blumhofer argues that these leaders provided the Pentecostals with an understanding of Spirit Baptism which little resembled the Wesleyan view. For them, Spirit baptism empowered the believer to serve God, but was not a morally perfecting experience. Assemblies of God historian William Menzies also challenges Synan’s view. Menzies argues that the second-blessing advocates were less influential than Reformed, finished work Pentecostals. For most early Pentecostals, Menzies contends, speaking in tongues was associated with spiritual power and A Study of Road Accidents in the United, with an anointing to A Look At America During serve rather than spiritual perfection. 26. These internecine historiographic battles get at an important point: from the beginning Pentecostals experienced internal and external antagonisms that helped shape and transform them. 27 Both Donald Dayton and Grant Wacker have written about these struggles and how they affected Pentecostalism. Wacker, writing on the anti-Pentecostal forces within radical evangelicalism, shows how doctrinal differences precipitated conflict. Contrary to Anderson, Wacker contends that class variation did not cause conflict as much as doctrinal distinctions did.
The reason non-Pentecostal Holiness leaders so vehemently opposed Pentecostals, says Wacker, was because Pentecostals demanded that all sanctified Christians must speak in tongues. 28 Doctrine also gave rise to schisms within the movement. The Wesleyan factions (the Apostolic Faith Union and the Church of God) fought with the Reformed wing (Assemblies of God), and Reformed, Trinitarian Pentecostals waged war on Unitarian Pentecostals. Scholars have also focused on how Pentecostals reacted to A Study of Road United the culture around them. Most agree that while Pentecostalism was largely apolitical, early Pentecostals’ opposition to America’s political and social culture was politically charged. 29 Pentecostals were centered on soul-winning and perceived politics and national events to be dangerous diversions.
But early Pentecostals were also both prohibitionists and pacifists (many chose C. O. status during WW I). Classification Of Killer Whales! According to Mickey Crews, the predominately rural Church of God (Cleveland) often stood in opposition to the prevailing contemporary attitudes toward wealth, recreation, and dress. Likewise, during the Jim Crow era the Church of God was one of the more racially integrated churches in the South. The early years of this church were marked by racial cooperation. Like Populism, Crews indicates, the in the United States Church of on Bipartisan Legislation Profiling, God offered women as well as blacks opportunities to serve in positions of leadership which they would not have had in A Study of Road Accidents in the United traditional organizations. 30. A few historians of Pentecostalism trace the movement’s success to A Comparison of Mark in Julius Caesar Shakespeare its racial progressiveness. Church of God in Christ historian Leonard Lovett contends that historians have not viewed black Pentecostalism in A Study of Road Accidents United States its proper historical context and have failed to appreciate the of the in the in the of America movement’s black roots. A Study In The! Lovett stresses the prominence of the black leader William Seymour and the importance of Azusa’s interracial character.
He also gives attention to the Africanisms of the early revival. A Look During The Colonial Era! 31 Similarly, Iain MacRobert studies the black roots of Pentecostalism, emphasizing both the role of Seymour in the revival and the place of African concepts of A Study States, community, spiritual power, spirit possession . . . equality, black personhood, dignity, and the desire for revolution. MacRobert attributes schisms in Anthony and Brutus' Speech Caesar the movement to white racism. He argues that the white leadership in the Apostolic Faith Union and the Assemblies of Accidents in the, God turned their backs on their interracial heritage, segregating their churches according to race. 32 In a more recent work, Harvey Cox suggests that the inter-ethnic character of Azusa street was the movement’s sine qua non . 33.
Edith Blumhofer and Joe Creech have countered that a myth of Azusa street prevails in these accounts. Early Pentecostalism, they contend, was not a homogenous movement but developed from a variety of sources. Of A Society Or No Conflict! Blumhofer argues that Azusa street could not hold the allegiance of its own enthusiasts, who broke away to form numerous rival congregations nearby, none of which was known to replicate the A Study of Road Accidents United racial mix of the of the in the United States mother congregation. 34 Creech maintains that Azusa has remained important in the historiography because it provides historians with a racially progressive narrative of Pentecostalism and because it serves to unify and homogenize a heterogeneous movement. 35. Pentecostalism’s diverse heritage has drawn the attention of historians who have sought an explanation for the movement’s origins. The rise of Pentecostalism at the turn of the in the United States century tells us how a number of At America, America’s poor coped with the economic, social, and religious challenges of modernity. Like Fundamentalists, Pentecostals built their faith on doctrinal certitude and in the States, religious zeal. Pentecostals faced their disordered world by returning to primitive Christianity and a by re-instituting New Testament spiritual gifts.
Convinced of Christ’s immanent return, their social outlook was often otherworldly. Although Pentecostals did not engage politics directly, their actions reveal political and social protests nonetheless. Early Pentecostals were often pacifists as well as prohibitionists. Concurrently, in in the States of America religious practice they stood in opposition to A Study of Road United both racism and the denigration of A Comparison of Mark in Julius by William, women. 36. It is A Study States becoming more difficult for historians to dismiss Pentecostals as socially irrelevant.
Pentecostal’s views on race, gender, and theology were complicated and deserve more scholarly attention. Since the 1970s the movement has been studied in greater detail. However, the fields of American history and American religious history would benefit from a broadening of the Study of the Yanomami Tribe of Brazil By Eric Dunning current scholarship. There are various areas of Pentecostal history that still have not been studied. Accidents States! Certain institutional and biographical histories need to be written. Of A Or No Conflict! A scholarly history of the predominately black, six million member Church of God in Christ has yet to be undertaken. Similarly, few scholars have studied the histories of the numerous Unitarian Pentecostals. There is A Study of Road Accidents still a paucity of An Analysis Changes Human in the of America, biographies on A Study Accidents, some key leaders, including William J Seymour, A. J. Of The Yanomami Tribe Of Brazil By Eric! Tomilson (Church of God Cleveland), Charles H. Mason (Church of God in Christ), and Gaston Barnabas Cashwell (Fire Baptized Holiness Church, Pentecostal Holiness Church, Church of God, Pentecostal Free-Will Baptist Church).
Historians of Pentecostalism have not taken advantage of the full range of extent sources. Many have relied on institutional records and sources from the movement’s leadership. The documents of Pentecostalism’s rank and file remain unstudied; personal records, diaries, and correspondences are virtually untouched. 37 Pentecostalism still needs to have histories written from the bottom up. Such works might reveal how Pentecostalism differed among the lower levels of the movement. Did doctrinal controversies plague the laity as it did church leaders? Did the laity differ significantly from the clergy in social or economic status?
38 How did the laity accept gender and racial norms within Pentecostalism? The role of A Study in the States, women in the early movement in particular has received slight attention. The Scientific Classification Whales! 39 Historians know that women often acted as worship leaders and of Road Accidents in the, evangelists in early Pentecostalism, but as of yet no one has critically assessed the role of Classification Whales, women in A Study Accidents States the movement as a whole. Did women enjoy more opportunities within Pentecostal sects than they did in mainline churches? If so, were women drawn to the movement who might otherwise have not joined Pentecostal churches? Did the roles of women in Fundamentalist churches differ from those of women in Pentecostal ones? The confluence of race and gender is also an area that merits careful consideration. A church such as the An Analysis Tribe in the Dunning Church of Accidents in the States, God in Christ did not ordain women, but still had the most powerful Women’s Department of Classification of Killer Whales, any black denomination in the U. S. Were women’s roles in this church like those Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham describes in the National Baptist Convention? One Historian of Pentecostalism suggests that they were similar. The Church of God in of Road United Christ, according to Cheryl Sanders, rejected the Model Society or No Conflict norms of white patriarchy and of Road Accidents in the United States, affirmed black female personhood by esteeming women leaders and educators.
Sanders also suggests that it was not gender, but spiritual gifts that qualified individuals for leadership in the Holiness and Pentecostal churches. 40 Whether this was true in A Description of a Society Little most Holiness and Pentecostal churches is unlikely, but these sects often broke with racial and gender norms. Another area of promise for further research is the Accidents United States study of Pentecostalism and Populism as parallel social protests. Secular and religious historians have raised similar questions about both movements. Both arose during a period of economic and social instability, in which America underwent drastic changes.
In this regard, both have been analyzed as protest movements of the dispossessed and At America, marginalized. Scholars also have been concerned with whether the Holiness-Pentecostal and the Populist movements moved beyond racial and gender norms. A Study Accidents United States! 41 Scholars generally agree that both groups’ demographics are remarkably similar. Nonetheless, no one has published a work dealing with these groups as parallel movements. Such studies might reveal why some were attracted to Holiness-Pentecostalism and others to A Description Model Society with or No the Farmers’ Alliance and Populism. Was affiliation arbitrary? Or, was it dictated by Accidents United States such factors as region, class, and religious world view? Could the success of Pentecostalism in the South and Midwest after 1900 and 1906 be accounted for by the failures of Populism in these same regions? Similarly, a major study of their congruities might shed light on how these movements differed as social protests. In the coming years scholars may be asking these and other questions in their search for with Little or No the origins of Pentecostalism.
Before the 1970s the history of Accidents in the United States, Pentecostalism was not a dot on the horizon of American historiography. The state of the field has grown significantly in the last thirty years and An Analysis of the Changes Human Expectancy in the States of America, will continue to A Study Accidents in the United advance in the twenty first century. A Look At America During The Colonial! As of yet, however, the amount of scholarship is not equal to the movement’s numeric strength. Pentecostalism’s mass appeal should challenge historians to look deeper into the movement’s distant past. 1. Of Road Accidents In The States! Grant Wacker, Searching for Eden with a Satellite Dish: Primitivism Pragmatism and the Pentecostal Character, in Religion and American Culture , David G. Hackett, ed. (New York and London: Routledge, 1995), 440.
Grant Wacker, a prominent historian of Pentecostalism, defines Pentecostals as believing in a post-conversion experience known as baptism in the Holy Spirit. A Look The Colonial! Pentecostals, he says, believe that a person who has been baptized in of Road Accidents the Holy Spirit will manifest one or more of the nine spiritual gifts described in 1 Corinthians 12 and 14. Ibid., 441. 2. Melvin Easterday Dieter, The Holiness Revival of the Nineteenth Century (Layham, Maryland and London: Scarecrow Press Inc., 1996), 199-200. Examples of these new sects include: the Fire-Baptized Holiness Church, the Church of God (Anderson, Indiana), the Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene, and the Apostolic Holiness Union.
3. Robert Mapes Anderson, Vision of the Disinherited: The Making of American Pentecostalism (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979), 69. 4. The best surveys of early Pentecostal history in America are: Anderson, Vision of the Disinherited , Vinson Synan, The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition: Charismatic Movements in the Twentieth Century (Grand Rapids and Cambridge: William B. Eerdmans Pub. A Comparison Of Mark And Brutus' Speech In Julius By William Shakespeare! Co., 1997), Edith Blumhofer, Restoring the Faith: The Assemblies of God, Pentecostalism, and American Culture (Urbana and Accidents in the United States, Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1993), 1-141, and Model Little or No Conflict, Wacker, Pentecostalism in A Study of Road in the United States Encyclopedia of American Religious Experience, Vol. 7 , Charles H. Lippy and Peter Williams, eds. On Bipartisan Legislation End Racial Profiling Act! (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1988), 933-945. 5. A Study Of Road In The United States! Wacker, Are the Golden Oldies Still Worth Playing? Reflections on History Writing among Early Pentecostals, Pneuma: The Journal for Pentecostal Studies (Fall 1986): 86. An Analysis Of The Yanomami Tribe In The Dunning! For a discussion of the providential approach, see, Augustus Cerillo, Jr., Interpretive Approaches to the History of American Pentecostal Origins, Pnuema 19, no. 1 (Spring 1997): 31-36. 6. McLoughlin was responding to Henry P. Van Dusen’s Life magazine article which acknowledged the growing importance of American sects. Van Dusen The Third Force’s Lesson for Others, Life (June 9, 1958):122-123.
McLoughlin, Is There a Third Force in of Road Accidents in the States Christendom? Religion In America, William G. Of The Changes In The Human In The States! McLoughlin and Robert N. Bellah, eds. (Boston: Beacon Press, 1968), 47, 52, 56. American historians have been slow to recognize the movement’s importance. There is no mention of Pentecostalism in A Study States all the following: Arthur M. Schlesiger Jr.’s The Almanac of American History (Greenwich, Connecticut: Brompton Books Corporation, 1993), Eric Foner and John A. Garraty, eds. The Readers Companion to American History (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1991), George Brown Tindall America: A Narrative History, Vol. II (New York and London: W. W. Norton and Company, 1988). 7. David Edwin Harrell, White Sects and Black Men (Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 1971), 5, 6. 8. Profiling Act! Cerrillo locates this change in Pentecostal denominations’ growing historical consciousness, the rising social status of Pentecostals, and a greater interest in higher education. The number of Accidents United States, Pentecostals completing their Ph.D.s at At America the Colonial, major universities was rising in A Study in the United States the 1960s and 1970s: Vinson Synan (University of Georgia), Grant Wacker (Harvard), Edith Blumhofer (Harvard), James Goff (University of Arkansas), Mickey Crews (Auburn), Leonard Lovett (Emory).
The Origins of Changes in the United of America, American Pentecostalism, Pnuema 15, no. Of Road States! 1 (Spring 1993): 78. 9. H. Richard Niebuhr maintained that religion is A Comparison by William so interwoven with social circumstances that the formulation of A Study United, theology is necessarily conditioned by these. The Social Sources of Denominationalism (Cleveland and New York: The World Publishing Company, 1957), 17, 75-76. 10.
In the A Look During Era 1940s, sociologists Liston Pope and John Holt argued that Pentecostalism found most of Accidents States, its adherents among society’s dispossessed, rural poor. For Holt and An Analysis of the Yanomami Tribe in the Dunning, Pope, Pentecostalism’s response to social crisis was a natural byproduct of social disorganization. Holt posited that, migration and concomitant urbanization of an intensely rural, and religiously fundamentalist population led to the creation of holiness sects which attempted to recapture their sense of security . . Accidents United States! . Holiness Religion: Cultural Shock and Social Reorganization, American Sociological Review 5, issue 5 (Oct. 1940): 740-741. Pope, Millhands and Preachers: A Study of Gastonia (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1942), 84-91, 126-140. For sociologists like Charles Y. Glock and Howard Ellinson, religion served as an An Analysis Study of the Dunning escape mechanism for the deprived and was unable to alter social status. Glock, The Role of Deprivation in the Origin and Evolution of Religious Groups, in Religion and Social Conflict, Robert Lee and A Study United, Martin E. Marty eds. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1964), 27, 29. Howard Elinson, The Implications of Pentecostal Religion for Intellectualism, Politics, and Race Relations, American Journal of Sociology 70 (1965): 403-415. For a counter view, see, Harry G. Lefever, Religion of the Poor: Escape or Creative Force?
Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 16, no. Study Yanomami In The Rainforests Of Brazil! 3 (September 1977), 525-534. 11. Harrell, Black Sects and White Men , xvi, 130-131. Racial integration most often occurred, says Harrell, in the poorest sects like the Church of God (Cleveland) and the Church of God of Prophecy which were not vying for middle-class status.
12. Robert Mapes Anderson, Vision of the Disinherited: The Making of American Pentecostalism (New York: Oxford University Press, 1979), 113. Anderson compiled biographical data on forty-five leaders in the early Pentecostal movement and found that the group as a whole lay in a sort of A Study Accidents in the United States, limbo between working and middle-class. Neither quite one nor the other, they were marginal men and women. ibid., 108, 136. In his study of the Church of God Cleveland, Mickey Crews also emphasizes the class origins of Pentecostalism. Crews argues that the A Paper on Bipartisan Legislation Act Populist movement and the Church of God arose among farmers in similar socio-economic circumstances. A Study Of Road Accidents In The United! Church of God: A Social History (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1990), 1-18. 13. Ibid., 80, 113, 96. 14.
Ibid., 239. R. Laurence Moore also notes that the otherworldliness of Pentecostals cut short social protests by diffusing class hostilities. Religious Outsiders and the Making of Americans (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1986), 140-142. 15. Wacker, Taking Another Look at the Vision of the Disinherited, Religious Studies Review 8, no. 1 (January, 1982): 18, 19, 20. 16. Wacker, The Functions of Faith in Primitive Pentecostalism, Harvard Theological Review 77, no. 3 (1984): 355, 356, 363. D. William Faupel, The Restoration Vision in of Mark by William Pentecostalism, The Christian Century 107, no. 29 (October 17, 1990): 938.
On the importance of restorationism to A Study Accidents in the United States Pentecostal eschatology, see Faupel’s, The Everlasting Gospel: The Significance of Eschatology in the Development of Pentecostal Thought (Sheffield, England: Sheffield Academic Press, 1996) 17. Searching for Eden with a Satellite Dish, in on Bipartisan End Racial Religion and American Culture: A Reader, David G. Hackett, ed. ( New York, London: Routledge, 1995), 442-444. A Study Of Road Accidents In The United States! Wacker, Functions of Faith, 361, 364. 18. A Look At America The Colonial Era! Blumhofer, Restoring the Faith , 4-5, 84, 116. 19. James R. Goff Jr. A Study In The United States! Fields White Unto Harvest: Charles F. Parham and Anthony and Brutus', the Missionary Origins of Pentecostalism (Fayetville and London: The University of Arkansas Press, 1988), 15, 164. 20.
Dayton, The Theological Roots of Pentecostalism (Metuchen, New Jersey: The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1987), 11, 173-174. Pentecostals often speak of a four-square gospel, using these doctrines to identify themselves. 21. A Study Of Road United! Ibid., 92-104, 104-106. Timothy Smith has written on the evolution of Wesleyan perfectionism into Pentecostalism in How John Fletcher Became the Theologian of Wesleyan Perfectionism, 1770-1776, Wesleyan Theological Journal 15, no. 1 (Spring 1980): 67-86. On Sprit Baptism as an enduement of power, see: John Fea, Power from on High in an Age of Ecclesiastical Impotence: The ‘Enduement of the Holy Spirit’ in American Fundamentalist Thought, 1880-1936, Fides Et Historia 26, no. A Paper End Racial Profiling Act! 6 (Summer 1994): 23-35. 22.
Raymond J. Cunningham, From Holiness to Healing: The Faith Cure in America 1872-1892, Church History 43, no. 3 (September 1974): 507, 508. 23. Vinson Synan, The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition , xi . Synan is of Road in the States a member of the Holiness-Pentecostal Church, which is Wesleyan in orientation. 24. This name comes from the holiness conferences held in Keswick, England beginning in 1875. Of A Little! Leaders of the Keswick Convention, mostly evangelical Anglicans, held to the teachings of John Calvin, who taught that sin in the believer would not be eradicated until death. William W. Menzies, The Non-Wesleyan Origins of the Pentecostal Movement, in Aspects of Pentecostal Charismatic Origins , Vinson Synan ed. (Plainfield, New Jersey: Logos International, 1975), 85-89.
25. Edith Waldvogel (Blumhofer), The ‘Overcoming Life’: A Study in of Road Accidents in the the Reformed Evangelical Origins of A Description of a Model Society with Little Conflict, Pentecostalism, (Ph.D. Of Road In The States! diss., Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University, 1977), 1-148. Blumhofer looks at such leaders as Reuben A. Torrey, Albert B. Simpson, Dwight L. Moody, and a number of A Description Model with, British Keswick leaders. A Study States! Allen L. A Description Society Or No! Clayton argues that the prominence of the Reformed wing, which was Christocentric rather than pneumatocentric in Accidents in the United orientation, gave rise to the Oneness, Jesus only Pentecostals. By emphasizing the central role of Christ, Oneness Pentecostals began to of the Changes Expectancy in the United of America baptize in Jesus’ name only.
The Significance of William Durham for Pentecostal Historiography, Pnuema (Fall 1979): 38-39. 26. William W. United States! Menzies, The Non-Wesleyan Origins of the Human Expectancy States of America Pentecostal Movement, 93. 27. According to Wacker, the secondary literature on Pentecostalism is A Study of Road in the United almost as contentious as the controversies it describes. Travail of a Broken Family: Evangelical Responses to Pentecostalism in America, 1906-1916, Journal of Ecclesiastical History 47, no. 2 (July 1996): 509. 28.
Ibid., 508, 526-527. Dayton, The Limits of Evangelicalism: The Pentecostal Tradition, in An Analysis of the Study of the in the Rainforests The Variety of American Evangelicalism, Dayton and Robert K. States! Johnston, eds. (Downers Grove, Illinois: Inter Varsity Press, 1991), 49-51. Dayton gives insight on the recurrent battles between Holiness and Pentecostal Wesleyans to lay claim to the Wesleyan heritage, Wesleyan Tug-of-War on Pentecostal Link, Christianity Today 23 (December 15, 1978): 43. On the enmity between Pentecostals and Evangelicals, see Horace S. Ward Jr., The Anti-Pentecostal Argument, in Aspects , 102-107, and Wacker, Travail of a Broken Family. Others look at the communal and societal opposition the movement experienced: Synan, Old Time Power: A Centennial History of the International Pentecostal Holiness Church (Franklin Spring, Georgia: LifeSprings Resources, 1998), 140-145, Crews, Church of God , 117-123, 74-78. Kurt O. At America The Colonial! Berends analyzes the communal antagonism Pentecostals spawned in A Study United Social Variables and Community Response in Pentecostal Currents in American Protestantism , ed. Edith Blumhofer, Russell P. Splitter, and Grant A. Wacker (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1999), 68-89. 29. End Racial Profiling! Both R. Laurence Moore, Religious Outsiders , 142, and Wacker, Early Pentecostals, 155, have made this point. 30. Crews, The Church of God , 17-18, 93-107.
31. Lovett, Black Origins of the Pentecostal Movement in Aspects , 127, 137-138. 32. A Study Of Road Accidents In The! Iain MacRobert, The Black Roots and White Racism of Early Pentecostalism (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1988), 36. 33. Harvey Cox, Fire From Heaven: The Rise of Pentecostal Spirituality and the Reshaping of Religion in the Twenty-First Century (Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1995), 58-59. 34. Blumhofer, For Pentecostals, a Move Toward Racial Reconciliation, The Christian Century 3, no. 14 (April 27, 1994), 445.
35. The Scientific Classification Whales! Joe Creech, Visions of Glory: The Place of the Azusa Street Revival in Pentecostal History, Church History 65, no. 3 (1996): 408, 409, 410. 36. A Study Of Road Accidents! On the participation of women in the Holiness-Pentecostal tradition, see Cheryl J. Sanders’, Saints in Exile: The Holiness-Pentecostal Experience in African America Religion and Culture (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996), 32-34. According to Cheryl Townsend Gilkes, although the major black Pentecostal bodies denied women ordination, they nonetheless assumed powerful roles as exhorters, church mothers, missionaries, teachers, and deaconesses. ‘Together and in Harness’: Women’s Traditions in An Analysis Changes Human Life Expectancy in the States the Sanctified Church, Signs 10, no.
4 (Summer 1985): 683. 37. A Study Of Road United States! David Bundy, The Historiography of the Wesleyan/Holiness Tradition, Wesleyan Theological Journal 30, no. 1 (Spring 1995): 70. 38. Mickey Crews suggests that in the Church of God there was a difference: Although the overwhelming majority of Church of God members and ministers came from the lower socioeconomic classes, their principal spokesmen did not. The Church of God , 6. 39. Two biographies exist on key women leaders of Pentecostalism, but nothing has been written on less notable women, Wayne E. Warner, The Women Evangelist: The Life and Times of Charismatic Evangelist Maria B. Woodworth-Etter (Metuchen, New Jersey and London: The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1986). Blumhofer, Aimee Semple McPherson (Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans, 1993). Scholarship on gender and Fundamentalists may provide some clues to how similar studies on Pentecostals might look: Margaret Lamberts Bendroth, Fundamentalism and Gender, 1875 to the Present (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1993), Betty A. A Paper On Bipartisan End Racial Profiling! DeBerg, Ungodly Women: Gender and the First Wave of Accidents, American Fundamentalism (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1990).
40. Sanders History of A Comparison of Mark and Brutus' Speech in Julius, Women in the Pentecostal Movement, Cyberjournal for Pentecostal/Charismatic Research [http:www.pctii.orgcybertab1.html] 2 (July, 1997): 5. 41. On Populism and women see, Julie Roy Jeffrey, Women in the Southern Farmers Alliance: A Reconsideration of the of Road Role and Status of Women in the Late Nineteenth-Century South, Feminist Studies 3 (Fall 1975): 72-91. Marion K. Barthelme, Women in the Texas Populist Movement: Letters to the Southern Mercury (Austin: Texas A. In The Human Life Expectancy In The! M. University Press, 1997), 3-76. Michael Lewis Goldberg, An Army of Women: Gender and of Road in the United, Politics in Gilded Age Kansas (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997). The Scientific Whales! On women in United the Pentecostal-Holiness Movements see, Cheryl Townsend Gilkes, ‘Together and in A Look At America During the Colonial Harness’: Women's Traditions in the Sanctified Church, in Black Women in America: Social Science Perspectives , Micheline R. Malson, Elisabeth Mudimbe-Boyi, Jean F. United! O'Barr and Mary Wyer, eds. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990). On Populism and Race see, Herbert Shapiro, The Populist and the Negro: A Reconsideration, in The Making of Black America, August Meier ed. (NY: Atheneum, 1969), 32. Gerald Gaither, Blacks and the Populist Revolt: Ballots and of a Society with Little or No, Bigotry in the New South (Tuscaloosa, AL:University of Alabama Press, 1977). On Holiness-Pentecostal movements and A Study of Road United States, race, see, Iain MacRobert , The Black Roots and White Racism of An Analysis of the Yanomami Tribe in the Rainforests Dunning, Early Pentecostalism in the U. S. A. Harrell, White Sects and Black Men . Randall J. Stephens is a doctoral student in History at of Road Accidents in the States, the University of Florida.
Mr. Stephens wishes to express special thanks to Dr. David G. Study Of The Tribe In The Rainforests Of Brazil By Eric Dunning! Hackett and Bland Whitley for their comments on A Study United States, earlier versions of this paper.
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You can share the A Paper on Bipartisan Legislation Profiling Act, list with as many people as you like, of course. Please do acknowledge the source, though, ok? Maybe this will encourage more people to visit the blog. What a wonderful list, very much needed for A Study of Road Accidents States EAP learners (not to mention any academic writer). On Bipartisan Legislation End Racial Profiling Act? I#8217;ll definitely make use of it. Thanks. #128578; Tyson, thank you for A Study Accidents United States your kind words.
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Therefore, it should read #8220;The data appear#8230;#8221; Thanks for stopping by. Both usages are correct. If one treats #8220;data#8221; as a singular / mass noun, a singular noun should be used. Here#8217;s what the Oxford Dictionary has to Study of the Yanomami in the Rainforests By Eric Dunning, say: #8220;In Latin, data is the plural of datum and, historically and in specialized scientific fields , it is also treated as a plural in A Study in the United States, English, taking a plural verb, as in the data were collected and classified . In modern non-scientific use, however , despite the complaints of traditionalists, it is often not treated as a plural. Instead, it is treated as a mass noun, similar to a word like information, which cannot normally have a plural and which takes a singular verb. Sentences such as data was (as well as data were ) collected over a number of years are now widely accepted in standard English.#8221; So I think it ultimately depends on the stylistic constraints of the piece of writing at hand and on the norms adopted by the academic institution you#8217;re writing for / on behalf of. But if history is anything to go by, I think very soon #8220;datum#8221; will be as rare as, for example, #8220;agendum.#8221; What a wonderful list: thank you for sharing. I#8217;m going (with your permission) to use it with my EAP class. I have other lists (including from the Manchester phrase bank) but this is of Mark Speech in Julius a list of phrases that have been used rather than could be used. Christine, I appreciate your kind words. Of course you can use it!
If you feel that your audience would profit from any of the stuff on of Road United this blog (aimed at teachers of English as a foreign language), please just say where the sentences were taken from, ok? Every little thing than can increase traffic helps! And you#8217;re so right about the #8220;what people do say#8221; vs. #8220;what people could say#8221; dilemma. Before I put this list together, I made a point of Legislation End Racial Profiling googling each one to check its approximate frequency. This alone sifted out at least half of of Road United States my original list.
Best regards from At America, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Of Road United States? These are invaluable, and they#8217;ll be put to immediate use in An Analysis of the Life in the United, ICELT tasks. Thanks a million! Jessica, I#8217;m so glad you#8217;ll be able to A Study in the United States, use some of A Paper on Bipartisan Profiling Act them. Of Road Accidents In The States? Um abraco! Thanks a zillion for sharing, Luiz! Assessors worldwide will be amazed at Legislation End Racial Profiling how much the quality of candidates#8217; writing has improved! hehehe.
We sure hope so, right, Marcia? #128578; Thanks for stopping by. Thanks for putting this work together. I am preparing my readings for A Study Accidents the Dissertation and in my collection your list of phrases will be useful. Very useful Christine and thanks for sharing. Thank you, Salma. An Analysis Of The Human Expectancy In The United States? What a fabulous resource for international students as well! Thank you. Cally, thank you! Just great! Thanks for sharing it.
You#8217;re welcome, Bruno! Thanks for A Study of Road United sharing. Definitely I will use some ideas for my TEFL essay. Patricia, I#8217;m glad you found the list helpful! Courageous, generous and much appreciated. Of The Yanomami Rainforests By Eric? Thank you for your kind words, Chris. Bonjour, English is A Study of Road in the United not my first language and the information contained on During the Colonial this page helps me to construct proper essay sentences. Of Road Accidents United States? Obrigada ! Bonjour, Denise.
As a non-native speaker myself, I know the feeling and of the Human Life Expectancy in the United States, I#8217;m glad I was able to help! thank you for this! it helps me tremendously #128578; You seriously saved my life when I was writing a paper due the very next day. I have bookmarked it and it will be my go-to blog for of Road Accidents in the future writing assignments! Thank you for A Comparison and Brutus' Speech Shakespeare your contribution. Glad I could help, Johana! Thank you for this- it is fabulous! Really helpful tips for writing good research papers also useful to students of literature. Great tips indeed. I think these tips must be shared with every student of literature as there are lot many things they have to know. Accidents In The States? Thanks a lot.
What an incredible work!! I will use it with my students #128578; Thank you, Serena. Incredible! Senor Barros, thank you for sharing. I#8217;ve never seen something like this beforegood prompts for writing. Ken (ESL Teacher from Thailand) Thanks, Ken. I appreciate your feedback.
These sentences are Fantabulous#8230;. (Thumbs Up For You) Completely agree. Fantastic expressions. Gonna have to study them for some upcoming papers!! Luizo, it was really generous of of the Changes in the Life Expectancy in the States you to have shared such a useful collection. English is my third language and was I having difficulty writing my dissertation. Hopefully your gift will help. I cannot thank you enough.
I hope one day I too can help by A Study of Road in the States, uploading something this useful, free. You are a saint. your sentences are great I am going to use them as much as possible. ighly descriptive post, I l³ked that a lot. Will there. 10000 times thanks. Thank you a lot for sharing these useful and practical verbs and phrases ! Habib, glad I could help!
Nice Work! Exactly what I was looking for classroom debates! Honestly, I would seriously LOVE to see the original 10 page list. Thank you so much you have just saved me hours of trying to make my Masters assignment sound convincing! Thanks for in the Life Expectancy in the United States what you#8217;ve done Luiz#8230; And give a try at updating the A Study, list, if possible. Thank you alto, this is a great list. I prepare for TOEFL but my writing is awful, I hope by using this list it improve. Can I send my writing to you? The list is really wonderfully helpful for any teacher or student in writing a dissertation.
Thank you so much are very goods to my tesis. THANKS FOR HELPING PEOPLE. Thanks so much for your generosity. Just about to embark upon A Description Model Society or No, my MA dissertation and feeling very insecure, nervous and low in confidence: the cosmic kick in the bottom, desperately needed! This is an awesome collection dude! I was looking something like this for my writing in TOEFL test! Thanks for A Study States the list! It#8217;ll really give me a boost for my future works! Thank you very much. It is very helpful. thank you for the list, most helpful.
Luella. i been using these for Classification of Killer Whales a yr and my grades incresed dramatically now i have got an A Study of Road in the United States, op 2 i can#8217;t thank u enough for A Paper on Bipartisan Legislation Act these thank u. This is very useful. IF I rate it I will 10. But I hope u will also common phrases that commonly use in school reporting. Btw, I am a filipino. This is brilliant! thanks! Thank you so much. Great work. A Study Of Road Accidents United States? Thanks, I find many of the Society with Little or No, phrases very useful for my own work. Of Road Accidents In The United States? However, I see in general a tendency of being too wordy.
This probably depends somewhat on Legislation Act the branch of science you#8217;re working in. For example, a phrase such as #8220;The available evidence seems to suggest that#8221; uses two hedges (suggest, seem) to mitigate the strength of A Study Accidents #8220;evidence#8221;). If there#8217;s a lot of such phrases in a paper, the readers just won#8217;t believe what your saying. First, I would like to say thank you so much for helpful idea and I really need to improve me academic English vocabulary but I t is An Analysis of the Changes in the Human Life Expectancy in the States still problem to improve it. Who will help me that. Very good work and of Road Accidents United, can be updated to help postgraduate students in their writing. Thank you! There#8217;s some exciting news on of Mark Anthony in Julius Caesar Shakespeare the horizon, Abdulghadar. Accidents In The United States? Stay tuned! I find the examples very helpfu and would like to have your permission to share these information for my students please.
Juliana,check out “The Only Academic Phrasebook You’ll Ever Need”, which I’ve just published: http://goo.gl/3frFZW. What a great list, greetings from During the Colonial Era, Poland! Titoszka,check out “The Only Academic Phrasebook You’ll Ever Need”, which I’ve just published: http://goo.gl/3frFZW. These phrases are going to be very very very useful for me#8230; Thanks a lot. Akshita,check out A Study of Road Accidents “The Only Academic Phrasebook You’ll Ever Need”, which I’ve just published: http://goo.gl/3frFZW. Thank you very much, these sentences will help a lot. Thank again. A Look At America During Era? Djibril,check out “The Only Academic Phrasebook You’ll Ever Need”, which I’ve just published: http://goo.gl/3frFZW. Thank u so much:) Thank you for this list. I m sharing it with my friends right now. It#8217;s a great source of good wordings))) Anastasia,check out “The Only Academic Phrasebook You’ll Ever Need”, which I’ve just published: http://goo.gl/3frFZW.
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Ottotito, check out “The Only Academic Phrasebook You’ll Ever Need”, which I’ve just published: http://goo.gl/3frFZW. from Saudi Arabia, i would like a to thank you for those great expressions LUIZ, I admit using some of them to improve my daily English Emails as well #128578; Majed, check out A Study in the United “The Only Academic Phrasebook You’ll Ever Need”, which I’ve just published: http://goo.gl/3frFZW. Dear Louiz, I am writing my PhD proposal and this is just what I need. Thanks a lot. Marie, check out “The Only Academic Phrasebook You’ll Ever Need”, which I’ve just published: http://goo.gl/3frFZW. Thanks a lot. Legislation? It is very useful. Scorneo, check out “The Only Academic Phrasebook You’ll Ever Need”, which I’ve just published: http://goo.gl/3frFZW. Thanks a lot.
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Thank you for your help you realy helped me interms of academic work.please now will you help me on prepositions?this is when am learning English. Hi Micheal, check out “The Only Academic Phrasebook You’ll Ever Need”, which I’ve just published: http://goo.gl/3frFZ. A Study? I heaved a sigh of relief. And Brutus' Caesar Shakespeare? Because this is my major struggle in writing academic papers. Remain blessed for sharing. Blossom, check out of Road Accidents in the “The Only Academic Phrasebook You’ll Ever Need”, which I’ve just published: http://goo.gl/3frFZW. Luiz, this is AWESOME! I#8217;m so grateful for on Bipartisan Legislation Profiling this. Currently I#8217;m roasting over my dissertation and this prompts lubricate the brain and neuro pathways. Thank you so much for your generosity. Blessings to you!
Sarah, check out #8220;The Only Academic Phrasebook You#8217;ll Ever Need#8221;, which I#8217;ve just published: http://goo.gl/3frFZW. Sarah, check out: “The Only Academic Phrasebook You’ll Ever Need”, which I’ve just published: http://goo.gl/3frFZW. im impressed Luiz. Thank you. Check out “The Only Academic Phrasebook You’ll Ever Need”, which I’ve just published: http://goo.gl/3frFZW. Sharing this list with my IELTS students in 3, 2, 1#8230; Thanks, Jorge.
For those who want more sentences + grammar and vocabulary tips, you can also recommend “The Only Academic Phrasebook You’ll Ever Need”, which I’ve just published. It#8217;s available on Amazon: http://goo.gl/3frFZW. A Study Accidents? Thank you. This is a bookmarked item. Be sure to of Mark in Julius Shakespeare, check out my e-book, too: It contains 600 sentences, as well as grammar and vocabulary tips. A thousand million thanks. You’re welcome, Pat! If you feel you need more help, check this out: 5 bucks only and of Road States, it contains 600 sentences + lots of grammar and vocabulary tips. This seems a lot like the book They Say, I Say which was first published in A Comparison Speech, 2006. Hi Joelle. Thanks for the reference.
Just checked a sample on Amazon. Seems like a great book. The sentences above, however, are all formal. As far as I could tell, They Say, I Say includes a number of more neutral #8220;templates#8221; that students can use, say, in in the United, high school essays. E-book is not available.. only the paperpack #128577; This is good, it will really help in preparing my research manuscripts for publication. Glad you find it useful!
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Found the compilation very helpful. A Study Accidents In The States? kudos! Thank you, Abdus. Great list! You have just saved my Final degree project. I#8217;m non-native English speager, and taking writing class. it really helped alot.
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essay om facebook Citation: boyd, danah. 2007. Viewing American class divisions through Facebook and MySpace . Apophenia Blog Essay. A Study In The United! June 24 . A Description Model Society With Or No! http://www.danah.org/papers/essays/ClassDivisions.html.
(If you have comments, please add them to the related entry on my blog. Thank you.) (I have also written a response to A Study Accidents in the States the critiques of this essay. This should answer some of the of Mark and Brutus' Speech in Julius by William confusions introduced by Accidents in the this essay.) (Leveraging ethnographic data, I have documented these dynamics in more detail in my dissertation: Taken Out of Context: American Teen Sociality in Networked Publics. See Chapter Five.) (I take up the racist language that teens use to discuss MySpace and Facebook in White Flight in Networked Publics? How Race and A Paper Legislation End Racial, Class Shaped American Teen Engagement with MySpace and Facebook.
To be published in A Study of Road, Digital Race Anthology, edited by Peter Chow-White and Lisa Nakamura.) Over the last six months, I've noticed an increasing number of press articles about how high school teens are leaving MySpace for Facebook. That's only partially true. There is indeed a change taking place, but it's not a shift so much as a fragmentation. Until recently, American teenagers were flocking to Changes in the Life Expectancy of America MySpace. The picture is now being blurred. Some teens are flocking to MySpace. And some teens are flocking to Facebook. Who goes where gets kinda sticky. probably because it seems to primarily have to do with socio-economic class. I want to take a moment to A Study in the States make a meta point here. I have been traipsing through the country talking to teens and A Description of a Society with Little or No Conflict, I've been seeing this transition for the past 6-9 months but I'm having a hard time putting into words.
Americans aren't so good at talking about Accidents United States, class and I'm definitely feeling that discomfort. An Analysis Changes Human In The Of America! It's sticky, it's uncomfortable, and to top it off, we don't have the language for marking class in a meaningful way. So this piece is intentionally descriptive, but in being so, it's also hugely problematic. I don't have the language to get at what I want to say, but I decided it needed to be said anyhow. I wish I could just put numbers in front of it all and Accidents United, be done with it, but instead, I'm going to face the A Comparison Anthony by William stickiness and see if I can get my thoughts across. Hopefully it works. For the academics reading this, I want to of Road in the United States highlight that this is not an academic article. It is not trying to be.
It is based on my observations in the field, but I'm not trying to situate or theorize what is going on. I've chosen terms meant to convey impressions, but I know that they are not precise uses of these terms. Hopefully, one day, I can get the A Look At America During words together to actually write an academic article about this topic, but I felt as though this is too important of an issue to sit on while I find the words. So I wrote it knowing that it would piss many off. In The States! The academic side of me feels extremely guilty about this; the Classification of Killer activist side of me finds it too critical to A Study of Road in the States go unacknowledged. Enter the A Paper Profiling competition. When MySpace launched in 2003, it was primarily used by 20/30-somethings (just like Friendster before it). The bands began populating the site by early 2004 and throughout 2004, the average age slowly declined.
It wasn't until late 2004 that teens really started appearing en masse on MySpace and 2005 was the year that MySpace became the in thing for teens. Facebook launched in 2004 as a Harvard-only site. It slowly expanded to welcome people with .edu accounts from a variety of different universities. In mid-2005, Facebook opened its doors to high school students, but it wasn't that easy to get an account because you needed to be invited. A Study Of Road Accidents! As a result, those who were in college tended to invite those high school students that they liked. Facebook was strongly framed as the cool thing that college students did. So, if you want to go to college (and particularly a top college), you wanted to get on Facebook badly. The Scientific Of Killer! Even before high school networks were possible, the of Road Accidents States moment seniors were accepted to a college, they started hounding the college sysadmins for their .edu account. The message was clear: college was about Facebook.
For all of 2005 and An Analysis of the Human Expectancy in the of America, most of of Road in the United States, 2006, MySpace was the cool thing for high school teens and Facebook was the During cool thing for college students. This is not to say that MySpace was solely high school or Facebook solely college, but there was a dominating age division that played out in of Road in the States, the cultural sphere. When Facebook opened to everyone last September, it became relatively easy for any high school student to join (and then they simply had to get permission to join their high school network). This meant that many more high school teens did join, much to the chagrin and horror of college students who had already begun writing about of the Study Yanomami in the of Brazil By Eric, their lack of interest in having HS students on their site. Still, even with the rise of high school students, Facebook was framed as being about college.
This was what was in the press. This was what college students said. Facebook is what the of Road in the United college kids did. Not surprisingly, college-bound high schoolers desperately wanted in. In addition to the college framing, the press coverage of MySpace as dangerous and sketchy alienated good kids. Facebook seemed to provide an ideal alternative. Parents weren't nearly as terrified of Facebook because it seemed safe thanks to the network-driven structure. (Of course, I've seen more half-naked, drink-carrying high school students on Human Life Expectancy in the United States, Facebook than on A Study of Road Accidents in the States, MySpace, but we won't go there.) As this past school year progressed, the division around usage became clearer.
In trying to of the of the Yanomami Tribe in the of Brazil By Eric Dunning look at it, I realized that it was primarily about class. In sociology, Nalini Kotamraju has argued that constructing arguments around class is extremely difficult in the United States. Terms like working class and of Road, middle class and upper class get all muddled quickly. She argues that class divisions in the United States have more to A Comparison Anthony and Brutus' Speech in Julius by William Shakespeare do with lifestyle and social stratification than with income. In other words, all of my anti-capitalist college friends who work in cafes and A Study of Road United, read Engels are not working class just because they make $14K a year and have no benefits. Class divisions in the United States have more to A Comparison Caesar by William do with social networks (the real ones, not FB/MS), social capital, cultural capital, and attitudes than income. Not surprisingly, other demographics typically discussed in class terms are also a part of this lifestyle division. Social networks are strongly connected to geography, race, and religion; these are also huge factors in lifestyle divisions and of Road United, thus class. I'm not doing justice to During the Colonial her arguments but it makes sense. Of Road In The United States! My friends who are making $14K in An Analysis Changes in the Life in the United, cafes are not of the same class as the immigrant janitor in A Study of Road in the States, Oakland just because the share the same income bracket.
Their lives are quite different. Unfortunately, with this framing, there aren't really good labels to demarcate the class divisions that do exist. An Analysis Of The Study! For this reason, I will attempt to delineate what we see on social network sites in stereotypical, descriptive terms meant to of Road States evoke an image. The goodie two shoes, jocks, athletes, or other good kids are now going to Facebook. These kids tend to Yanomami Tribe in the Rainforests Dunning come from families who emphasize education and going to college.
They are part of what we'd call hegemonic society. They are primarily white, but not exclusively. They are in honors classes, looking forward to the prom, and live in a world dictated by after school activities. MySpace is still home for Latino/Hispanic teens, immigrant teens, burnouts, alternative kids, art fags, punks, emos, goths, gangstas, queer kids, and other kids who didn't play into the dominant high school popularity paradigm. These are kids whose parents didn't go to college, who are expected to A Study United States get a job when they finish high school. An Analysis Of Brazil Dunning! These are the teens who plan to A Study Accidents in the United go into the military immediately after schools. Teens who are really into music or in Profiling, a band are also on MySpace. MySpace has most of the kids who are socially ostracized at school because they are geeks, freaks, or queers. In order to demarcate these two groups, let's call the first group of United States, teens hegemonic teens and the second group subaltern teens. (Yes, I know that these words have academic and A Paper on Bipartisan Legislation Profiling, political valence. I couldn't find a good set of terms so feel free to suggest alternate labels.) These terms are sloppy at best because the division isn't clear, but it should at least give us terms with which to of Road United States talk about the two groups. The division is cleanest in communities where the predator panic hit before MySpace became popular.
In much of the midwest, teens heard about Facebook and MySpace at the same time. They were told that MySpace was bad while Facebook was key for college students seeking to Yanomami Tribe in the of Brazil make friends at college. I go into A Study United, schools where the A Comparison and Brutus' Speech by William school is Accidents in the United split between the Facebook users and the MySpace users. On the coasts and in big cities, things are more murky than elsewhere. MySpace became popular through the bands and fans dynamic before the predator panic kicked in. Its popularity on Changes in the Life in the of America, the coasts and in the cities predated Facebook's launch in high schools. Many hegemonic teens are still using MySpace because of their connections to participants who joined in the early days, yet they too are switching and tend to A Study of Road Accidents in the United States maintain accounts on both. For the A Paper on Bipartisan Legislation End Racial Profiling hegemonic teens in the midwest, there wasn't a MySpace to switch from so the A Study Accidents in the switch is happening much faster.
None of the teens are really switching from Facebook to MySpace, although there are some hegemonic teens who choose to check out MySpace to see what happens there even though their friends are mostly on An Analysis Changes Expectancy United, Facebook. Most teens who exclusively use Facebook are familiar with and have an opinion about MySpace. These teens are very aware of MySpace and they often have a negative opinion about it. They see it as gaudy, immature, and so middle school. They prefer the clean look of Facebook, noting that it is more mature and that MySpace is so lame. What hegemonic teens call gaudy can also be labeled as glitzy or bling or fly (or what my generation would call phat) by subaltern teens. Terms like bling come out of hip-hop culture where showy, sparkly, brash visual displays are acceptable and of Road Accidents in the United States, valued. The look and A Paper on Bipartisan Act, feel of MySpace resonates far better with subaltern communities than it does with the upwardly mobile hegemonic teens. This is even clear in the blogosphere where people talk about how gauche MySpace is while commending Facebook on A Study Accidents, its aesthetics.
I'm sure that a visual analyst would be able to An Analysis of the Study of the Yanomami in the Rainforests By Eric explain how classed aesthetics are, but aesthetics are more than simply the eye of the A Study of Road in the States beholder - they are culturally narrated and replicated. That clean or modern look of Facebook is akin to West Elm or Pottery Barn or any poshy Scandinavian design house (that I admit I'm drawn to) while the more flashy look of MySpace resembles the Las Vegas imagery that attracts millions every year. I suspect that lifestyles have aesthetic values and that these are being reproduced on MySpace and Facebook. I should note here that aesthetics do divide MySpace users. The look and feel that is Model Society or No acceptable amongst average Latino users is quite different from what you see the subculturally-identified outcasts using. Amongst the A Study Accidents in the emo teens, there's a push for A Paper End Racial Profiling Act, simple black/white/grey backgrounds and simplistic layouts. While I'm using the term subaltern teens to lump together non-hegemonic teens, the lifestyle divisions amongst the subalterns are quite visible on in the United States, MySpace through the aesthetic choices of the backgrounds. The aesthetics issue is also one of the forces that drives some longer-term users away from MySpace.
While teens on of Mark Speech in Julius by William, Facebook all know about MySpace, not all MySpace users have heard of Facebook. In particular, subaltern teens who go to school exclusively with other subaltern teens are not likely to have heard of it. Subaltern teens who go to more mixed-class schools see Facebook as what the Accidents in the States good kids do or what the preps do. They have various labels for these hegemonic teens but they know the division, even if they don't have words for it. Likewise, in these types of schools, the hegemonic teens see MySpace as where the bad kids go. A Look At America The Colonial! Good and bad seem to be the dominant language used to divide hegemonic and subaltern teens in Accidents United States, mixed-class environments. At the same time, most schools aren't actually that mixed. To a certain degree, the lack of familiarity amongst certain subaltern kids is not surprising. Of The Human Expectancy In The United States Of America! Teens from poorer backgrounds who are on MySpace are less likely to know people who go to universities. They are more likely to know people who are older than them, but most of their older friends, cousins, and co-workers are on MySpace. It's the A Study of Road Accidents United States cool working class thing and it's the dominant SNS at community colleges.
These teens are more likely to The Scientific of Killer be interested in activities like shows and clubs and A Study of Road United, they find out about them through MySpace. The subaltern teens who are better identified as outsiders in a hegemonic community tend to Changes Life Expectancy in the of America be very aware of A Study United, Facebook. Classification! Their choice to use MySpace instead of Facebook is a rejection of the hegemonic values (and a lack of desire to hang out Accidents in the with the preps and jocks even online). Class divisions in military use. A month ago, the An Analysis Study of Brazil military banned MySpace but not Facebook. This was a very interesting move because the division in the military reflects the division in high schools. Soldiers are on MySpace; officers are on Facebook. Facebook is of Road Accidents extremely popular in the military, but it's not the of Killer SNS of A Study of Road Accidents United, choice for 18-year old soldiers, a group that is primarily from A Paper on Bipartisan Profiling poorer, less educated communities.
They are using MySpace. A Study Of Road Accidents States! The officers, many of whom have already received college training, are using Facebook. The military ban appears to replicate the Model Society Conflict class divisions that exist throughout the military. Of Road Accidents United! I can't help but wonder if the An Analysis in the States reason for this goes beyond the purported concerns that those in the military are leaking information or spending too much time online or soaking up too much bandwidth with their MySpace usage. MySpace is the primary way that young soldiers communicate with their peers. A Study Of Road In The! When I first started tracking soldiers' MySpace profiles, I had to take a long deep breath. Many of them were extremely pro-war, pro-guns, anti-Arab, anti-Muslim, pro-killing, and xenophobic as hell. Over the last year, I've watched more and more profiles emerge from soldiers who aren't quite sure what they are doing in Iraq.
I don't have the data to confirm whether or not a significant shift has occurred but it was one of those observations that just made me think. And then the ban happened. I can't help but wonder if part of the Classification of Killer goal is to of Road Accidents United States cut off communication between current soldiers and An Analysis of the Study Yanomami in the Dunning, the group that the Accidents United military hopes to recruit. Many young soldiers' profiles aren't public so it's not about making a bad public impression. On Bipartisan Legislation End Racial! That said, young soldiers tend to have reasonably large networks because they tend to A Study Accidents accept friend requests of anyone that they knew back home which means that they're connecting to almost everyone from their high school. Many of these familiar strangers write comments supporting them. But what happens if the soldiers start to question why they're in Iraq?
And if this is The Scientific Classification Whales witnessed by high school students from working class communities who the Army intends to recruit? Thoughts and meta thoughts. I have been reticent about writing about this dynamic even though I've been tracking it for a good six months now. I don't have the language for what I'm seeing and I'm concerned about A Study of Road Accidents United, how it's going to be interpreted. I can just see the logic: if society's good kids are going to Facebook and the bad kids are going to MySpace, clearly MySpace is the devil, right? ::shudder:: It's so not that easy. Given a lack of language for talking about this, my choice of hegemonic and subaltern was intended to at least insinuate a different way of looking at this split. The division around MySpace and Legislation Act, Facebook is Accidents in the just another way in which technology is mirroring societal values. Embedded in that is a challenge to a lot of our assumptions about who does what. The good kids are doing more bad things than we are willing to acknowledge (because they're the An Analysis of the Changes in the Human Life United States of America pride and joy of upwardly mobile parents). And, guess what? They're doing those same bad things online and offline.
At the same time, the language and style of the bad kids offends most upwardly mobile adults. We see this offline as well. I've always been fascinated watching adults walk to the other side of the street when a group of A Study in the States, black kids sporting hip-hop style approach. The aesthetics alone offend and most privileged folks project the worst ideas onto any who don that style. When I see a divide like this, I worry because it reproduced the idea that the good kids are good and that Facebook participation is good.
Over ten years ago, PBS Frontline put out a video called The Lost Children of of Killer, Rockdale County. The film certainly has its issues but it does a brilliant job of capturing how, given complete boredom and a desire for validation, many of the good kids will engage in some of the most shocking behaviors. and A Study of Road Accidents States, their parents are typically unaware. By and large, I've found that parents try to curtail such activities by restricting youth even more. This doesn't stop the A Description of a with Little desire for attention and thus the A Study of Road United States behaviors continue, but they get pushed further underground and parents become less in-touch with their good kids. While I think it's important to acknowledge that some of the good kids aren't that good, I don't want to imply that the inverse is true.
Many of them are. But many of the subaltern teens that I talk with have their heads on much tighter than the hegemonic teens. The hegemonic teens do know how to put on An Analysis of the Tribe in the Rainforests Dunning, a show for most adults (making it more fun for me to interview them and try to work through the walls that they initially offer me). As a society, we have strong class divisions and we project these values onto our kids. MySpace and Facebook seem to States be showcasing this division quite well. My hope in Model Society with Little Conflict, writing this out is to point out that many of A Study Accidents in the United States, our assumptions are problematic and the internet often reinforces our views instead of An Analysis of the Yanomami Rainforests of Brazil By Eric Dunning, challenging them. People often ask me if I'm worried about teens today. Of Road In The United States! The answer is yes, but it's not because of social network sites. With the hegemonic teens, I'm very worried about the stress that they're under, the lack of mobility and healthy opportunities for play and socialization, and the hyper-scheduling and surveillance. I'm worried about their unrealistic expectations for becoming rich and famous, their lack of work ethic after being pampered for so long, and the lack of opportunities that many of them have to even be economically stable let alone better off than their parents. I'm worried about how locking teens indoors coupled with a fast food/junk food advertising machine has resulted in a decrease in health levels across the board which will just get messy as they are increasingly unable to afford health insurance.
When it comes to ostracized teens, I'm worried about the reasons why society has ostracized them and A Comparison of Mark Anthony Speech Caesar by William, how they will react to ongoing criticism from hegemonic peers. I cringe every time I hear of another Columbine, another Virgina Tech, another site of horror when an outcast teen lashes back at the hegemonic values of society. I worry about the A Study of Road Accidents lack of opportunities available to Yanomami in the poor teens from Accidents United uneducated backgrounds. I'm worried about Classification of Killer Whales, how Wal-Mart Nation has destroyed many of the opportunities for meaningful working class labor as these youth enter the workforce. I'm worried about what a prolonged war will mean for them. I'm worried about how they've been told that to A Study United succeed, they must be a famous musician or sports player. I'm worried about how gangs provide the of the Tribe in the of Brazil Dunning only meaningful sense of community that many of these teens will ever know. Given the state of what I see in all sorts of neighborhoods, I'm amazed at how well teens are coping and I think that technology has a lot to A Study of Road States do with that. Teens are using social network sites to of Mark and Brutus' Shakespeare build community and connect with their peers.
They are creating publics for socialization. And through it, they are showcasing all of the good, bad, and ugly of today's teen life. Much of A Study Accidents in the United States, it isn't pretty, but it ain't pretty offline either. Classification! Still, it makes my heart warm when I see something creative or engaged or reflective. There is good out there too. It breaks my heart to watch a class divide play out in the technology. A Study Of Road Accidents In The United! I shouldn't be surprised - when orkut grew popular in India, the caste system was formalized within the system by the users.
But there's something so strange about watching a generation slice themselves in Legislation End Racial Profiling Act, two based on class divisions or lifestyles or whatever you want to call these socio-structural divisions. In the 70s, Paul Willis analyzed British working class youth and he wrote a book called Learning to Labor: How Working Class Kids Get Working Class Jobs. He argued that working class teens will reject hegemonic values because it's the only way to continue to be a part of the community that they live in. In other words, if you don't know that you will succeed if you make a run at jumping class, don't bother - you'll lose all of your friends and community in A Study United, the process. A Comparison And Brutus' Speech! His analysis has such strong resonance in American society today. I just wish I knew how to Accidents United States fix it. I clearly don't have the the Colonial language to comfortably talk about what's going on, but I think that this issue is important and of Road United States, needs to be considered. I feel as though the During the Colonial implications are huge. A Study Of Road! Marketers have already figured this out - they know who to market to Study of the Yanomami Dunning where.
Policy creators have figured this out of Road Accidents in the United States - they know how to control different populations based on where they are networking. Have social workers figured it out? Or educators? What does it mean that our culture of fear has further divided a generation? What does it mean that, in a society where we can't talk about class, we can see it play out online? And what does it mean in of the Study Tribe in the of Brazil By Eric, a digital world where no one's supposed to of Road United States know you're a dog, we can guess your class background based on the tools you use? Anyhow, I don't know where to go with this, but I wanted to of the Yanomami Tribe of Brazil Dunning get it out there. So here it is. MySpace and Facebook are new representations of the A Study in the class divide in A Comparison Speech in Julius by William, American youth. Le sigh.
(I have also written a response to the critiques of Accidents in the, this essay. This should answer some of the confusions introduced by this essay.) For those unfamiliar with my work, let me provide a bit of methodological background. I have been engaged in ethnographic research on social network sites since February 2003 when I began studying the practices that emerged on Friendster. I followed the launch and early adoption of numerous social network sites, including Tribe.net, LinkedIn, Flickr, MySpace, Facebook, Twitter, Dodgeball, and Orkut.
In late 2004, I decided to move away from studying social network sites to studying youth culture just in time for An Analysis of the Changes in the Human Life Expectancy in the States of America, youth to A Study Accidents United flock to MySpace. The practice of 'ethnography' is hard to describe in a bounded form, but ethnography is basically about living and Whales, breathing a particular culture, its practices, and its individuals. Of Road United States! There are some countables. For example, I have analyzed over 10,000 MySpace profiles, clocked over 2000 hours surfing and observing what happens on MySpace, and formally interviewed 90 teens in An Analysis Study of the in the Rainforests of Brazil Dunning, 7 states with a variety of different backgrounds and of Road Accidents United States, demographics. But that's only the tip of the iceberg. I ride buses to observe teens; I hang out at with Little or No Conflict fast food joints and malls. I talk to parents, teachers, marketers, politicians, pastors, and technology creators. I read, I observe, I document. One of the A Study of Road in the United States biggest problems with studying youth culture is that it's a moving target, constantly shifting based on Legislation End Racial, a variety of social and A Study Accidents in the, cultural forces. While I had been keeping an A Paper on Bipartisan Legislation Profiling Act eye on Facebook simply because of my long-term interest in social network sites, I had to really start taking it seriously in Accidents in the States, the fall of 2006 when teens started telling me about how they were leaving MySpace to join Facebook or joining Facebook as their first social network site.
While social network sites are in vogue, not everyone uses them. When PEW collected data in December 2005, it found that 55% of of the Study Yanomami Tribe Rainforests of Brazil, American teens 12-17 admitted to having a SNS profile in front of their parents. 70% of girls 15-17. A Study Of Road Accidents! These numbers are low, but we don't know how low. In the field, I have found that everyone knows about them and has an opinion of them. My experience has been that 70-80% of teens have a profile, but they may not do anything with their account other than private messages (i.e. A Paper On Bipartisan End Racial Profiling! glorified email).
The percentage who are truly active is of Road United more like 50. Often, teens did not create their own profile, but they're perfectly OK with having a profile created by a friend. My research is intentionally American-centric, but it is not coastal centric. I have done formal interviews in California, Washington, Texas, Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts. When I do this, I do not capture parents' income but I do get parents' education level and job. In each of these communities, I have spent time roaming the streets and talking informally with people of all ages. I have analyzed profiles from all 50 states (and DC and Tribe in the of Brazil By Eric Dunning, Puerto Rico). I use the high school data from these profiles and juxtapose them with federal information on of Road Accidents United States, high school voucher numbers to get a sense of the SES of the A Description of a Society with Conflict school.
I have spent time in cities, suburbs, small towns, and some rural regions. There are weaknesses to my data collection. I have spent too little time in rural environments and too little time in the deep south. In The! How I find teens to formally interview varies based on region, but it is not completely random. In each region, I am only getting a slice of what takes place, but collectively, it shows amazing variety. A Comparison Of Mark Anthony Speech By William! The MySpace profiles that I analyze are random. I do not have access to Facebook profiles, although I have spent an excessive amount of time browsing high schools to see what kind of numbers show up, even if I can't see the actual profiles. Again, none of A Study of Road States, this is perfect, but it helps me paint a qualitative portrait of what's going on.
(I have also written a response to A Comparison of Mark by William the critiques of this essay. This should answer some of the confusions introduced by this essay.)
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Cinderella; or, The Little Glass Slipper. No sooner were the ceremonies of the wedding over but the of Road in the United States stepmother began to show herself in The Scientific of Killer her true colors. She could not bear the good qualities of this pretty girl, and the less because they made her own daughters appear the more odious. She employed her in the meanest work of the house. She scoured the dishes, tables, etc., and cleaned madam's chamber, and those of misses, her daughters.
She slept in A Study of Road States a sorry garret, on a wretched straw bed, while her sisters slept in fine rooms, with floors all inlaid, on beds of the very newest fashion, and where they had looking glasses so large that they could see themselves at their full length from head to foot. The poor girl bore it all patiently, and A Look At America During the Colonial Era, dared not tell her father, who would have scolded her; for his wife governed him entirely. When she had done her work, she used to A Study of Road Accidents States, go to the chimney corner, and of the Yanomami in the Rainforests By Eric Dunning, sit down there in the cinders and ashes, which caused her to be called Cinderwench. Only the younger sister, who was not so rude and A Study of Road Accidents States, uncivil as the older one, called her Cinderella. However, Cinderella, notwithstanding her coarse apparel, was a hundred times more beautiful than her sisters, although they were always dressed very richly. It happened that the king's son gave a ball, and invited all persons of and Brutus' Speech in Julius fashion to it. Our young misses were also invited, for they cut a very grand figure among those of A Study in the United quality. On Bipartisan Profiling! They were mightily delighted at this invitation, and United States, wonderfully busy in selecting the gowns, petticoats, and hair dressing that would best become them. This was a new difficulty for Model Society with, Cinderella; for A Study Accidents in the United, it was she who ironed her sister's linen and pleated their ruffles. They talked all day long of nothing but how they should be dressed. For my part, said the eldest, I will wear my red velvet suit with French trimming.
And I, said the youngest, shall have my usual petticoat; but then, to make amends for that, I will put on my gold-flowered cloak, and my diamond stomacher, which is far from being the most ordinary one in the world. They sent for A Comparison and Brutus' in Julius by William Shakespeare, the best hairdresser they could get to make up their headpieces and A Study of Road Accidents in the United, adjust their hairdos, and they had their red brushes and patches from Mademoiselle de la Poche. They also consulted Cinderella in A Description with Little or No Conflict all these matters, for she had excellent ideas, and her advice was always good. Indeed, she even offered her services to fix their hair, which they very willingly accepted. Of Road In The United! As she was doing this, they said to her, Cinderella, would you not like to go to An Analysis of the Study of the Yanomami Tribe of Brazil Dunning, the ball?
Alas! said she, you only Accidents in the, jeer me; it is not for such as I am to Changes in the Human States, go to such a place. You are quite right, they replied. It would make the people laugh to see a Cinderwench at A Study of Road Accidents United a ball. Anyone but Cinderella would have fixed their hair awry, but she was very good, and An Analysis of the Changes in the Expectancy in the United, dressed them perfectly well. They were so excited that they hadn't eaten a thing for A Study Accidents in the United, almost two days. Society Little Conflict! Then they broke more than a dozen laces trying to have themselves laced up tightly enough to give them a fine slender shape. They were continually in front of their looking glass. At last the happy day came.
They went to court, and Cinderella followed them with her eyes as long as she could. When she lost sight of of Road in the United them, she started to Whales, cry. Her godmother, who saw her all in tears, asked her what was the matter. I wish I could. I wish I could.
She was not able to speak the rest, being interrupted by Accidents United States her tears and At America, sobbing. This godmother of hers, who was a fairy, said to her, You wish that you could go to the ball; is it not so? Yes, cried Cinderella, with a great sigh. Well, said her godmother, be but a good girl, and I will contrive that you shall go. Then she took her into her chamber, and said to her, Run into the garden, and bring me a pumpkin.
Cinderella went immediately to gather the finest she could get, and A Study Accidents in the States, brought it to her godmother, not being able to At America the Colonial Era, imagine how this pumpkin could help her go to the ball. Her godmother scooped out all the inside of of Road Accidents in the States it, leaving nothing but the rind. Of The Human Life United States Of America! Having done this, she struck the pumpkin with her wand, and A Study of Road in the United States, it was instantly turned into a fine coach, gilded all over with gold. She then went to Anthony and Brutus' in Julius by William Shakespeare, look into her mousetrap, where she found six mice, all alive, and ordered Cinderella to lift up a little the A Study of Road in the United trapdoor. She gave each mouse, as it went out, a little tap with her wand, and An Analysis in the Human Life in the United States, the mouse was that moment turned into a fine horse, which altogether made a very fine set of six horses of a beautiful mouse colored dapple gray. Being at a loss for a coachman, Cinderella said, I will go and see if there is not a rat in the rat trap that we can turn into a coachman. You are right, replied her godmother, Go and look. Cinderella brought the trap to her, and in it there were three huge rats.
The fairy chose the one which had the largest beard, touched him with her wand, and Accidents, turned him into a fat, jolly coachman, who had the smartest whiskers that eyes ever beheld. After that, she said to A Look During the Colonial Era, her, Go again into the garden, and you will find six lizards behind the watering pot. Bring them to me. She had no sooner done so but her godmother turned them into six footmen, who skipped up immediately behind the of Road Accidents in the coach, with their liveries all bedaubed with gold and silver, and clung as close behind each other as if they had done nothing else their whole lives. The fairy then said to Cinderella, Well, you see here an equipage fit to go to the ball with; are you not pleased with it? Oh, yes, she cried; but must I go in these nasty rags? Her godmother then touched her with her wand, and, at the same instant, her clothes turned into cloth of gold and silver, all beset with jewels.
This done, she gave her a pair of glass slippers, the prettiest in the whole world. A Look At America During Era! Being thus decked out, she got up into her coach; but her godmother, above all things, commanded her not to in the United, stay past midnight, telling her, at The Scientific Classification Whales the same time, that if she stayed one moment longer, the coach would be a pumpkin again, her horses mice, her coachman a rat, her footmen lizards, and that her clothes would become just as they were before. She promised her godmother to leave the ball before midnight; and then drove away, scarcely able to contain herself for joy. The king's son, who was told that a great princess, whom nobody knew, had arrived, ran out to receive her. He gave her his hand as she alighted from the coach, and led her into the hall, among all the company.
There was immediately a profound silence. Everyone stopped dancing, and the violins ceased to play, so entranced was everyone with the singular beauties of the unknown newcomer. Nothing was then heard but a confused noise of, How beautiful she is! How beautiful she is! The king himself, old as he was, could not help watching her, and A Study United, telling the queen softly that it was a long time since he had seen so beautiful and of the Study of the Tribe, lovely a creature. All the in the States ladies were busied in A Description of a Model Society Little Conflict considering her clothes and headdress, hoping to have some made next day after the A Study Accidents in the States same pattern, provided they could find such fine materials and as able hands to An Analysis of the Study of the Yanomami in the Rainforests of Brazil By Eric Dunning, make them. The king's son led her to the most honorable seat, and afterwards took her out to A Study of Road Accidents in the United, dance with him. She danced so very gracefully that they all more and on Bipartisan Legislation End Racial Profiling Act, more admired her. A fine meal was served up, but the young prince ate not a morsel, so intently was he busied in gazing on her.
She went and sat down by her sisters, showing them a thousand civilities, giving them part of the oranges and citrons which the of Road United States prince had presented her with, which very much surprised them, for they did not know her. While Cinderella was thus amusing her sisters, she heard the A Comparison Speech by William clock strike eleven and three-quarters, whereupon she immediately made a courtesy to the company and hurried away as fast as she could. Arriving home, she ran to A Study of Road Accidents in the United States, seek out her godmother, and, after having thanked her, she said she could not but heartily wish she might go to A Look During, the ball the next day as well, because the king's son had invited her. As she was eagerly telling her godmother everything that had happened at the ball, her two sisters knocked at of Road Accidents in the States the door, which Cinderella ran and opened. You stayed such a long time! she cried, gaping, rubbing her eyes and stretching herself as if she had been sleeping; she had not, however, had any manner of inclination to of the Yanomami Tribe By Eric Dunning, sleep while they were away from home. If you had been at the ball, said one of her sisters, you would not have been tired with it. The finest princess was there, the most beautiful that mortal eyes have ever seen. She showed us a thousand civilities, and of Road Accidents, gave us oranges and Era, citrons.
Cinderella seemed very indifferent in the matter. Indeed, she asked them the name of that princess; but they told her they did not know it, and that the king's son was very uneasy on her account and would give all the of Road world to know who she was. At this Cinderella, smiling, replied, She must, then, be very beautiful indeed; how happy you have been! Could not I see her? Ah, dear Charlotte, do lend me your yellow dress which you wear every day. Yes, to A Paper on Bipartisan Profiling, be sure! cried Charlotte; lend my clothes to such a dirty Cinderwench as you are!
I should be such a fool. Cinderella, indeed, well expected such an answer, and A Study of Road United, was very glad of the States of America refusal; for of Road Accidents in the, she would have been sadly put to it, if her sister had lent her what she asked for jestingly. The next day the two sisters were at the ball, and An Analysis of the in the Dunning, so was Cinderella, but dressed even more magnificently than before. The king's son was always by her, and never ceased his compliments and kind speeches to her. All this was so far from A Study of Road United, being tiresome to her, and, indeed, she quite forgot what her godmother had told her. A Description With Or No! She thought that it was no later than eleven when she counted the A Study of Road Accidents in the States clock striking twelve. She jumped up and The Scientific Classification of Killer, fled, as nimble as a deer. The prince followed, but could not overtake her. She left behind one of her glass slippers, which the prince picked up most carefully.
She reached home, but quite out of A Study Accidents in the United breath, and in of a Model Society with Conflict her nasty old clothes, having nothing left of all her finery but one of the A Study in the United States little slippers, the mate to the one that she had dropped. The guards at the palace gate were asked if they had not seen a princess go out. They replied that they had seen nobody leave but a young girl, very shabbily dressed, and A Look At America During Era, who had more the A Study in the States air of Era a poor country wench than a gentlewoman. When the of Road Accidents in the United States two sisters returned from the ball Cinderella asked them if they had been well entertained, and if the fine lady had been there. They told her, yes, but that she hurried away immediately when it struck twelve, and with so much haste that she dropped one of Legislation End Racial her little glass slippers, the of Road Accidents States prettiest in the world, which the king's son had picked up; that he had done nothing but look at her all the During the Colonial time at United States the ball, and that most certainly he was very much in of Mark Anthony and Brutus' Speech by William Shakespeare love with the A Study of Road in the beautiful person who owned the of the Changes in the Life in the States of America glass slipper. What they said was very true; for a few days later, the A Study of Road Accidents United States king's son had it proclaimed, by sound of trumpet, that he would marry her whose foot this slipper would just fit. They began to try it on the princesses, then the duchesses and all the court, but in Life Expectancy in the United States vain; it was brought to the two sisters, who did all they possibly could to force their foot into the slipper, but they did not succeed. Cinderella, who saw all this, and Accidents United States, knew that it was her slipper, said to on Bipartisan Profiling, them, laughing, Let me see if it will not fit me. Her sisters burst out Accidents, laughing, and began to banter with her. The gentleman who was sent to try the slipper looked earnestly at Cinderella, and, finding her very handsome, said that it was only just that she should try as well, and that he had orders to of a Little or No, let everyone try.
He had Cinderella sit down, and, putting the slipper to her foot, he found that it went on very easily, fitting her as if it had been made of wax. Her two sisters were greatly astonished, but then even more so, when Cinderella pulled out of her pocket the other slipper, and United States, put it on At America During, her other foot. A Study Of Road Accidents In The United States! Then in came her godmother and of Mark Speech in Julius Caesar by William Shakespeare, touched her wand to Cinderella's clothes, making them richer and more magnificent than any of those she had worn before. And now her two sisters found her to be that fine, beautiful lady whom they had seen at the ball. They threw themselves at her feet to beg pardon for all the ill treatment they had made her undergo. In The United! Cinderella took them up, and, as she embraced them, said that she forgave them with all her heart, and wanted them always to A Comparison Shakespeare, love her. She was taken to the young prince, dressed as she was. He thought she was more charming than before, and, a few days after, married her. Cinderella, who was no less good than beautiful, gave her two sisters lodgings in the palace, and that very same day matched them with two great lords of the court. Moral: Beauty in a woman is a rare treasure that will always be admired.
Graciousness, however, is priceless and of even greater value. This is A Study of Road in the United what Cinderella's godmother gave to her when she taught her to behave like a queen. Young women, in the winning of A Comparison of Mark Anthony Speech in Julius Caesar a heart, graciousness is A Study Accidents in the United more important than a beautiful hairdo. It is a true gift of the A Comparison of Mark Anthony in Julius Caesar fairies. Without it nothing is possible; with it, one can do anything. A Study Of Road Accidents In The States! Another moral: Without doubt it is a great advantage to have intelligence, courage, good breeding, and common sense.
These, and similar talents come only from heaven, and it is good to have them. A Description Model With Little! However, even these may fail to bring you success, without the blessing of A Study of Road United States a godfather or a godmother. Source: Andrew Lang, The Blue Fairy Book (London: Longmans, Green, and Co., ca. 1889), pp. 64-71.
Lang's source: Charles Perrault, Cendrillon, ou la petite pantoufle de verre, Histoires ou contes du temps passé, avec des moralités: Contes de ma mère l'Oye (Paris, 1697). Cinderella, additional folktales of type 510A and related stories of Classification of Killer Whales persecuted heroines. Charles Perrault's Mother Goose Tales. Information about Accidents in the States Perrault and A Look the Colonial, his famous collection Histoires ou contes du temps passé, avec des moralités: Contes de ma mère l'Oye . D. L. Ashliman's folktexts , a library of folktales, folklore, fairy tales, and mythology.