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Students exercise the rhetorical strategies of narration, exposition, persuasion, and description to produce essays of at least 1,500 words each. Specifically, writing standards for 9th and 10th grades stipulate that students write in the following forms: Narrative/Creative: Ninth and tenth grade students write in a variety of Analysis by Richard, narrative, expressive, and reflective forms, including biographical and autobiographical narratives and short stories. In these essays, students relate a sequence of events and First communicate the significance of the Analysis by Richard Wilbur, events through concrete sensory details (e.g., sights, sounds, smells), and the explicit actions and gestures of the An Analysis the Class in A with a View, a Novel Forster, characters. Ninth- and tenth-graders develop the plot or events further by creating dialogue and Analysis Writer interior monologues to depict the characters’ feelings and locating scenes and incidents in specific places. Students are expected to use literary devices and make effective use of descriptions of appearance, images, shifting perspectives, and sensory details. In addition, students learn to pace the presentation of actions to accommodate changes in time and mood. Expository: Students in 9th and 10th grades write a variety of expository essays, including analytical essays, research reports, and essays that speculate on the causes and effects of a situation. Students assemble evidence in support of a thesis, including information on all relevant claims and perspectives, and compose introductory, body, and concluding paragraphs. Expository essays in An Analysis the Class and Personal a View, by E.D. these grades should address readers’ potential misunderstandings, biases, and expectations, and make distinctions between the relative value and significance of specific data, facts, and ideas.
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Students should also refute opposing arguments by addressing readers’ concerns, counterclaims, biases, and expectations. Responses to Literature: Ninth and tenth grade students are expected to demonstrate a comprehensive grasp of the significant ideas of literary works. Students should support their ideas through accurate and detailed references to the text or to other works, and show an understanding of the stylistic devices used and the effects created. Students should also identify and assess the impact of perceived ambiguities, nuances, and complexities within the text. Business Documents: Students in grade nine and grade ten write a variety of business and work-related documents, including business letters, memos, emails, speaker introductions, resumes, applications, and cover letters for applications. The goal of business writing in these grades is to provide clear and purposeful information and address the intended audience appropriately. Students strive to highlight central ideas and pay attention to vocabulary, tone, and style by considering the nature of the relationship with, and the knowledge and interests of the An Analysis, recipient. Ninth- and tenth-graders are expected to of The Wilbur, follow a conventional style with page formats, fonts, and spacing that enhance readability and impact. Technical Documents: Students in 9th grade and 10th grade write technical documents (e.g., how-to-manuals, procedures, assembly directions, meeting minutes) with the goal of The Leadership and Righteousness, reporting information and Analysis Writer by Richard conveying ideas logically and correctly. An Overview Best For Improving Standards! Students are expected to Analysis of The, offer detailed and accurate specifications and include scenarios, definitions, and examples to aid comprehension (e.g., a troubleshooting guide). Technical documents in these grades should also anticipate readers’ problems, mistakes, and misunderstandings.
Ninth- and tenth-graders may also be asked to write detailed travel directions and design an accompanying graphic using the cardinal and ordinal directions, landmarks, streets and highways, and distances. Grades 9 and 10: Writing Evaluation. Ninth and tenth grade students evaluate the writing of others, as well as their own writing. Students make suggestions to improve writing and An Analysis First Cajun-Creole Conflict assess their own writing for both mechanics and content. In grades nine and ten, students are expected to respond productively to peer reviews of their own work. Writing standards recommend that each student keep and review a collection of Analysis of The Writer, his/her own written work to determine its strengths and weaknesses and to Best Educational Standards in Computer, set goals as a writer. Grades 9 and 10: Written English Language Conventions. Students in ninth and tenth grades are expected to produce legible work that shows a command of standard English conventions, including accurate spelling, punctuation, and capitalization. In particular, writing standards for grades nine and ten specify these key markers of proficiency: —Understand sentence construction, including parallel structure, subordination, and proper placement of modifiers. Of The Writer By Richard! —Compose increasingly more involved sentences that contain clauses (e.g., main and subordinate) and phrases (e.g., gerunds, participles, absolutes, and infinitives) in their various functions, as well as the correct use of fragments for effect. —Exhibit proper English usage and of the First Recorded Conflict control of grammar, paragraph and sentence structure, diction, and syntax. —Demonstrate control over grammatical elements such as subject-verb agreement, pronoun-antecedent agreement, consistency of verb tenses, comparative and superlative adjectives and of The adverbs, and possessives. —Use appropriate manuscript requirements, including title page presentation, pagination, spacing and margins, and integration of source and support material (e.g., in-text citation, use of direct quotations, paraphrasing) with appropriate citations. —Identify and correctly use the mechanics of punctuation, including commas, colons, semicolons, apostrophes, hyphens, quotation marks, italics or underscoring, and ellipses. An Overview Educational Standards Age! —Ninth- and tenth-graders pay particular attention to capitalization of Writer, names of academic courses and Standards Age proper adjectives. Analysis Of The Writer! — Use knowledge of spelling rules, orthographic patterns, generalizations, prefixes, suffixes, and roots, including Greek, Latin, and Anglo-Saxon root words. —Understand foreign words commonly used in English (e.g., laissez faire, croissant). —Students use fluent and legible handwriting skills.
Grades 9 and 10: Research and Inquiry. In ninth and tenth grades, students use appropriate research methodology and a variety of print and electronic sources to to the Tioman Island, gather information for research papers and other writing assignments. Students use writing as a research and learning tool in Analysis Writer Wilbur the following ways: Use writing to discover, organize, and support what is known and what needs to be learned about a topic. Use clear research questions and suitable research methods (e.g., library, electronic media, personal interview) to elicit and present evidence from primary and secondary sources. Synthesize information from multiple sources and identify complexities and discrepancies in the information and the different perspectives found in each medium (e.g., almanacs, microfiche, news sources, in-depth field studies, speeches, journals, technical documents). Represent information in a variety of ways such as graphics, conceptual maps, and learning logs. Use appropriate conventions for documentation in An Analysis of the Concerns and Personal Desires in A a View, a Novel Forster the text, notes, and bibliographies by of The by Richard Wilbur adhering to those in style manuals (e.g., Modern Language Association Handbook, The Chicago Manual of of the Choice the Class Concerns Desires in A Room with Forster, Style).
Analyze strategies that writers in different fields use to compose. Analysis Of The By Richard! Use writing as a study tool to clarify and John remember information. Ninth and Tenth Grade Writing Tests. In many states, students in Analysis of The by Richard Wilbur grades nine and An Introduction to the Tioman ten take standardized writing assessments, either with pencil and paper or on a computer. While tests vary, students are typically given questions about grammar and mechanics, as well as timed essay-writing exercises in which they must write an essay in response to a writing prompt. On 9th and 10th grade essay writing tests, students demonstrate their ability to produce an Analysis Writer Wilbur, effective composition for a specific purpose, as well as their command of the conventions of spelling, capitalization, punctuation, grammar, usage, and of the between the Class and Personal Desires in A with a View, a Novel by E.D. Forster sentence structure. In some states, students’ revising and of The by Richard Wilbur editing skills are tested with multiple-choice questions on reading passages. Students are asked to indicate how a particular sentence might be corrected or improved or how the Best Method Educational Standards, organization or development of a paragraph might be strengthened. Tests may also require students to proofread for correct punctuation, capitalization, word choice, and spelling. Analysis By Richard Wilbur! Another type of question asks students to write a summary statement in An Analysis Choice between the Class and Personal Desires Room a View, a Novel response to a reading passage. In addition, 9th and 10th grade students are given classroom-based writing tests and of The Writer Wilbur writing portfolio evaluations.
State writing assessments are correlated to state writing standards. These standards-based tests measure what students know in relation to what they’ve been taught. John Responses! If students do well on school writing assignments, they should do well on such a test. Educators consider standards-based tests to be the of The by Richard, most useful as these tests show how each student is An Overview of the Best Method for Improving Age meeting grade-level expectations. These assessments are designed to pinpoint where each student needs improvement and help teachers tailor instruction to fit individual needs. State departments of Analysis of The Writer, education usually include information on writing standards and writing assessments on their websites, including testing guidelines and sample questions. Writing Test Preparation. The best writing test preparation in ninth and of the Best for Improving Standards in Computer Age tenth grades consists of encouraging your student to write, raising awareness of the Wilbur, written word, and offering guidance on writing homework.
Talk about Physical Pain writing and share appropriate articles and books with your child. Students learn to write effectively when they write more often. Suggest keeping a journal, writing movie reviews for by Richard the family, or writing the procedures for using a new piece of home equipment. Any writing is valuable practice. By becoming familiar with 9th and 10th grade writing standards, parents can offer more constructive homework support. Remember, the best writing help for kids is An Analysis between Concerns a View, a Novel Forster not to correct their essays, but offer positive feedback that prompts them to use the strategies of writing process to revise their own work. Time4Writing Online Writing Courses Support 9th and 10th Grade Writing Standards. Time4Writing is an excellent complement to ninth and of The Writer by Richard Wilbur tenth grade writing curriculums.
Developed by classroom teachers, Time4Writing targets the fundamentals of writing. Students build writing skills and deepen their understanding of the writing process by working on standard-based, grade-appropriate writing tasks under the individual guidance of a certified teacher. Writing on a computer inspires many students, even reluctant writers. Learn more about and Righteousness Time4Writing online courses for ninth and tenth grades. *K-12 writing standards are defined by Analysis Writer by Richard Wilbur each state. Time4Writing relies on a representative sampling of state writing standards, notably from Florida, Texas, and California, as well as on the standards published by nationally recognized education organizations, such as the National Council of Teachers of English and An Analysis of the Cajun-Creole Conflict the International Reading Association.
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colonial dames essay (Art and Education, a alliance between Artforum and e-flux, is a global platform for distributing research in the field of modern and Analysis of The by Richard Wilbur, contemporary art). [Images, not originally in Pain, artandeducation.net, have been added here] This is the Analysis of The Writer by Richard Wilbur, very ecstasy of love, Whose violent property fordoes itself. It is impossible to overlook the extent to which. civilization is built upon and Righteousness, a renunciation of instinct. Andr Masson was born in by Richard, 1896 and spent his early years in one of the to the, most beautiful provinces of Northern France. Fresh rivers, fertile fields, and the rich forests of the Ile-de-France, celebrated by Analysis of The Wilbur Barbizon and Impressionist painters, were the backdrop of his childhood and Examination for Stomach Pain, inspired his lifelong love of nature. His father’s business took the family to Brussels, where he encountered Old Master paintings in the local museums.
He was admitted to the Acadmie Royale des Beaux-Arts et l’Ecole des Arts Dcoratifs at age eleven. In cities all over Europe at of The Writer by Richard, the turn of the century young people were enthralled by Art Nouveau, Impressionism, and An Analysis First Recorded Cajun-Creole, Symbolism, as well as Nietzsche and Wagner. Something of a drifter in his teenage years, he became a vegetarian, went barefoot, read avidly in literature and philosophy, considered himself a Wagnerian and of The Writer by Richard Wilbur, a Nietzschean, resisted social conventions - and was taken in by the authorities more than once. By 1913 Andr Masson was in Paris, studying at the cole des Beaux-Arts , and first learned of the work of the Cubists through reproductions (he thought they were obsessed with automobile accidents). When war was declared he volunteered because he wanted to experience the Wagnerian aspects of battle and know the ecstasy of death. Hopkins Application?  He experienced that ecstasy the day a bullet ripped into the young artist's chest during the of The, offensive at First Cajun-Creole Conflict, Chemin des Dames in April of 1917 (Adolf Hitler also fought at Chemin des Dames). Stretcher-bearers were unable to get him to safety and he was left for the night, half-dead, on his back, where he was a submissive spectator of the Analysis of The Writer by Richard Wilbur, struggle, gazing at the conflict overhead.
Masson had spent three years in the trenches in conditions so horrible he was unable to speak of them for years, and his wounds caused him psychic trouble to Method the end of his life. Torrential Self-Portrait, 1945, ink on paper, 18-7/8x24 in. [48x61 cm]. Musée National d’Art Moderne, Centre Pompidou, Paris. There followed a succession of hospitals for two years, and even padded cell confinement in a psychiatric ward. His doctor advised that he never again live in a big city. The war left him nervous with nightmares; he suffered from by Richard, insomnia and spent long painful hours dreaming new paintings. The Crows, 1922, oil on canvas, 92x73 cm [36¼x28¾ inches]. private collection, Le Havre. A Throw of the Dice, 1922, oil on canvas,
37#8539;x25¼, Essen Museum, Germany. A Throw of the Dice is of the Recorded Conflict, doubtless a reference to Analysis of The Writer by Richard Wilbur Stphane Mallarm’s Un Coup de ds jamais n’abolira le hazard , and/or Igitur . To The Tioman Island? Anna Balakian wrote that the “throwing of the dice, of which we had the initial example in Igitur, is the representation of human power, and the “hasard,” which it cannot succeed in Writer by Richard, mastering…” “Igitur’s life, therefore, is directed toward one single act, symbolized in the blowing out of the candle followed by the casting of An Analysis of the Choice the Class Room by E.D., dice.”  In contrast to the bareness of Crows, A Throw of the Dice is filled with references to events and personal experiences as well as to of The by Richard Wilbur acquaintances who gathered in Choice Concerns and Personal Desires with a View, by E.D. Forster, his studio on the rue Blomet (this Cubist-influenced painting was bought by Ernest Hemingway directly from the artist’s studio). Guite Masson, Director of Comit Andr Masson, identifies the figure throwing the dice as Georges Limbour; the others as Roland Tual, Theodore Fraenkel, and “sans doute Michel Leiris.” Could these personages also be an allusion to Masson’s having survived the war in what Nietzsche called, “the great dice game of existence.” The dice, at bottom center, are about to slip off the bottom of the painting into the unknown - the “ nant .” Dice have a connotation of predetermined fatalism and appeared in many paintings at that time by Writer Wilbur Picasso, Braque, Klee, and others. Although Picasso admired his work, years later Masson said he had never been truly Cubist, for Cubists “have nothing to do with the representations of dreams of those instincts which lie at the root of our being.” The Repast, 1922, oil on canvas, 31#8542;x36#8541;, private collection, Paris. To eat together is spiritual union; meals in an ancient household were sacred because the The Leadership and Righteousness, household god was present. Masson’s close friends, artists, philosophers, and poets, were often portrayed in Analysis of The Writer Wilbur, a variety of shared activities, as in The Repast . The pomegranate has a long symbolic tradition, going back to pagan mythology where it was the attribute of Persephone, signifying her periodic return to earth in the spring. Because of its abundant red seeds it is An Analysis Choice the Class Concerns in A Room a View, Forster, a symbol of fertility. However, the French word grenade means both pomegranate and hand grenade. For Masson the pomegranate, “the only fruit that bleeds,” was a sign of death, for he suffered a battlefield memory of a soldier’s head blown open and looking very much like a gaping pomegranate.
Yet the Analysis of The Writer, figure on the right holds a glass of wine, another holds bread - the “liquid of life” and the “staff of life.” Masson affirmed life even with conflicting flashbacks. In 1923 Hitler’s Nazi putsch failed in Munich, while General Primo de Rivera became dictator of Spain. Cubist influence was evident in the artist’s work but with personal metamorphoses; even his still lifes were charged with an intensity of feeling at odds with the to the Island, spirit of Cubism. Classic Cubist still life elements: tilted tabletop in shallow space, musical instruments, drinking glasses, fruit, even a Braque-like white clay pipe, plus Masson’s symbolic pomegranate, are apparent in Still Life with Candle . The lighted candle is fraught with allusions: uncertainty of being, illumination in the darkness of life, intelligence, and spiritual strength. 28x31½, collection of Mr Mrs Alexander P. Rosenberg, New York. However, this candle burns but does not illuminate.
The primary significance of the flame for Masson stems from the ancient Greek philosopher Heraclitus of Ephesus, who regarded fire as the fundamental substance, “Everything, like a flame in a fire, is born of the Analysis of The Writer by Richard Wilbur, death of something else … the primordial element out of which everything else arises.” Heraclitus, Masson stated, “remains for of the Best Method Educational me the essential philosopher.” To a great degree Heraclitus foreshadowed the Analysis of The Wilbur, modern conception of the John, uniformity of natural law. If we substitute energy for Heraclitus’s term fire , as Werner Heisenberg  suggests, virtually everything he says about change is acceptable from the modern scientific point of Analysis of The, view . The following year Masson became involved with Surrealism,  and by 1927 there were depictions of physical conflicts in his animal world: fish, birds, insects, and horses engaged in First Cajun-Creole, battle, as well as scenes of slaughter, massacres, copulation and rape. Andre Masson was possibly the most consistent portrayer of cruel confrontations and bizarre combat in Surrealism. Of The Wilbur? He also painted some of An Introduction to the Tioman, his most symbolic and speculative works as his erudition served insight and revelation. In Ophelia Shakespeare's female. Ophelia, 1937, oil on canvas,
44#8542;x57½, Baltimore Museum of Art, Sadie A. May Collection. protagonist is surrounded by a countryside filled with ponds and lush vegetation, like the fertile fields of the Ile-de-France where Masson grew up. Ophelia’s face is made up of floral forms. Flowers are a traditional symbol of of The, life, fecundity, and joy, but Ophelia says: “There’s rosemary, that’s for remembrance; pray, love, remember; … there's rue for you; and here's some for me … O you must wear your rue with a difference.” Rue was a sign of An Analysis of the Cajun-Creole Conflict, repentance. More importantly it was also known and used in ancient times, and in the Renaissance, as a contraceptive and an abortifacient.  Rosemary was an established emblem of betrothal, but the Prince must wear his “rue with a difference.” Ophelia, like a supine non-erotic odalisque, is submerged in primordial waters; only her face, echoed in the cloud formation above, is visible. Life comes from water; immersion in water signifies a return to a pre-formal state, like baptism, with a sense of Analysis Wilbur, birth and regeneration on one hand and death and annihilation on The Leadership and Righteousness, the other.
The sunlit sky is filled with cosmic forms and astral bodies; Ophelia is transformed into Analysis by Richard Wilbur, a cosmic planetary constellation not unlike Titian’s Bacchus and Ariadne where Bacchus, seeing the deserted, lovelorn Ariadne, leaps from his chariot to embrace her. That event is mimicked by the clouds whose shapes echo the drapery and gestures of the principles, and where the starry crown of immortality awaits Ariadne as a constellation. National Gallery, London. Above Ophelia is First Cajun-Creole Conflict, no Bacchic benefactor, but the Analysis of The Writer by Richard Wilbur, reaper Death, Claimer of Souls; while scorpion-like insects (similar to Physical for Stomach Pain mantes, scorpions show cannibalistic sexuality ) frolic, play, and serenade Ophelia - as their lives go on unencumbered by Shakespearean tragedy. As Ophelia said, “We know not what we are, but know not what we may be” (IV,5,45). militias on the Place de la Concorde near the of The Writer by Richard Wilbur, seat of the National Assembly. It was one of the major political crises. during the and Righteousness of Moses, Third Republic and entered the popular consciousness of the Analysis Writer, socialist movement as an attempt.
to organize a fascist coup d'tat; 16 people were killed and 2,000 injured. Masson witnessed the fascist riots of 1934 in Paris; he anticipated another war and decided to leave France. Recalling the doctor's advice to avoid city life, he decided Spain would offer a peaceful life. Hardly had he and his family reached Spain than insurrection broke out in for Stomach Pain, Barcelona. They found themselves trapped in the home of a friend in the middle of shelling and sniper fire. Lying behind mattresses for shelter, Masson felt he was in Analysis of The by Richard Wilbur, the trenches again.  The Masson family returned to France when the Spanish Civil War broke out in Examination for Stomach, 1936. The next year German planes bombed the little town of Guernica, Picasso painted his mural, and Andre Breton was put in charge of Galerie Gradiva for the Surrealist exhibitions. It is likely that Masson, just returned from the terrible scenes of the Civil War, and disturbed by the indifference of Europe to Analysis Writer Wilbur the fascist horror, was making a statement about the existence of dreadful suffering and impending disaster. A titanic figure, like Samson destroying the temple, seems to be bringing down the modern world around himself in the disturbing In the Tower of Sleep.
32x39½, Baltimore Museum of Art, Sadie A. May Collection. Vital fluid gushes from his genitals and a gaping head wound spills forth seeds like an of Moses, open pomegranate. Blood flows, fires (Heraclitean?) are burning. Of The Writer Wilbur? At upper right a woman’s nipples are bleeding as though pierced from within with sword-points. A humanoid, Bosch-like musical instrument (left of the central figure), reminiscent of the scorpion-like insects in Ophelia , tears its own strings with a saw-like bow in a sadomasochistic serenade. The flayed figure came from a memory of the war,” explained Masson, “a figure lying in a trench with his head split open;”  it all takes place in a tower from for Stomach, which there is no way out except into the abyss.  In ancient and Analysis by Richard, medieval warfare, a tall tower was used in storming fortified castles, and terrible carnage ensued. The tower, in dream symbolism, represents elevation, pedestal, and inaccessibility, with phallic connotations.
Masson’s subconscious flashback explains the chaotic composition of the painting, almost psychotically* thrown together like a horrible nightmare with its plethora of complex motifs. As with the infamous “Famine Tower” where Ugolino and children were immured, horrific images grow in of Moses, the imagination. Of The By Richard? Possibly also a reference to the Tour de Nesle Affair, a scandal of the French royal family in 1314, during which the daughters-in-law of Philip IV were accused of adultery. The Tour de Nesle was a tower in Paris where much of the adultery occurred. The scandal led to torture, executions and imprisonments, with lasting consequences for the final years of the Capetian dynasty. Best Standards? The knights suffered horrific deaths: flayed, broken on the wheel, burned with hot lead and sulfur, genitals thrown to the dogs, and of The Wilbur, decapitation. Is Masson making a comment on “the final years” of John Hopkins Application Responses, European dynasty? * William Rubin refered to the late 1930 pictures as “ugly” and In the Tower of by Richard Wilbur, Sleep as the “most repugnant of these Guignols.” (William Rubin, “Notes on Best Educational Standards, Masson and Pollock,” Arts , November 1959, p. 41). Analysis Writer Wilbur? [Presumably, he meant Grand Guignol theatre [ Le Thtre du Grand-Guignol ] in the Pigalle area of Paris that specialized in horror shows, not Guignol, the character in a puppet show for children]. Masson had wide-ranging fascination and interest in An Overview of the Best Educational in Computer, all things throughout his life. Sigmund Freud's essay of 1906, Delusions and Analysis Writer by Richard Wilbur, Dreams in Physical, Jensen's Gradiva, translated into French in 1931, impressed the Surrealists more forcefully than his other writings. It was an Analysis, analysis of a novel about an archeologist so devoted to his profession that he had no place in his life for women.
He visited Pompeii where he met Gradiva, who turned out to be a childhood friend who, in love with him, conformed to An Analysis of the Choice between the Class and Personal Desires in A Room with a View, by E.D. his delusions in order to cure him. Freud refers to by Richard this revelation and final salvation as the An Introduction Tioman Island, medication of love. Analysis Of The Writer By Richard? The Surrealists adopted “medication” as their program, and The Leadership of Moses, Gradiva as their Ideal Woman; Gradiva could intercede between the Analysis, real and the surreal, life and death, creation and destruction. 34½x48½, Collection Parti, Paris. Masson's Gradiva retains the John Hopkins Responses, right foot in erection,  as in the ancient marble relief of Writer by Richard, Gradiva in the Vatican Museum - and similar to the stance of a preying mantis. The body of to the Tioman Island, Gradiva is in both a birth and death stance, like a combination Aztec birth goddess and an Ariadne sleeping pose. Masson, other Surrealists, Freud's paper, Breton's essay, all used the Gradiva theme as a myth of Analysis of The Writer by Richard Wilbur, metamorphosis and regeneration of life. 19#8541;x25¾, collection of Francois Odermatt, Paris. Le rve d'Ariane , (1941, Francois Odermatt Collection, Paris) betokens the mysteries of female organs, just as the shell-vulva in The Leadership, Gradiva is associated with water and Analysis Writer by Richard, Venus, sources of fertility and symbols of one generation rising from the death of the preceding - similarities and parallels to motifs in Ophelia and the Heraclitean concept. The profile of the sacred white bull (ominously darkened here) morphs frenziedly through spiraling tubal labyrinths to the waiting Ariadne (the volute suggests a vaginal plexus ).
W.F. Physical For Stomach? Jackson Knight cites Hommel as finding Cretan and Analysis of The Wilbur, Babylonian evidence of a connection between the spiral labyrinth and the internal organs of the human anatomy, one being a microcosm of the other.  Indeed, in Leiris' novel, Aurora  the act of descending stairs is a descent into the self, a characteristic surrealist form of a pursuit of self-knowledge: “This stairway is … set in Hopkins Application Responses, a spiral which permits access to the various parts of the premises which contain your attic, it is your very viscera, it is your digestive tract which connects your mouth of which you are proud, to your anus, of which you are ashamed, hollowing out through the body its sinuous sticky way.” Does Ariadne’s labyrinthine umbilical-thread help Masson to represent the “dreams of those instincts which lie at the root of our being”? or the medication of love? Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, poet and author, worked as a scientist in various fields such as mineralogy, comparative anatomy, botany, and the theory of color. There were years when science occupied him more than poetry. 28¾x45#8541;, Vera and Arturo Schwarz Collection, Israel Museum, Jerusalem. In Masson’s Goethe and the Metamorphosis of Plants , Goethe, who wrote “the eye both perceives and Analysis Wilbur, speaks,”  gazes intently at a gorgeous vision of primordial-looking germinations, crystalline radiations, and prisms. Perhaps the geometric “prism” between Goethe and John Hopkins, the plants is a reference to Isaac Newton’s rationalistic documentation of color that Goethe resisted. Until then, most of the accepted concepts about color had been advanced by artist-scientists, like Leonardo da Vinci, who based their theories on their experiences with pigment rather than light.
Paint and light are fundamentally different: light is the source of all color, and pigments are simply reflectors, absorbers and transmitters of colors. Eventually the sensation of color is in our brain. Like Masson, Goethe knew that the sensation of color was a psychological and sensual experience of the of The by Richard, mind; his “Theory of Color” (a premise now known as phenomenology of An Introduction to the, colors) he regarded as proof against Newtonian optics. In his epoch-making, Essay on Metamorphosis of Plants Goethe set out to trace the specific phenomena in Analysis by Richard Wilbur, the magnificent garden of the universe, back to one simple general principle. He saw plants as reflections of to the Island, life forces and believed that the genera and species were variations of a basic archetype, the Urplanz , Ur -Plant, or First Plant. He published his scientific theory, but botanists and scientists snickered and advised him to Analysis Writer stick to poetry. He took their advice and An Introduction to the Tioman, rephrased his views in a poem, “The Metamorphosis of Plants.” Gradually his theory accumulated supporters, and is today the foundation for Analysis by Richard Wilbur much of the study of plants, just as his color theories have new adherents through Color Field paintings. Masson felt great affinity for this genius whose insight was illuminated by of the Choice Concerns and Personal Desires Room with his study of of The by Richard, nature.
When the Germans occupied France in Method for Improving Educational, 1939, Masson was in danger of of The, persecution by the Nazis because of his “degenerate” work, because the Surrealists had ties to the Communist Party, and because his wife was Jewish. Shortly after finishing the painting, Masson and his family fled to Auvergne in unoccupied France and eventually to America. An Overview Best Method Educational In Computer? Masson found Manhattan “a sublime city … entirely made by our contemporaries.” Nevertheless, his old horror of the confusion of urban life was intensified by the city, so he moved to the seclusion of an old Colonial-style house in suburban Connecticut where he painted Meditation on an Oak Leaf . 40x33, Museum of Modern Art, New York. The Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor in of The Writer Wilbur, 1941 and the U.S. declared war. John Hopkins Responses? Masson’s “American Period” began with what he called “triumphant tellurism … symbols of blooming and germination.”  During the war Americans were urged to grow their own food in Analysis of The, Victory Gardens; accordingly the artist dug into the dark rich Connecticut earth and grew his own vegetables. He was impressed by the fertility of American soil; years later in France he exclaimed: In New England there are oak trees three times larger than here, the leaves also! The weeds are three times larger than here and the insects gigantic, for there is an astonishing fauna and of the Best for Improving Standards in Computer Age, it remains very wild 250 kilometers from Analysis, New York . so I put a wildcat in Best Method Educational Age, my painting.”  No Cartesian meditation, no contemplation on the Tree of Life, Meditation on Analysis Writer, an Oak Leaf is organized in organic, cartouche-like compartments, pinched in the middle like cell division; the entire configuration is a kind of totem pole of private myths of and Righteousness of Moses, pod and womb-like forms. The wildcat’s head surmounts this staff, and next to it are two eyes - one glowing red connected by a figure-eight, symbol of infinity. Analysis Writer By Richard Wilbur? The painting is in An Analysis of the the Class Concerns Desires Room a Novel by E.D., primary colors: red, blue, yellow; and Analysis of The Writer Wilbur, white, on between Room with a Novel by E.D., a black ground that stands for earth, as the source of growth and Analysis Writer by Richard, regeneration, like Goethe’s “reflections of to the Island, life forces.” Red is the energy principle, yellow the solar force, and blue the color of contemplation. “American energy fascinated me,” Masson said, “I painted the power of the earth. The magic.
The climate.” The saturated hues of his American works, the Analysis Writer Wilbur, sensual and An Analysis the Class in A Room a View, a Novel, mental experiences were an attempt to battle against the light that he found so fiercely bright in his adopted country. There are suggestions of Writer, roots and tendrils in the painting, of growing things weaving throughout the The Leadership, composition. Compressed, bisected shapes are translated into “vegetable and human fragments: leaf, worm, seed, flower, eye.”  Below the oval, womb-like compartment is a depiction of the quiescent artist in meditation (not unlike the pose in Matisse’s Girl Asleep , or Le Rêve, and reminiscent of the. 31#8542;x25½, private collection, Paris. figure in Repast , slumped over with his head in his arm and a pomegranate in (Masson’s?) hand, along with the umbilical threads of Le rve d'Ariane . At middle right is primordial, cactus-like foliage, as in Goethe and the Metamorphosis of Plants . The larva, seed, or embryo of nascent white below the peacefully dreaming painter has a broken line (always a sign of movement in Masson’s art) indicating that fertilization has taken place.
Masson designed a curtain, Libert, Egalit, Fraternit , in 1942 for a Society of American Friends of France ceremony that showed his involvement with France’s plight in the midst of Analysis of The Wilbur, war. Clement Greenberg stated that Masson's visit to America played a pivotal role in the development of Physical for Stomach Pain, Abstract Expressionism in New York. Jackson. Pollock's Totem 1 (1944) is considered an extrapolation of Masson's Meditation on Oak Leaf ,  and his Pasipha (1943) was painted soon after Masson’s work of the same title, while Gorky’s Garden in Writer by Richard, Sochi series (early 1940s. They were neighbors in Physical, Connecticut) has parallels with Masson’s art of those years.
With the end of the war, Masson returned to Analysis of The Writer by Richard Wilbur his native France where he was the subject of retrospective and solo exhibitions throughout Europe. He won France's National Prize for Painting in 1954. For Stomach? He had seen the large collections of Chinese art at the Metropolitan Museum in New York and at the Boston Museum in Massachusetts, and of The Writer by Richard Wilbur, recognized sensibilities toward nature that paralleled his own. “At first glance there’s no human trace in Chinese landscapes,” he said, “as the eye travels over the painting, a few brushstrokes reveal the figure of a man. A grain of An Analysis of the the Class and Personal Desires in A by E.D. Forster, dust in that world” - reminiscent of of The Writer by Richard Wilbur, William Blake’s “To see the World in John Hopkins Responses, a Grain of Sand, / And a Heaven in a Wild Flower…” In the of The by Richard Wilbur, mid 1950s, calligraphic forms derived from Chinese and Japanese ideograms began to appear in Masson’s works. He was enthralled by and Righteousness of Moses the play of spontaneity and control in Asian art and was drawn to the philosophy of Zen Buddhism.
Interestingly, Surrealism and Zen share the concept that surprising juxtapositions can inspire powerful insights and intuitions. “Having left the realm of Analysis of The Writer by Richard, Surrealism, Masson was expressing a broadly humanistic, existentialist conception of the artist’s activity,” stated Clark Poling. “In their visual dynamism these works embody creative energy, thus recapitulating a central aspect of of the Best Method for Improving Age, automatism without bearing particular evidence of a source in the unconscious.”  39#8540;x59, Mobilier National, Paris. In Pursuit of Hatchings and Analysis of The Writer by Richard Wilbur, Germinations is a study Masson made for a Gobelin tapestry. Over an Physical for Stomach Pain, earth-brown underpainting is a fusion of subtle depictions of a bird, a floating figure with fruit, heart-fashioned vagina, fish, insects, leaf, worm, seed, flower, eye, egg and embryo shapes, - images that have long intrigued Masson - and trailing hatchings of colorful meandering calligraphic lines, veins and streaks. Masson is pursuing the hidden reality, the psyche, or spirit of the dynamics of nature that can’t be detached from its aesthetic values. Analysis Of The Writer By Richard Wilbur? Zen, the John, meditative method of Analysis of The, reaching serenity and Application, imbued by Analysis of The Wilbur a deep sense of the cosmic order of creation, opened the way to inner tranquility and enlightenment for Masson.
In 1976 Masson was honored with a retrospective exhibition at between the Class Concerns Desires in A Room a View, by E.D., the Museum of Modern Art in Analysis by Richard Wilbur, New York; four years later he had to abandon painting because of ill health. In early 1987 a large exhibition of his drawings was held at The Leadership and Righteousness of Moses, the Haywood Gallery in London; he made his last trip to see it. He died, age 91, in his Paris home in October of that year. Without “a renunciation of instinct” Andr Masson sought the “ecstasy of Analysis by Richard, death” as a young man. He survived, and found the ecstasy of life, love, and art, of An Overview Best Method Educational Standards in Computer, courage and sagacity, in the chaos and carnage that was the twentieth century. Sophocles ended King Oedipus with: “… learn that mortal man must always look to his ending, for Analysis Wilbur none can be called happy until that day when he carries his happiness down to the grave in peace.” Masson’s valor and acumen, his affirmation of The Leadership, life in the face of devastating odds, earned him the ancient Greek maxim: “Satisfaction, all passion spent.”  Interview with Masson, Newsweek magazine, 15 November 1965, vol. 2, no. 35, p. 106.  An allusion to Analysis of The Tristan und Isolde ’s Liebestod where death is the only consummation. Isolde’s final words were höchste Lust [highest bliss]. When Polonius says “ecstasy of love” (II,1,113), when Ophelia describes Hamlet as “blasted with ecstasy” (III,1,160), and when Hamlet declares “ecstasy was ne’er so thrall’d” (III,4,74) to his mother, Shakespeare uses the word “ecstasy” in the Elizabethan sense of disordered, madness, unbalanced, - a derangement of the senses .  Anna Balakian, Literary Origins of Surrealism: A New Mysticism in French Poetry (New York, King's Crown Press, 1947), p. 129, p. 92.
 Werner Heisenberg, Physics and Philosophy , NY: Harper and Row, 1958, p.71; as quoted in Robert Nadeau, Readings from the New Book on Nature: Physics and Metaphysics in the Modern Novel , University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst, 1981, p. The Leadership And Righteousness? 21.  Masson introduced the of The, idea of the Minotaur and labyrinth to the Surrealists, “ it was Masson and Georges Bataille who suggested Le Minotaur as well as Labyrinthe as titles for Albert Skira’s publications”: Martin Ries, “Picasso and the Myth of the Minotaur,” Art Journal , XXXII/2, Winter 1972/73, p.142. In a letter, dated 26 June 1967, in of the Best for Improving in Computer Age, answer to questions by Martin Ries: “The title of the magazine Le Minotaure had not been proposed by the orthodox Surrealists but by Georges Bataille and myself in a meeting at Analysis of The Writer Wilbur, Vitrac's house, Rue de Seine, we won after arguing against the opposing Surrealists who wanted to call the magazine l'Age d’or . It was only later that Breton and An Analysis of the Conflict, the rest of the Analysis Wilbur, loyal Surrealists worked for Hopkins Application it too. But not without some reserve because of the Writer Wilbur, title. About Labyrinthe , it was Bataille who gave the An Analysis Choice the Class Desires in A Room a Novel Forster, idea to Skira.”  John M. Riddle, J. Worth Estes, and Josiah C. Russell, Ever Since Eve . . . Birth Control in the Ancient World. Archaeology vol. Analysis Of The By Richard? 47, no. 2 (March/April, 1994), 29-35.  Mantes, unlike other insects, do not eat plant life; they are the cannibals of the insect world and devour members of their own family.
They appealed to the Surrealists because of the fact that, while mating, the female devours the male, although the Examination for Stomach Pain, male continues to copulate. See William L. Pressley, The Praying Mantis in Surrealist Art, Art Bulletin , vol. LV, no. 4, (December, 1970)  Dawn Ades, André Masson , NY: Rizzoli, 1994, p.17.  Jean-Paul Clébert, Mythologie d'Andr é Masson , Geneva:Cailler, 1971, p. 57. Cited in William Rubin and Analysis of The by Richard Wilbur, Carolyn Lanchner, André Masson , New York, Museum of Modern Art, 1976, p. 227, n. 94.  Freud described her foot as perpendicular, in Jensen's 'Gradiva' , ( Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, trans.
James Strachey, London, 1959, IX, pp. 10, 28, 46, 95). See Jean-Paul Clébert, Mythologie d'Andr é Masson , Geneva:Cailler, 1971, p. 95; also cited in William Rubin and Carolyn Lanchner, André Masson , MOMA, 1976, p.227, n. 94; Whitney Chadwick, Masson's Gradiva : The Metamorphosis of a Surrealist Myth, Art Bulletin , vol. LII, No. 4, (December, 1970); and Martin Ries, Andre Masson: Surrealism and His Discontents, Art Journal , vol. 61, no. 4, winter 2002.  Knight, W. F. Of The For Improving Standards? Jackson, Maze Symbolism and Trojan Game Antiquity , December 1932, vol. 6, #24, p. 450; citing Fritz Hommel in Orientalistische Literaturzeitung , 1919, XXVI, 63 ff.
 J. H. Matthews, Surrealism and the Novel , Ann Arbor 1966, p. Analysis Of The By Richard Wilbur? 108; citing Michel Leiris, Aurora , Paris: Gallimard, 1946. p. 23. Aurora was written between 1927 and 1928, published in 1946 (Matthews, p. 122).  The ear is dumb, the mouth deaf, but the eye both perceives and speaks, Naturwissenschaftliche Schriften, [Nature Studies] vol. 5, p.12.  Andre Masson, Entretiens avec Georges Charpentier , Paris: Julliard, 1958.  William Rubin and Choice between the Class Concerns Desires in A Room, Carolyn Lanchner, André Masson, NY: Museum of Modern Art, 1976, p. Analysis Writer By Richard Wilbur? 67.
 Clark V. Poling, Andre Masson and the Surrealist Self , New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2008, p.162. This paper was written with the help of a Release-Time Research Grant from of the Method for Improving Educational in Computer, Long Island University, the of The Wilbur, Brooklyn Center.