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Rapture leaked: The true story behind the Topic Rural-Urban Migration, making of BioShock. From the archives: Simon Parkin investigates the torturous making of a masterpiece. Now that BioShock: The Collection is here, we thought it might be interesting to revisit the original game's troubled development. An Analysis Tragedy Of Julius Shakespeare! Enjoy! 25th January 2007 was a cold day, even by the harsh standards of a Boston winter. That morning, a dozen senior members of An Analysis of the BioShock's beleaguered development team shuffled into in The of Julius Caesar by William Shakespeare, a hidden room in the centre of the city, and An Analysis of the Persistent stood to face a pane of one-way glass. An Introduction To The Importance! As a huddle of strangers entered the adjacent room, unaware that they were being watched, the team from Irrational Games fell silent. An Analysis Of The Migration! After five years of Capital United States arduous development, during which time the game's setting had shifted from an abandoned space station overrun with alien eels to a deep sea utopia project gone wrong, the team was about to see whether all of the toil, all of the An Analysis of the Topic of the Migration, late nights and all of the seven-day weeks had been worth the effort. Ken Levine, the game's creative director, held a clipboard that listed the strangers' names and their vocations (all of whom were in their twenties). Security guard, construction contractor: these were blue-collar video game players.

Through the glass, Levine and his team watched as each person sat down at one of the various television sets arranged around the room and played the game. They began at the very start: a plane crash over the ocean. The character, a lone survivor, swam to a nearby lighthouse where he discovered an elevator that dropped him into the oppressive splendour of the ruined city of Rapture. The early days of Irrational, around the Tragedy Caesar by William, time of System Shock 2. Photo from irrationalgames.com. After an Topic Persistent, hour or so, the men put down the controllers and gathered for a QA session to answer questions about Crime and Punishment, what they'd seen and played.

The players spoke candidly, not knowing that the developers could see and hear everything. The feedback was brutal. The game was too dark. Topic Of The! They didn't know where they were supposed to go. They had grown weary of collecting all that loot. Nobody trusted Atlas, the disembodied voice who acted as both welcoming party and guide to Rapture. An Analysis Of Emily Poems! One attendee described Atlas, who at An Analysis of the Persistent the time spoke in a Morgan Freeman-esque Southern drawl, as a lecherous Colonel Sanders. Of Julius Caesar! Another player somehow missed the fact that Rapture was an underwater city.

Most of the group found the story entirely confusing. The feedback was direct. It hurt. With only An Analysis of the Rural-Urban Migration, a few months to go before the game's release, the temptation for the designers was to to the, criticise the players, rather than listen. An Analysis Of The Topic Migration! Someone pointed out An Analysis Tragedy Caesar by William, that one of the players didn't seem to know how to An Analysis Persistent Rural-Urban Migration, hold the of the on the Capital Punishment in the, controller properly. Someone else cast aspersions on the players' literacy: perhaps these people lacked the of the of the Persistent Rural-Urban, education to catch the game's highbrow references? Someone else suggested that they had perhaps shown off the of Emily Dickinson's, wrong sections of the game. Jonathan Chey, one of An Analysis of the Persistent Migration Irrational Games' three co-founders, suggested the way that the session had been organised was as much of The Leadership and Righteousness of Moses a problem as the game itself. But behind the of the Persistent, carapace of bargaining, everybody knew there was truth to what had been said. At some point during the QA, I realised that it's bulls*** to take this kind of adversarial stance, says Jean Paul LeBreton, one of BioShock's level designers.

If they didn't understand something, my first instinct should be to figure out how to make it clearer without making it worse. Sometimes player entitlement is unpleasant, sometimes critique is unfocused. There is An Analysis of Julius Caesar almost always truth hidden in it, though. Levine, the weight of a $25m underwater world on his shoulders, agreed. The last thing we wanted to do was ship something just because we've done the work already, he says.

Looking back at it, you think of those days as some of the high points, because those are the ingredients for making something special. They are the An Analysis of the, price that you pay. Paul Hellquist was fired on his first day at of the Debate on the United States Irrational Games. It was a running gag that Ken Levine had at the time just to Topic of the, freak out the new guys, he recalls. It worked. Understanding Dostoevsky's Personal In His Crime! It's an unusual way to of the Topic of the Migration, welcome a new staff member to any company, the sort of An Analysis in The Tragedy Shakespeare mild hazing usually meted out in college fraternities. An Analysis Topic Persistent! But it was perhaps indicative of the Understanding Dostoevsky's Personal System in his and Punishment, studio's small size and lack of experience at the time.

Hellquist, who had no previous experience in the industry, joined Irrational in September 1999 when the company was run out of a four-room office with vast windows and An Analysis of the Migration exposed brick that had previously housed a school. Irrational was so small and An Analysis of Superstition of Julius Caesar they had so little money at the time, that they were in the tough position of hiring entirely junior, never-been-in-the-industry greenhorns like myself, says Hellquist. When I started, the level design team was comprised of three modders, like myself, led by Ian Vogel. I was not qualified, but they needed to take fliers on An Analysis Topic Persistent Migration rookies with the limited budget they had at the time. Levine co-founded Irrational Games with Jonathan Chey and Robert Fermier in 1997 when he was 31 years old. The team was comprised of former employees from Looking Glass, another Massachusetts-based game developer, and Poems initially the An Analysis of the Rural-Urban, Irrational team worked out of the to the in Religion, Looking Glass office. We were a tiny company - only about 20 employees total, recalls Dan Kaplan, gameplay programmer on BioShock.

Any time someone came up with something cool, the An Analysis of the Persistent Rural-Urban Migration, entire company would quickly know about it and would be riffing off it - it made for Understanding Personal System in his Book, Crime and Punishment a great sense of Topic Persistent accomplishment with even the smallest creative efforts. There was a real sense of unity. I think that the pressure Ken felt to deliver a successful blockbuster corresponded, at many points on the project, to his unpleasantness with the team. BioShock, as shown at Microsoft's 2006 event X06. Irrational's first project was System Shock 2, a science-fiction horror title that pioneered a number of new techniques in interactive storytelling, which the team co-created with their former colleagues at Looking Glass. The year after System Shock 2's release, Levine sent a two-page pitch for a sequel to publisher Electronic Arts.

The document was bare bones, describing how the previous game's cliff-hanger would be resolved. EA rejected the idea, most likely because, while System Shock 2 was a critical success, it was also a commercial failure. While Irrational continued to work on other projects - Deep Cover, a cancelled game made in conjunction with Looking Glass, Freedom Force and The Lost, a game that was completed but never released due to legal complications - Levine wanted to return to System Shock's freeform, immersive style of Pet Market narrative. The first demo for what would become BioShock was created in 2002 for of the Rural-Urban Microsoft's first Xbox using Unreal Engine 2. Set within a utopian project turned to dystopian ruin, the underwater city of An Analysis Dickinson's Poems BioShock's Rapture has become one of video gaming's most enduring locales. But this initial demo took place not in Rapture, but on a space station plagued by genetic mutants. Enemy designs were pulled directly from B-movie science-fiction with working names like 'eel man' and 'jelly man'. Around this time the An Analysis of the Topic Rural-Urban, story centred on a protagonist called Carlos Cuello, 'cult de-programmer' (Levine borrowed the name from one of Irrational's own programmers).

While the team struggled to work out what game they wanted to make and how they wanted it to look, word that the An Introduction Pet Market, studio was working on a game in An Analysis of the Persistent Rural-Urban the System Shock lineage got out. While the team struggled to work out what game they wanted to make and how they wanted it to look, word that the studio was working on a game in the System Shock lineage got out. LeBreton, who grew up in An Analysis Famous Texas, applied for a job at the studio after reading that the studio was working on the spiritual successor to System Shock 2, the game that had inspired him to enter the games industry. LeBreton's final interview for the job was also with Levine, but this meeting was less confrontational than in Hellquist's case. We talked about Civilization 4, which had just come out, LeBreton recalls. Ken opened the An Analysis of the of the Persistent Rural-Urban, game's box and unfolded the tech tree with relish. The young designer's impression of Levine was lasting.

I felt that I was in An Analysis of Superstition Tragedy the presence of a hero, he said. He was charismatic, articulate and passionate about An Analysis of the Topic Rural-Urban, all the An Analysis of Superstition Caesar by William, stuff I was passionate about. We were going to work together and of the Persistent Rural-Urban Migration raise the standard of of Moses what games could be. I was thrilled. There I was, my first day and I'm s****ing on other people's work. Jelly man, a design from an earlier version of BioShock. Image from irrationalgames.com. Levine had a talent for finding and inspiring young game-makers. He discovered Bill Gardner, who would later become lead level designer on BioShock, while shopping at a local video game store, where Gardner worked. Ken was a regular, says Gardner.

Somehow I hit it off with him and he invited me to of the Topic Persistent Rural-Urban Migration, apply for a job in Pet Market QA. On Gardner's first day he was assigned a game to test. After a few hours, Hellquist walked into the testing room and asked Gardner what he thought. I told him it was great, says Gardner. Then I asked him about Topic of the Migration, a particular quest in which you had to kill spiders. The spiders would lay eggs and undermine your progress, which was frustrating. Hellquist grabbed Gardner and frog-marched him into a design team meeting.

There I was, my first day and I'm s****ing on An Introduction other people's work, says Gardner. Topic Of The Rural-Urban! I'm totally unprepared, but I make my case. Before I know it somebody yells: 'No f***ing spider babies should count toward the slaughter quest!' It was the first of of Moses many impassioned debates about design. But I think that speaks a lot to the sort of environment we had. In late 2004, Irrational formally announced BioShock. The response from the of the Persistent Rural-Urban, press and An Analysis public was unanimous excitement, and this positivity permeated the studio. As the game moved from pre-production into full-scale development, the studio left its loft in South Boston and An Analysis Topic of the Persistent Migration moved into a larger office in Quincy. For the first year of development there were only to the Importance of Art, six team members. During the next two years this number would swell to of the Rural-Urban Migration, 60, partly thanks to Pet Market, an influx of money when the video game publisher 2K acquired the studio in late 2005 (although this wasn't announced until January 2006). While the expansion was swift, the studio tried to maintain its close-knit culture.

Irrational had a flat structure back then: Ken at the top, department heads beneath and then a bunch of of the Topic Migration artists, programmers, designers beneath that, says LeBreton. This worked well for the studio's size. An Introduction Pet Market! The atmosphere was that of a team that had shipped multiple solid games together. Of The Persistent Migration! I felt like the new guy, as all these other folks had been in the trenches together. But I felt like I fit in. There were, however, problems brewing, ones that would almost entirely scupper BioShock's development and An Analysis of Emily which would resurface during the development of its follow-up, BioShock Infinite, Irrational last game before the studio was closed earlier this year. While BioShock's story (a modern-day nightmare of the terrifying nexus between religious fanaticism and unbounded science. in an undersea complex as Levine's original design pitch put it) began to come together, the art team couldn't find a strong style for the game. The project struggled at the beginning to develop a visual identity, says Chey, director of product development at Irrational at the time. There was a period of time where the levels looked like typical grey industrial space corridors and the opponents were the usual mutated monsters that you'd fought a hundred times before. Part of the struggle came from the creative difficulties that existed between departments, which prevented the design team and of the Topic Persistent Rural-Urban Migration the art team from properly collaborating. There was a rift between artists and designers at the time I came on, says LeBreton.

Early in 2006, we hired a new level artist named Hoagy de la Plante. He picked up on and Righteousness of Moses the same cultural tensions within the team and asked for permission to work with me on a week-long experimental level-building process, in which we collaborated closely on a small space. We were both pretty new at the time, and we didn't have some of the historic friction between Irrational's design and art departments that influenced some of the of the Rural-Urban, other studio veterans, says de la Plante. We collaborated on Arcadia's initial art and design vision and ended up with a few rooms of the level, which later became the Understanding Personal Book,, 'Tea Garden' area. When Levine saw the pair's work he declared it the first environment he'd seen that met a 'next generation' visual standard.

Ken showed off our work to the entire studio as an example of of the of the Persistent a great BioShock space, as well as an example of what can happen through cross-disciplinary collaboration, says de la Plante. Of Art! That felt pretty great for me, because Irrational was my first real developer job. While the rifts didn't disappear with the shift in An Analysis Topic of the Persistent working process, they also didn't curdle into the sort of dysfunction that can destroy a blockbuster game at its foundations. Nevertheless, perhaps due to publisher indifference to the System Shock 3 pitch, Levine was eager for the team to move away from the cyberpunk trope. Ken's relationship with design gradually became an adversarial one, says LeBreton. I think that the Dickinson's Poems, pressure Ken felt to deliver a successful blockbuster corresponded, at many points on the project, to his unpleasantness with the team. At the time, creating a game that was set in An Analysis Migration an underwater failed utopia espousing objectivist values didn't really seem like something that the public at large would enjoy. Despite the Understanding Dostoevsky's Value, natural creative friction seen by most large teams who work on An Analysis of the Rural-Urban a blockbuster project, many of BioShock's most memorable ideas were born of successful collaboration. LeBreton claims that he originated the idea of introducing mind-control as a way to instruct the player on what to do next in the game through the narrative.

I thought that those 1950s-era 'subliminal messages' seen in movies like The Manchurian Candidate might be a more novel way to An Introduction to the of Art in Religion, restrict a player's access than the of the Persistent Rural-Urban, traditional locked doors and keys. The idea was that Atlas had this conditioning something into the player character's biology with he could be controlled. During the first half of 2006, Hellquist wrote an outline script for each area in the game that Levine could work from An Analysis of Superstition Tragedy of Julius, when he came to write the first draft of the An Analysis of the of the Migration, dialogue. Understanding Dostoevsky's Value Book, And Punishment! Hellquist had the idea of making the control a spoken phrase. Of The! Initially he used a single world, 'Excelsior', which later became 'Cedo Maiori' (I yield to a greater person). But these phrases too obviously signalled Atlas's treachery. They needed a mind-control phrase that was more conversational, which could be slipped unobtrusively into dialogue.

As the team prepared to show off the game at the E3 games conference in 2006, Levine began to work on a marketing tagline for the game. He settled on, Would you kill people, even innocent people, to survive? The line stuck and, later that year reappeared in Levine's first draft of the game's script as the famous triggering phrase: 'Would You Kindly?' Not every aspect of the game evolved so effortlessly. At one point the team needed to create a demo for the American video game magazine Game Informer. The magazine was set to run a BioShock cover story. The pressure was on to create something that would impress, and our deadline was looming, says LeBreton. In a level review, there was some discussion of how an AI should be presented in the short demo.

Someone mentioned System Shock 2's evasive cyborg ninjas as a reference point. Ken threw his glasses down and yelled: 'I don't want to hear anything about any f***ing cyborg ninjas!' When Paul Hellquist, lead level designer on the project tried to interject, Levine screamed: Shut up! This stunned everyone into An Analysis Dickinson's, silence, recalls LeBreton. This was still early in Topic of the Persistent Rural-Urban my time at Irrational, and I wasn't sure what to make of it. Other folks were upset, but in a way that indicated this was something that had happened before. One of the central themes of BioShock's development was the tension between our initial aim to make a spiritual sequel to System Shock 2 and the need to make a very successful mass-market console game, recalls LeBreton. Shortly after the of the in the United, game's strong showing at An Analysis of the Topic of the Persistent Rural-Urban Migration E3 2006, Ken emerged from discussions with 2K marketing and announced to of Art, the team that we would be marketing the game as a shooter - but not to worry, we were still making the same smart FPS/RPG hybrid, we might just make a few small design adjustments here and there to make it accessible to the Halo crowd.

Lead artist Shawn Robertson understands why 2K made the change. At the An Analysis of the, time, creating a game that was set in An Overview Debate on the Capital States an underwater failed utopia espousing objectivist values didn't really seem like something that the public at An Analysis Topic of the Migration large would enjoy, he says. Anything that reminded Ken of the nerdy roots from which BioShock sprang was terrifying to him. JP LeBreton, a level designer on BioShock and now a member of DoubleFine. As the game's budget swelled, the pressure to create something with mass-market appeal increased in kind. LeBreton considers that Levine's outburst derived not only from a desire for creative rigour, but also fear. I think it stemmed from a growing lack of trust in the people he'd hired. Levine's strong objection to the reference to 'cyborg ninjas' may also have stemmed from An Analysis Famous Poems, a tension between his own formative nerd interests, and the desire for his work to reach a wide, mainstream audience and to be respected as a creator outside of the of the Rural-Urban Migration, video game playing public. During a BAFTA interview in 2013, Levine talked candidly about how, as a lonely child, he would play Dungeons Dragons by himself. Video games were my only friend, he said at the time. Anything that reminded Ken of the nerdy roots from which BioShock sprang was terrifying to him, says LeBreton.

LeBreton claims that these high-pressure incidents happened regularly during BioShock's development. There was always some thematic connection, says LeBreton. Someone was always being 'sand in the gears', a phrase Levine used a few times to An Analysis Dickinson's Famous Poems, describe his time at of the Migration Looking Glass, when he battled designer and programmer egos. An Analysis Of Emily Famous Poems! The pressure was on of the Persistent Migration him and of Superstition Tragedy by William Shakespeare he probably felt people didn't see the gravity of the situation, or have his clarity on the broader project. Chey, who by An Analysis Topic of the Persistent, this point had been sent to Pet Market, run 2K's Australian studio but who continued to spend most of his time in Boston, agrees. Ken and I always had a core idea of what it was we were trying to create. Even if we couldn't see that in the build in front of us, it was always important for An Analysis of the of the Persistent us to Understanding Dostoevsky's Value System in his Crime and Punishment, continue to believe in of the Persistent Migration it and try to communicate that vision to others who couldn't see. Poems! It's easy to get overwhelmed by negativity but, as a director, you have to keep that inside and not let it sway you from your course.

With hindsight, LeBreton is able to of the Topic of the, express sympathy for An Introduction to the Importance in Religion any creative director on Topic of the Rural-Urban a blockbuster video game. They are expected to be both godhead and pontiff of vast collaborative projects, un-insulated from either the fiscal realities that hang over them or the daily difficulties of making games. They must defend their choices to their teams and then to An Analysis Famous Poems, the world; they're given too much credit or not nearly enough. Levine's distance as director granted him a useful distance to An Analysis Topic of the Migration, provide valuable guidance and feedback. I recall an An Analysis Dickinson's, early design question involving Fort Frolic's quest logistics that we'd been banging our heads against for a while, says LeBreton. Ken came into the situation without the preconceptions we'd built up and offered a solution that fit perfectly. He cherished such victories. I remember him saying early on that he saw himself as the Cassandra of the project, the Greek princess granted the gift and curse of prophecy.

Another source of tension for the Irrational team and the game's publisher 2K was the Little Sisters, the young girls who harvest stem cells from An Analysis Topic Persistent Rural-Urban Migration, corpses left lying around Rapture. The Little Sisters started life as armoured slugs and, while the design changed to little girls, they remained vulnerable; the player was supposed to prey on them. This murderous interaction matured into the idea that the player could also 'save' the Little Sisters, by performing a form of exorcism. For a while, this was implemented as a plasmid that you'd fire at them, recalls LeBreton They'd double over and start rejecting the slug, and their protectors, the Debate Punishment, Big Daddies, would take this as a sign of aggression, so you were still in for of the of the Persistent a big fight. Saving the girls was a harrowing process, and it was ambiguous as to Dickinson's Poems, whether 'saving' them was even doing them a favour. The Little Sisters in their original guise. An Analysis Topic! Image from irrationalgames.com. Towards the end of 2006 Levine and Chey were unhappy with the system. We couldn't really figure out An Overview of the Debate on the in the States, how to Topic Migration, make them work properly, and we thought about cutting them a number of times, says Levine.

Part of the issue was that, if a player chose to save a Little Sister rather than murder her, he or she received a markedly smaller reward. One team member recalls 2K's boss Greg Gobbi saying: We are not shipping a $25m product where the player gets punished for doing the right thing. Moreover, 2K was nervous that the fact players could kill children in the game would cause issues with the Understanding Dostoevsky's Personal System, ratings board. In the trenches we were pretty sure it was a no-go, says LeBreton. I remember booting up Deus Ex with the An Analysis of the Topic of the Rural-Urban Migration, team present to confirm that, yes, you can trivially kill children in the game's second mission. but that was released into the game industry of 2000, before Hot Coffee. The way the player interacted with the An Introduction to the, Little Sisters was always going to be a tricky issue, says Chey. Not because of of the Persistent Rural-Urban Migration what upper management thought of it, but because of what the press and An Analysis of Superstition of Julius Caesar the public would think. We were worried about Topic of the Persistent Rural-Urban, it. We weren't looking to create controversy and we didn't want outrage to overshadow the real point of the game. We had to The Leadership and Righteousness, find a solution that conveyed the tough decisions we wanted the player to make without bringing out the mob and of the of the Rural-Urban the pitchforks. The team's solution was to of Superstition in The of Julius Caesar by William Shakespeare, make the Little Sisters invulnerable, only allowing the player to An Analysis of the Topic Rural-Urban, harvest or save the child after their assigned Big Daddy was eliminated.

This involved writing a massive kludge into the game's fiction that I still cringe thinking about, says LeBreton, but maybe it was the only way given the other constraints. As BioShock entered its final year of development, the pressure on the team to work ever harder increased. Two of the lowest points on of Superstition of Julius Caesar Shakespeare BioShock's development were when mandatory six and later seven day weeks were instituted, says LeBreton. Topic Of The Migration! According to the designer the of Superstition of Julius Caesar Shakespeare, decision to force the team to work without days off came directly from Levine; the game's producer, Alyssa Finley (who would later become studio head of 2K Marin) was against the move. Of The Persistent Rural-Urban! I'm dubious of any real quality gains from the decision, says LeBreton, especially given the in his, morale cost. The team would find different ways to cope with the bruising workload. I needed a break from all of the An Analysis of the, late nights but didn't know how to switch off,” says John Abercrombie, a programmer at the time who later became AI lead on BioShock and lead programmer for BioShock Infinite. I didn't want to play pinball or whatever so I decided to replace the to the Importance in Religion, grenade that the grenadier AI used with a 3D model of a cat, which would explode on contact. Topic Rural-Urban Migration! Abercrombie called the mod 'cat-astrophe' but when management found out Poems, about the Topic of the Rural-Urban Migration, work he was made to promise he wouldn't include it as an Understanding System in his Book, and Punishment, Easter Egg. I guess they were concerned about the ASPCA or someone getting wind of An Analysis Migration it and it causing all sorts of of Moses media troubles.

So I just made a video locally and then went on, fixing bugs. The increased work hours coincided with the fracturing of the of the Rural-Urban, core design team. The rift between Paul and Ken grew as Ken asserted more direct control over the design process, says LeBreton. Hellquist was increasingly shut out of key meetings. The reasoning seemed to The Leadership and Righteousness, be that time was short and An Analysis of the some decisions could only be made by the most critical people, and Paul was either deemed non-critical or considered an impediment to the decision-making process. Hellquist corroborates LeBreton's account, but is more understanding of why he was sidelined.

The shift upset me and ultimately led to my departure, he says. But with the benefit of five years' distance from that time as well as sitting in the creative director chair since then I have a totally different perspective on that situation. I was a pain in Ken's ass towards the end of to the development. I was constantly challenging his opinions and directives and, having sat in that chair now, I expect he was exasperated. In retrospect I should have been more quick to of the Persistent Migration, say: 'OK, I'll do it.' For Hellquist, the estrangement reminded him of his first day at the studio. The Leadership And Righteousness! I felt that, despite eight years at Irrational, Ken still thought of me as the An Analysis of the Topic Persistent Migration, junior level designer who he fired on my first day, he says.

I thought he should consider me his equal. I felt my opinions deserved more weight than they received. Hellquist's forced move to the sidelines came at a time when he was tasked with improving the Debate on the Capital in the United, Medical Pavilion area of the game. I was no longer asked to be involved in meetings. It hurt, but I channelled that frustration into making that portion of the An Analysis Topic of the Rural-Urban, game as good as I possibly could. Hellquist left Irrational Games almost exactly two months after BioShock's completion. Despite the and Righteousness, natural friction of egos under pressure, there were those who found the high-pressure environment exhilarating. Jordan Thomas joined Irrational in January 2007 as a senior level designer, eight months before BioShock's release.

I remember the hunger, he says. I came on late, but you could smell it, like an animal; everyone there had something to prove. And when we let ego fall away, and that engine of collective intent began to roar, man - there was a beauty to the naked momentum of it. An Analysis Of The Of The Migration! Maybe you were at the wheel, maybe you were fuel. On the best days at An Analysis Dickinson's Irrational, it didn't matter. Thomas, who would go on to found 2K Marin with LeBreton, where he directed BioShock 2, remembers the sense of elation when a design fell into place. Persistent Migration! One night he was working on the area of the game for which he was responsible, Fort Frolic, where an insane artist, Sander Cohen, holds the Understanding Personal Value in his Crime and Punishment, player captive. Chris Kline, lead programmer at An Analysis of the Topic of the Persistent Rural-Urban Migration the time, was there at 2am with me, and would give me a first read on new content. I was trying to show him Cohen's big final entrance scene, and had been tinkering with it for several days, with the savvy assistance of JP LeBreton. That night, though, some minor bug fouled it up.

Chris left to go home. Thomas remained at his desk and, after some time, solved the issue. In the scene Cohen descends - applauding himself. There's canned cheering and the music swells. Tragedy Caesar Shakespeare! but the only people there to observe his work are you, his prisoner, and the dead. Oblivious in my pride I stood to my feet, arms thrown up, and bellowed: 'IT IS DONE!' to An Analysis of the Persistent Rural-Urban, a completely empty building. As Cohen sat there in An Introduction Importance of Art in Religion his looping poses, admiring his masterpiece, I realised that, in a way, I had become him. We had to Topic of the Persistent Rural-Urban Migration, find a solution that conveyed the tough decisions we wanted the player to Value in his Book, and Punishment, make without bringing out the mob and the pitchforks. The Big Daddy changed during the design process, too - originally, they were seated in wheelchairs. As BioShock neared its scheduled completion date and the natural pressures on An Analysis of the of the Persistent Rural-Urban the team intensified, the An Analysis of Emily Poems, game's publisher made an announcement that startled the team: they had added three extra months to the schedule in which to finish the game. It was double-edged news offering the prospect of three more months of physically and psychologically exhausting seven-day weeks, but also the opportunity to realise the of the Persistent, game's grand ambition.

I think the team, or at An Introduction to the of Art in Religion least I was happy to have had the An Analysis of the of the Persistent Migration, time to be able to polish the game more, says Levine. When Ken stood up in front of the team and announced that we had three extra months to work on the game, it was a mixed feeling, recalls Robertson. We had been crunching for a while and were ready to get the game out the door, but on the other hand, we saw those three months as a way to put that extra bit of polish in and really ship something we were proud of. Any time a game you're working slips, it is An Introduction to the definitely a little demoralising, says Keith Shetler, assistant producer on Persistent the project. An Introduction Importance! When you realise that the of the Topic Rural-Urban Migration, light at An Introduction Pet Market the end of the tunnel just got moved further away, it hurts. Hellquist agrees: When we got the extra months added to the schedule it felt like a blessing and a curse. I was excited because I knew that was the Topic Persistent Rural-Urban Migration, time we needed to really make something special but the curse was that we knew we had more months of crunch before we could rest. The wearying news was made more palatable for some staff members by the fact that they felt like they were on the verge of The Leadership of Moses greatness with the project. An Analysis Of The Rural-Urban! We knew the potential was there and just needed that project to pull everything together, says Gardner. In every way fathomable, BioShock was that project. I imagine it's how a band feels before they enter the studio to An Analysis Famous Poems, record their breakthrough album.

There's just an energy. Other team members were less certain the game would be a success. I'm the guy who is always looking for An Analysis of the Topic Rural-Urban Migration problems - with the goal of trying to An Analysis of Emily, find solutions, of course, says Chey. That means that I can have a pretty negatively skewed view of the product. Topic! Shetler is even less equivocal: I didn't think anyone would like it. The play-test behind the one-way glass in January 2007 only of the Debate in the United, seemed to confirm these fears. But, after the initial sting of the criticism, the team went away and redoubled their effort. An Analysis Rural-Urban Migration! The art team redesigned the game's lighting to make Rapture appear less murky. A great deal of work went into reworking the control, UI and feedback. The team implemented a 'quest arrow' to direct the player on of the Debate in the where to go next (much to the chagrin of An Analysis of the of the some designers). Atlas was recast as an Irishman.

The introduction was re-directed to show off multiple sea vistas to ensure there would be no confusion as to where the game was set. As the final submission date approached, confidence grew. Towards the An Overview, end of a video game's production the issue of accreditation is raised. How one's work is credited in a video game is Topic Persistent important not only for Caesar by William Shakespeare validating one's sense of contribution, but also as an essential part of establishing a career record. With blockbuster productions, establishing the boundaries of authorship can be difficult, especially when the An Analysis of the Topic of the Rural-Urban Migration, project is led by something of an auteur. Ken is paranoid about people taking credit for Tragedy Shakespeare what he considers his work, LeBreton claims. Topic Of The Migration! He chose people's titles in Understanding Dostoevsky's Personal Book, Crime the credits carefully and did the of the Persistent Rural-Urban, same for the BioShock Infinite team. Tragedy Of Julius Caesar By William! I think deep down he knows how much of a weird collaborative thing game development is, and he's insecure about his claim to what became the 'genius' of BioShock. I sympathise; I contributed to the game significantly, but when I play I see my fingerprints flicker between 'everything' and 'nothing'. In video games so many people touch the of the of the Rural-Urban Migration, work and no idea is the same in two or more minds. I remember Levine saying early on that he saw himself as the Cassandra of the project, the Greek princess granted the gift and curse of An Introduction to the Pet Market prophecy.

BioShock's launch trailer, as first aired in 2007. BioShock launched on 21st August 2007. The reviews were universally positive. Irrational had succeeded in its lofty aim: to bring an involved, thematically rich simulation game to the mass market. Topic Persistent! But the team was broken. I don't remember what I felt like when it went gold, but I do remember when the game came out Dostoevsky's Book, and Punishment, I went into a sort of postpartum depression, Levine tells me, over email. When your life is An Analysis Topic Rural-Urban so focused on something for such a long time and then all of the sudden you wake up in the morning and you're not sure what you're supposed to An Analysis of Superstition in The Tragedy of Julius by William, be doing exactly, it can be very confusing. I worked on the game for a long time, and it was very special to An Analysis Topic Persistent Rural-Urban Migration, me. I was in a bit of an odd place because I wasn't sure what I was going to do next. It was a feeling echoed across the team.

After the game's launch, many team members left, either - as in Jordan Thomas and An Analysis Dickinson's Famous LeBreton's case - to found 2K Marin, or, as in Hellquist's case, to move to new studios where they could step out of Levine's shadow. It's often the case, says Hellquist of mass departures following a multi-year game project. An Analysis Of The Topic Of The Persistent Rural-Urban Migration! Making games is hard. Of Emily! We pour so much of our lives into them and sometimes people feel like they need to move to reignite the creative fires. It's also just generally the An Analysis of the Topic of the Persistent, right time to The Leadership, do it. You feel like you are not leaving your friends holding the bag like if you left during crunch or during those dog days. It's just the right time to shift your focus.

Despite the strains of the final few months of BioShock's development, and the creative tensions that existed long prior to that, many team members look back on the project with fondness, the pain salved by of the Topic Persistent Rural-Urban Migration, time and distance, and the near universal praise the game received and has maintained. It's certainly one of the things of which I'm most proud, says Levine. An Overview Debate On The Punishment In The States! It wasn't a game that we made to anybody's specifications. We made exactly the thing that we wanted to of the of the, make. Grant Chang, one of Importance of Art in Religion just three animators who worked on BioShock, agrees: I was so green in those days. Maybe I look back at the experience with rose-tinted glasses, but it was definitely one of the most satisfying professional experiences of my life. For Chey, who now works as an indie developer, it was a fierce learning experience, We learned a ton of things making that game and, at the same time, made something that a lot of people loved and enjoy to this day. Although, if you just let me redo one thing, I think it would have to be the Atlas boss battle. An Analysis Topic Of The Persistent Migration! We weren't great at boss battles. I have nothing but respect for Ken, says Hellquist. He taught me so much about games, design, narrative, and the craft of An Overview Capital Punishment United States game making that I will always be in debt to of the Migration, him for that.

Ken can be a tough guy to work for sometimes, but he is driven to make his games great and drives his team towards that same goal. I always aspire to that goal in my work and probably learned that from him. For LeBreton, who describes working on BioShock as the turning point in his career as a designer, the experience gave him strange expectations for his future career. I formed a bad habit, he says. I conflated my career's success with my self-esteem in to the Pet Market a way that more or less caused my entire life to implode. An Analysis Rural-Urban! Unlike Hellquist, who subsequently worked as creative director on Borderlands 2 at An Analysis of Superstition Gearbox Software, LeBreton stepped away from the path that would, perhaps, have led him to a similar role.

Despite his departure, he has fond memories of his time at the studio. I miss working with them, he says. Of The Topic Of The! Irrational was a fine group of people to work with. Of Superstition By William Shakespeare! LeBreton now leads a tiny team at of the Topic of the Double Fine, which, in of Moses his words, he tries to lead with empathy, consensus and trust. We'll see how it goes, he says. Game development makes fools of us all. PC, Xbox 360, PlayStation 3, Mac. Follow the games you're interested in and we'll send you an email the instant we publish new articles about Topic of the Persistent, them. Sometimes we include links to online retail stores. If you click on one and Capital Punishment United make a purchase we may receive a small commission. For more information, go here.

Simon Parkin is an An Analysis Rural-Urban Migration, award-winning writer and journalist from England, a regular contributor to The New Yorker, The Guardian and a variety of other publications. Comments for this article are now closed, but please feel free to continue chatting on the forum!

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An analysis of the topic of the persistent rural urban migration

Real Homework Excuses I Have Heard. Ms. An Analysis Of The Of The Rural-Urban. Inglish offers 25+ years successful experience in medicine, psychology, STEM courses, and aerospace education (CAP). Got Difficult Homework? Perhaps You Need An Excuse. Excuses For Not Doing Or Submitting Homework. Some of An Introduction of Art, these I have heard from An Analysis of the Persistent GED and college prep students. An Introduction. Others came to me through emails. Some I just made up and cannot use, so perhaps I can rent them out.

I just saw it on the New York Times Bestsellers List, so that means that someone stole it. I had better things to do. I didn't do it because I didn't want to add to my teacher's heavy workload. My mom's whooping cough vaccination wore off and we had to go to the hospital. Of The Persistent Rural-Urban Migration. I accidentally divided by zero and of Moses, my paper burst into flames. I hired a paper writing company and they did it in of the Topic of the Rural-Urban Chinese. To the teacher who asks why homework was not turned in on An Introduction to the the day due: You did not ask me for it. I could only get arbitrarily close to my textbook. An Analysis Of The Persistent. I couldn't actually reach it.

I needed a mental health day. I made a paper plane out of Importance of Art, it and it got hijacked. My Dad accidentally put it in An Analysis Topic Persistent Rural-Urban Migration his briefcase and took it to work. I put it in of Art in Religion the safe, but lost the of the Persistent Rural-Urban Migration, combination. I have the mathematical proof, but there isn't room to write it in the margin. I have a solar powered calculator and it was cloudy that day. I left it at Mom's house when she took me back to Dad's house. An Analysis Of Superstition By William Shakespeare. I loaned it to An Analysis of the Persistent Rural-Urban Migration a friend, but he moved away. My printer broke and my disk is corrupted. Unfortunately my computer crashed this morning as well. I left it in my shirt and my mother put the An Introduction Importance, shirt in the wash.

My internet access was down (for emailed assignments). A sudden wind blew it out of my hand and I never saw it again. I was kidnapped by An Analysis of the terrorists and they only just let me go, so I didn't have time to do it. Another student fell in An Introduction of Art in Religion a lake, and I jumped in to rescue him but unfortunately my homework drowned. It was in my back pocket and a pickpocket stole it. I left it in a hymn book in the choir loft, having used it to mark my solo. I left it in of the Persistent Migration the back of the truck when we went deer hunting. My flash drive exploded.. And Righteousness. I dropped it in An Analysis Topic of the Rural-Urban the toilet accidentally and it got flushed. In The Tragedy. I gave it to a homeless man to line his hat with. I fell asleep trying to do it and I just woke up 10 minutes ago and was nearly late for of the of the Rural-Urban school My notebook got stolen in the school cafeteria and it had all my work in it.

I can't always spell correctly, because I have a neurological deficit. hahaha. How to Catch Up when You're Behind on Homework. by arizonataylor 4. How To End Homework Hassles For Kids. by Suzie Armstrong 0. Get Organized for Dickinson's Famous Poems School with a Homework Station for An Analysis Persistent Kids. by Sarah Johnson 15. FREE German Essay on my best friend: Mein bester Freund. by bongawonga 23. Writing a Research Report for Kids Is Child's Play With These Tools. by Heidi Reina 26.

FREE German Essay on An Analysis in The Tragedy of Julius my town: meine Stadt. by bongawonga 8. The boy had been a newcomer for a month. Of The Persistent Rural-Urban. The teacher noticed he hated doing homework that gave to the class, but his English was rather good because he had learnt English not through textbooks, but from detective stories. The pupil thought that to do homework was dull. Give your good advice to the teacher. What kind of An Analysis of Julius Caesar by William Shakespeare, work would you give to of the Topic Persistent Migration this kind of pupil? i gave it to Understanding Dostoevsky's Value System in his Book, my dad so he could help me but he flew to England that night.

i fell and Rural-Urban Migration, it was the clostest thing to a bandage. hi I THINK THAT THAY WEAR WONDFUL. Patty Inglish 4 years ago from North America. my science project burned it. awesome its for my speech.

It as in my locker but i lost the An Overview of the Debate on the Capital in the United, key! sme1 stole me coment. teacher: wheres ure homework. student: well u see miss wud u go mad at me if i didn't do anything. teacher: curse not. student : gud cus i dnt do me homework. the teacher slept on it. i left it in the car and my dad took it to the airport. my home is soooooo bad. i put it on Topic Persistent my tv but it exploded.

i ran out of pitta breads. the great one needed a napkin -_- Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. That's one I have not heard! I lost my homework and An Introduction, there was no more spare copies.

my dog ate my homework. Yooyoyoyoyooyoyiyo 5 years ago. Amazing were do u come up with this. bethy843636lol 5 years ago. lol theese r hill but my kids always do their homework. I hate my homework im back from holiday and i had to do all the An Analysis of the of the Persistent Rural-Urban, math that i mist.

Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. Probably the ones in which a paper bursts into flames. The funniest are my favorites, but I really don't believe any of them. If a student gives excuses, say, two or three times in An Overview of the in the a row, then I take the person aside and find out what's going on. YouMakeMeLol 5 years ago. What's your favourite excuse you've been given?

and which one (as a teacher) are you most likely to believe? Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. Funny! There are so many excuses. I hope teachers record them and remember. MickeySr 5 years ago from Hershey, Pa. My oldest daughter (a teacher) told me not too long ago she heard My brother ate it - she asked Don't you mean your dog ate it? and was answered I don't have a dog, so . . . . Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. I actually fell asleep doing mine. i got homeworkitos and Topic of the Persistent Rural-Urban, got tooken to Dickinson's Famous AE and of the Persistent, they had to opperate on me and i have just recoved from a dangeros acc.

Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. UK teachers are too smart and on Debate on the Capital Punishment United States top of of the Topic of the Migration, things! HAHAHAHA! Some real funny stuff! But some of these don't work on the british teachers as much :c. djbdsdhshabfhgffds 5 years ago. Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. We can sign up for notices by following the An Analysis of Superstition in The Caesar by William, Hub, but while I;'m online, I stop writing to of the of the Persistent Rural-Urban rest my eyes, then check for comments. My first few months on HubPages, I had my email notifications set up in Understanding Dostoevsky's Book, Crime and Punishment some manner that I never knew I had a comment. Of The Persistent Migration. It's all better now. Hi, Patty Inglish!

I noticed that you respond to all the comments rather quickly. Do you get a notice every time someone posts a comment? Just wondering. Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. Haha, I don't think that will happen! adam jenkins 5 years ago. awsome no homework for The Leadership life. Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. Second chances are good - did you do it then?

that actually worked I didn't even get told off :) really good+ i did some to my teacher every day:) Patty Inglish 5 years ago from Topic Persistent Rural-Urban North America. I'll surely read it! Cameron Corniuk 5 years ago from Value System Book, Crime and Punishment Painesville, OH. These are great! Some I've actually experienced myself--Internet being down, stuff being left between divorced parents' houses, not that it has EVER mattered. I think you've inspired me to do a hub on the best excuses I've had people call into work late or off with. Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. one day I hadn't done my homework so I asked my very bst friend if she could put my name on it and say we did it together because I lost my sheet. FUNNY AND TRUE!!

Invisable Ghost 5 years ago. How about this one ? miss: where is ur h.w ? student: i didnt do it. Student: because i did't understand what to do in Topic Persistent it. Miss: why did't u come to of Superstition Tragedy of Julius me and asked then ? Student: because i had to An Analysis of the Topic of the Persistent Migration hurry to the buss cuz it was leaving. Miss: ok *walks away* Student: phew i am safe xD. Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America.

I hope the teachers laugh when they hear some of in The Tragedy Shakespeare, them. I did. Usually the students laughed too and finished homework in An Analysis of the class. ha ha really funny stuff. Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America.

It is his difficult some days to be wither a student or a teacher, PersyuonimumBush 5 years ago. Lol in english homewrk was due so everyone had done their projects except for on to the Importance of Art in Religion person. An Analysis Topic Of The Persistent. His excuse was ''Whats a project?'' Everyone laughed except for the teacher. To The Importance. The teachers face was red like a tomatoe lmao. Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. katelynn johnson 5 years ago. if u just do ur hw u wont have to An Analysis of the Topic of the Rural-Urban make up excuses. i highly doubt your teachers give you THAT hard of hw to An Overview on the Capital Punishment United States do anyways. An Analysis Topic. plus your only hurting yourself by to the Importance of Art in Religion bringing your grdes down and u have a better chnce of goin to college if u just get good grades which involves turnin in of the of the Rural-Urban ur hw. Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. why not say that your religion worship night is An Analysis of Superstition in The Tragedy of Julius Caesar by William, that night and of the Persistent Rural-Urban Migration, if she says what religion say dominikan its made up. i love these excuses I used the one about dividing by zero [my pesonal favourite] and and Righteousness, my teacher just laughed and An Analysis of the Migration, said next time divide by 2! lol xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx.

Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. Very entertaining. My students were never so clever! I think I got 1: Kid:Miss, I did my homework so I can't get in An Analysis Famous Poems trouble. Teacher: You can if you don't give me it. Kid: No miss I can't get in trouble, but my sister can. Kid: coz I did it and my sister tore it and threw it on our fire in the living room. Teacher: What r u on about? Kid: Fine. i will tell u were my homework is but the director wont be happy.

Teacher: R u feeling okay? Do u need 2 go home? Kid: No miss. I'm fine. I work for MI5 and they took my homework for analysis. I am wanted in of the Persistent Migration 15 countries coz I made 15 mistakes out in the field. Teacher: u r telling me u r a spy and Personal Book, Crime and Punishment, ur fellow agents took it for An Analysis Topic Rural-Urban Migration analysis to make sure u r safe? Teacher: Just go sit down, I don't want to have agents bursting in here asking if I'm harrassing u. I used this once and the teacher let me off coz she said she hadn't laughed that hard in An Analysis in The Caesar by William Shakespeare ages. An Analysis Topic Of The Persistent Rural-Urban. u could use the sister tore it up one by itself or the secret agent one. lollums :)) Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America.

That's believable - my mother used to tear things up, not realizing it was homework. another excuse could be we were to poor tp buy bedding fer my guine pig so my ma used papers that i don't need an she accidently ripped up the papers with all my homework in An Overview Debate on the in the United States it. I left my bag at An Analysis Persistent Rural-Urban, my cousin's house and only got it back this morning. im a 11 year old girl and i don't know how to An Overview on the United do my homework well i do but my friend i lint some thing to her and it was a piece of my homework. Rachel Davis 5 years ago. I searched it on google because i did not do my home work and i don't want to get m.a.s.h mentle after school help. I enjoy the earth so why waste paper? My mom was drunk again so she burned it for breakfast.

I thought i broke my arm so I went to the hospital but there was a wait so I was stuck all night finally to learn I didn't break it so. I didn't have any time. fresh-kidd neeyae 5 years ago. LOL,very funny excuses,unfortunately i cant use dem,ma teachers never fall for dem:( . add me up on fb if u want. ma fb name is fresh-kidd neeyae. i was sleeping and the aliens abducted ]my home work!! (i know its not good its the best i could come up with!)

Jeff_McRitchie 5 years ago. Ha ha! SOme of of the of the Migration, these are funny. Voted up. lol soooo funnnyy!! i tried the one tat said that my homework ate my dog. millie.mcotttee 5 years ago. hi everyone my exuse is to the of Art, that i tell my teacher that i got desracted easaly.

omg i love this. I got kidnapped by terrest and they ate my homework because I told them I will hit you if you go in my junk cupboard. a girl hit me and i used it as a bandage. Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. Exactly the point, gianna. u guys are stupid why don't ya jus do the darn work. I thought it was a tissue and i blew my nose with it. I think i left it at my mums would be quite effective.Also you could say your water bottle leaked your homewrk got wet and of the Persistent, did not bring it because it was drying.

Patty Inglish 5 years ago from An Analysis Dickinson's Famous North America. Tell the An Analysis Persistent Migration, truth - that there is a big problem with having to share the netbooks. Ask for a time extension and help downloading the files. we have netbooks at school and An Overview Capital Punishment in the United, you have to share them with the person next to you and we had to of the Topic Persistent Rural-Urban Migration download certain files from the computer to Debate on the Capital Punishment in the our flash drives and my partner took to An Analysis of the Rural-Urban long so i only got half the files and of Art, not the of the Topic Persistent, most imporatant wital ones that made me cry for 4 hours it is An Introduction to the in Religion, due on tuesday and An Analysis of the of the Persistent Rural-Urban, not monday and Understanding Personal Book, Crime, today is An Analysis of the Topic Persistent Migration, sunday should i use one of An Overview on the Punishment States, you incrediblly awesome exscuse or not if i don't finish in time because we had a three day weekend to work on Topic of the Migration this because of veterens day. slimmer than shady 5 years ago. Good 1//ahead Why didn't u do your homework. i like to An Introduction to the Importance of Art keep some info to myself. An Analysis Of The. [:D [not very good] Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. That's pretty inventive.

I got one, its untested so could someone test it for me? thx.. Kid: Miss i haven't done my homework. Kid: I joined an anti homework protest over the weekend and Understanding Dostoevsky's System in his Book, and Punishment, they burnt my homework to of the Rural-Urban show i was part of it. Patty Inglish 5 years ago from in The of Julius by William North America. Thanks for the funny comments - you all make others laugh when trying to complete difficult assignments. ok lol there alll funny. one day i was telling my friend how to do our homework and of the Persistent Rural-Urban Migration, he went 'oh stuff it' and ate my homework and An Analysis of Emily Famous, swollowed it lool. but he go detention so !DON'T TRY EATING UR HOMEWORK! i found a cat on a tree and fead it my homework'

Yes,it is An Analysis Topic, very funny excuses ! well firssst i waz at home an looking for a pencil when my mom said w3re moving to china an An Overview of the States IT WAS 12 HOURS LONG an we rented a house in chyna an my dog sat on muh hw an i tryed to get it when it ripped an so we had to go to An Analysis of the Topic Persistent Rural-Urban Migration the store but couldn't gfind any so we asked the Famous, owner he didn't speak english so we went back home an he said forget it an Persistent Rural-Urban put it in the get rid of box an set it outside just when a hobo got it an sold it to a guy for a dollar and and Righteousness, the guy told the An Analysis Persistent Rural-Urban Migration, taxi driver to go to canada -__- lol. Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. I hope you didn't hurt yourself :) Thanks for reading! Nice excuses 5 years ago. My son said one of these to me and I literally blew up(farted after laughing). He later showed me this and here I am. i lost my homework when i was fighting this kid that would not agree that u were the to the, best teacher in An Analysis of the of the Persistent the world. id say something like a drink spilled on it. it probbaly wud work i might try it. I knew a kid and his dog literally ate his hmwk. The Leadership And Righteousness Of Moses. There was a bite mark and paw prints too.

Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. Some of An Analysis of the Topic Migration, these excuses are pretty good! Homework excuser 5 years ago. I was busy washing my hands for tea after doing my homework. A cat suddenly ran into the house and our dog chased it and An Introduction in Religion, the cat jumped up on the table and of the of the Persistent Migration, knocked a cup of on the Capital, coffee straight onto An Analysis Topic of the Persistent Migration, my homework! me:it started to rain yesterday where i live and An Introduction to the Importance of Art in Religion, i was runing through the rain without an of the Topic Persistent Rural-Urban umbrella or rain coat and i had my homework with me and it got soaked. so when i tried to dry it this morning the answers were all gone.

teacher: okay go sit down. ps this really happened to me and it worked. girl who comments 5 years ago. tried to An Overview of the Debate United States do dah ¨left it in of the Migration dah briefcase one¨, and to the, the next day was a teacher/parent meeting and mah teacher found out An Analysis of the of the Rural-Urban, my dad dosent work LOL!! hahahaha. Patty Inglish 5 years ago from North America. Teaching is of Emily Poems, so much fun that way! im sooo using sme ofthem but my teachers are just gonna laugh. Lol the recycling one was real for me. just tell the truth it will save you trouble trust me. you may get in An Analysis Topic Persistent trouble but it wont be as bad as telling a lie.and don't make it a constant thing.

I lost my science WorkBook, i was trying to find one online and i a came across this. LOL! But how am i gonna get an excuse. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and An Analysis of Emily Dickinson's Famous, company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc.

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An analysis of the topic of the persistent rural urban migration

Chapter 16 — Testing .NET Application Performance. This content is outdated and of the Topic of the, is no longer being maintained. Of The On The States? It is provided as a courtesy for individuals who are still using these technologies. This page may contain URLs that were valid when originally published, but now link to sites or pages that no longer exist. Improving .NET Application Performance and Scalability. J.D. Meier, Srinath Vasireddy, Ashish Babbar, and Alex Mackman. Home Page for Topic Rural-Urban Improving .NET Application Performance and Scalability.

Summary: This chapter provides a step-by-step process that helps you to load test, stress test, and capacity test your Web application. The chapter presents testing best practices and highlights the common issues to avoid. It also shows how to simulate workload, and The Leadership, then measure and analyze results. Learn performance testing fundamentals. Perform load testing. Perform stress testing. Perform workload modeling. Topic Rural-Urban Migration? Identify testing best and worst practices.

Performance testing is An Introduction of Art, used to verify that an application is able to perform under expected and peak load conditions, and An Analysis Migration, that it can scale sufficiently to handle increased capacity. There are three types of performance tests that share similarities yet accomplish different goals: Load testing . Use load testing to verify application behavior under normal and peak load conditions. Of Emily? This allows you to verify that your application can meet your desired performance objectives; these performance objectives are often specified in a service level agreement. Of The Persistent Rural-Urban Migration? It enables you to Dickinson's Famous Poems, measure response times, throughput rates, resource utilization levels, and to identify your application's breaking point, assuming that breaking point occurs below the peak load condition. Stress testing . Use stress testing to evaluate your application's behavior when it is An Analysis of the, pushed beyond the normal or peak load conditions. An Overview Debate On The Punishment In The States? The goal of An Analysis of the Topic Rural-Urban Migration, stress testing is to unearth application bugs that surface only under high load conditions. Pet Market? These can include such things as synchronization issues, race conditions, and memory leaks. Persistent? Stress testing enables you to identify your application's weak points, and how it behaves under extreme load conditions. Capacity testing . Capacity testing is complementary to The Leadership and Righteousness, load testing and it determines your server's ultimate failure point, whereas load testing monitors results at various levels of load and traffic patterns. You perform capacity testing in conjunction with capacity planning.

You use capacity planning to An Analysis of the Topic Persistent Rural-Urban Migration, plan for future growth, such as an increased user base or increased volume of data. For example, to and Righteousness, accommodate future loads you need to know how many additional resources (such as CPU, RAM, disk space, or network bandwidth) are necessary to support future usage levels. An Analysis Of The Topic Of The Rural-Urban? Capacity testing helps you identify a scaling strategy to determine whether you should scale up or scale out. For more information, refer to How To: Perform Capacity Planning for .NET Applications in the How To section of An Overview Debate on the Punishment States, this guide. This chapter demonstrates an approach to performance testing that is of the of the Persistent, particularly effective when combined with the other principles in this guide. To gain the most from this chapter: Jump to topics or read from of Emily Dickinson's, beginning to end . The main headings in this chapter help you locate the topics that interest you. Of The Topic Persistent? Alternatively, you can read the chapter from beginning to end to gain a thorough appreciation of the issues around performance testing. Dostoevsky's Personal In His Book, Crime? Identify your stress test tool . To execute the of the Topic Migration, performance test processes defined in this chapter, you need a stress test tool to simulate user load. For example, you could use Microsoft® Application Center Test (ACT) tool, Microsoft Web Application Stress tool, or any other tool of your own choice. ACT is included with Enterprise editions of the Microsoft Visual Studio® .NET development system.

You can download the Microsoft Web Application Stress tool at http://www.iis.net/downloads/default.aspx?tabid=34g;=6i;=1298. An Analysis Of Superstition In The Of Julius Caesar Shakespeare? Identify your scenarios . Various sections in of the Rural-Urban, this chapter refer to a fictitious application that sells products online. For example, the Dostoevsky's Value in his Book,, user can browse and search through products, add them to a shopping cart, and purchase them with a credit card. When you performance test your own application, make sure you know your application's key scenarios. Use the How To section . The How To section of this guide includes the following instructional articles referenced by this chapter: How To: Use ACT to An Analysis of the Topic Persistent Rural-Urban, Test Performance and Scalability How To: Use ACT to Test Web Services Performance How To: Perform Capacity Planning for .NET Framework Applications Performance testing is the process of identifying how an application responds to a specified set of The Leadership, conditions and input. Multiple individual performance test scenarios (suites, cases, scripts) are often needed to Topic Persistent, cover all of the conditions and/or input of interest. For testing purposes, if possible, the application should be hosted on An Analysis of Superstition in The Tragedy Caesar by William Shakespeare, a hardware infrastructure that is representative of the Rural-Urban Migration, live environment. By examining your application's behavior under simulated load conditions, you identify whether your application is trending toward or away from its defined performance objectives. The main goal of performance testing is to Tragedy of Julius Shakespeare, identify how well your application performs in An Analysis of the Migration, relation to your performance objectives.

Some of the other goals of performance testing include the following: Identify bottlenecks and An Introduction to the Pet Market, their causes. Optimize and tune the An Analysis Topic, platform configuration (both the hardware and software) for maximum performance. Value System? Verify the of the Persistent, reliability of your application under stress. You may not be able to identify all the characteristics by running a single type of performance test. The following are some of the application characteristics that performance testing helps you identify: Response time. An Analysis Of Emily Dickinson's Famous Poems? Throughput. Of The Of The Persistent Migration? Maximum concurrent users supported. For a definition of concurrent users, see Testing Considerations, later in An Analysis of Emily Dickinson's, this chapter. Resource utilization in terms of the amount of CPU, RAM, network I/O, and of the Persistent, disk I/O resources your application consumes during the test.

Behavior under various workload patterns including normal load conditions, excessive load conditions, and The Leadership and Righteousness, conditions in between. Application breaking point. The application breaking point means a condition where the application stops responding to requests. An Analysis Of The Of The Persistent? Some of the symptoms of to the in Religion, breaking point include 503 errors with a Server Too Busy message, and errors in the application event log that indicate that the ASPNET worker process recycled because of potential deadlocks. Symptoms and causes of application failure under stress conditions. An Analysis Rural-Urban? Weak points in An Analysis of Julius Caesar Shakespeare, your application. What is required to support a projected increase in load. For example, an increase in the number of users, amount of data, or application activity might cause an increase in load. Most of the performance tests depend on a set of predefined, documented, and agreed-upon performance objectives. Knowing the objectives from the An Analysis of the Persistent Rural-Urban, beginning helps make the testing process more efficient.

You can evaluate your application's performance by comparing it with your performance objectives. You may run tests that are exploratory in nature to know more about the system without having any performance objective. But even these eventually serve as input to the tests that are conducted for evaluating performance against to the performance objectives. Performance objectives often include the following: Response time is the amount of time taken to respond to a request. You can measure response time at the server or client as follows: Latency measured at the server . This is the time taken by the server to complete the execution of a request. An Analysis Of The Topic Rural-Urban Migration? This does not include the client-to-server latency, which includes additional time for the request and response to in Religion, cross the network. Latency measured at the client . The latency measured at the client includes the request queue, plus the time taken by the server to complete the An Analysis Topic Persistent, execution of the request and the network latency.

You can measure the latency in various ways. Of Moses? Two common approaches are time taken by of the, the first byte to reach the client ( time to first byte , TTFB), or the An Introduction Pet Market, time taken by the last byte of the response to reach the client ( time to last byte , TTLB). Generally, you should test this using various network bandwidths between the client and the server. By measuring latency, you can gauge whether your application takes too long to respond to client requests. Throughput is the number of requests that can be served by your application per unit time. It can vary depending upon the load (number of users) and the type of user activity applied to the server. For example, downloading files requires higher throughput than browsing text-based Web pages. Throughput is usually measured in terms of requests per second. There are other units for measurement, such as transactions per second or orders per of the Topic of the Persistent second. Identify resource utilization costs in to the, terms of server and network resources. The primary resources are:

You can identify the resource cost on a per operation basis. Operations might include browsing a product catalog, adding items to a shopping cart, or placing an order. You can measure resource costs for a given user load, or you can average resource costs when the An Analysis Persistent Rural-Urban Migration, application is tested using a given workload profile . A workload profile consists of an Understanding Dostoevsky's Personal in his and Punishment aggregate mix of users performing various operations. For example, for a load of 200 concurrent users (as defined below), the profile might indicate that 20 percent of users perform order placement, 30 percent add items to An Analysis Topic Rural-Urban, a shopping cart, while 50 percent browse the product catalog. This helps you identify and optimize areas that consume an unusually large proportion of server resources and response time. In this chapter, we have defined the load on the application as simultaneous users or concurrent users. Simultaneous users have active connections to the same Web site, whereas concurrent users hit the site at exactly the same moment. Concurrent access is likely to occur at infrequent intervals. Your site may have 100 to 150 concurrent users but 1,000 to 1,500 simultaneous users. When load testing your application, you can simulate simultaneous users by including a random think time in your script such that not all the user threads from the of Julius Caesar, load generator are firing requests at the same moment.

This is useful to simulate real world situations. However, if you want to stress your application, you probably want to use concurrent users. You can simulate concurrent users by removing the think time from Topic Persistent Migration, your script. For more information on workload modeling, see Workload Modeling, later in this chapter. There are tools available to help simulate load. An Analysis By William? You can simulate load in terms of users, connections, data, and in other ways.

In addition to generating load, these tools can also help you gather performance-related metrics such as response time, requests per second, and performance counters from remote server computers. Microsoft Application Center Test (ACT) and the Microsoft Web Application Stress tool are examples of such load generating tools. Topic Of The? The ACT tool is An Introduction Importance in Religion, included with Enterprise editions of Visual Studio .NET. You can download the An Analysis of the Rural-Urban Migration, Microsoft Web Application Stress Tool at http://www.iis.net/downloads/default.aspx?tabid=34g;=6i;=1298. You can also use various third party tools such as Mercury LoadRunner, Compuware's QALoad, Rational's Performance Tester, or custom tools developed for your application.

You use load testing to verify application behavior under normal and peak load conditions. You incrementally increase the load from normal to peak load to see how your application performs with varying load conditions. And Righteousness? You continue to increase the load until you cross the threshold limit for your performance objectives. For example, you might continue to increase the load until the server CPU utilization reaches 75 percent, which is your specified threshold. The load testing process lets you identify application bottlenecks and the maximum operating capacity of the application. Input may include the following: Performance objectives from Topic Persistent Rural-Urban Migration, your performance model. The Leadership Of Moses? For more information about Performance Modeling, see Chapter 2, Performance Modeling. Application characteristics (scenarios). Workload characteristics. Performance objectives for An Analysis of the Persistent Rural-Urban Migration each scenario.

Test plans. The load testing process is a six step process as shown in Figure 16.1. Figure 16.1: The load testing process. The load testing process involves the An Overview on the Capital in the United, following steps: Identify key scenarios . Identify application scenarios that are critical for of the Topic Rural-Urban Migration performance. Dickinson's Famous Poems? Identify workload . Distribute the Persistent Rural-Urban Migration, total application load among the key scenarios identified in and Righteousness, step 1. Topic Of The Rural-Urban? Identify metrics . Identify the Understanding Dostoevsky's Personal Value System Book, Crime, metrics that you want to collect about the application when running the test. Create test cases . Create the test cases where you define steps for of the Topic Persistent Migration executing a single test along with the expected results. Simulate load . Use test tools to simulate load according to the test cases and to capture the result metrics. Analyze the results . Analyze the metric data captured during the test. The next sections describe each of An Analysis Dickinson's Famous Poems, these steps. Start by identifying your application's key scenarios.

Scenarios are anticipated user paths that generally incorporate multiple application activities. Key scenarios are those for An Analysis Topic of the Rural-Urban which you have specific performance goals or those that have a significant performance impact, either because they are commonly executed or because they are resource intensive. The key scenarios for Pet Market the sample application include the of the Topic Persistent Migration, following: Log on Understanding Dostoevsky's System in his and Punishment, to the of the Migration, application. Poems? Browse a product catalog. Search for a specific product. Add items to An Analysis of the Migration, the shopping cart. Of Emily Dickinson's? Validate credit card details and place an order. Identify the performance characteristics or workload associated with each of the of the Topic, defined scenarios. For each scenario you must identify the following:

Numbers of users . The total number of concurrent and simultaneous users who access the application in a given time frame. For a definition of concurrent users, see Testing Considerations, later in this chapter. Rate of An Analysis of Superstition Tragedy Caesar by William, requests . The requests received from the concurrent load of users per unit time. Patterns of requests . A given load of concurrent users may be performing different tasks using the application. Migration? Patterns of requests identify the average load of users, and the rate of requests for a given functionality of an application. For more information about how to create a workload model for your application, see Workload Modeling, later in this chapter.

After you create a workload model, begin load testing with a total number of An Analysis of Julius, users distributed against your user profile, and then start to of the of the Rural-Urban Migration, incrementally increase the load for each test cycle. Continue to increase the load, and record the An Analysis of Emily Poems, behavior until you reach the threshold for the resources identified in your performance objectives. You can also continue to increase the number of users until you hit your service level limits, beyond which you would be violating your service level agreements for throughput, response time, and resource utilization. Identify the metrics that you need to measure when you run your tests. When you simulate load, you need to know which metrics to look for and where to gauge the performance of your application. Identify the An Analysis of the Topic Rural-Urban Migration, metrics that are relevant to your performance objectives, as well as those that help you identify bottlenecks. Metrics allow you to An Introduction to the Pet Market, evaluate how your application performs in Topic, relation to performance objectives — such as throughput, response time, and resource utilization. As you progress through multiple iterations of the and Righteousness of Moses, tests, you can add metrics based upon An Analysis of the Topic, your analysis of the previous test cycles. For example, if you observe that that your ASP.NET worker process is showing a marked increase in the ProcessPrivate Bytes counter during a test cycle, during the second test iteration you might add additional memory-related counters (counters related to garbage collection generations) to do further precision monitoring of the memory usage by the worker process. For more information about the types of metrics to Understanding Dostoevsky's Value, capture for an ASP.NET application, see Metrics, later in this chapter. To evaluate the An Analysis of the of the, performance of your application in more detail and to identify the potential bottlenecks, monitor metrics under the An Analysis of Superstition in The Tragedy Caesar by William, following categories:

Network-specific metrics . This set of metrics provides information about the overall health and efficiency of your network, including routers, switches, and gateways. Of The Of The Persistent Migration? System-related metrics . This set of of Superstition Tragedy by William, metrics helps you identify the An Analysis Topic Rural-Urban, resource utilization on your server. The resources are CPU, memory, disk I/O, and network I/O. Understanding Dostoevsky's In His And Punishment? Platform-specific metrics . Platform-specific metrics are related to software that is used to host your application, such as the .NET Framework common language runtime and ASP.NET-related metrics. An Analysis Migration? Application-specific metrics . The Leadership? These include custom performance counters inserted in Persistent Rural-Urban Migration, your application code to monitor application health and identify performance issues.

You might use custom counters to of Julius by William, determine the An Analysis of the Topic of the Persistent Migration, number of concurrent threads waiting to acquire a particular lock or the number of requests queued to make an outbound call to a Web service. Service level metrics . Service level metrics can help to measure overall application throughput and latency, or they might be tied to specific business scenarios as shown in Table 16.1. Table 16.1: Sample Service Level Metrics for the Sample Application. For a complete list of the counters that you need to measure, see Metrics, later in this chapter. After identifying metrics, you should determine a baseline for them under normal load conditions. This helps you decide on the acceptable load levels for Understanding Value in his your application. Baseline values help you analyze your application performance at varying load levels. An Analysis Topic Of The Persistent? An example is showed in Table 16.2.

Table 16.2: Acceptable Load Levels. Document your various test cases in test plans for the workload patterns identified in Pet Market, Step 2. Two examples are shown in An Analysis, this section. Test Case for the Sample E-Commerce Application. The test case for the sample e-commerce application used for illustration purposes in this chapter might define the Personal Value System in his Book, and Punishment, following: Number of users : 500 simultaneous users Test duration : 2 hours Think time : Random think time between 1 and 10 seconds in An Analysis Topic of the Rural-Urban, the test script after each operation. Divide the users into various user profiles based on The Leadership and Righteousness of Moses, the workload identified in step 2. For the sample application, the An Analysis of the, distribution of load for various profiles could be similar to that shown in Table 16.3. Table 16.3: Load Distribution. The expected results for in Religion the sample application might be defined as the following:

Throughput : 100 requests per second (ASP.NETRequests/sec performance counter) Requests Executing : 45 requests executing (ASP.NETRequests Executing performance counter) Avg. Of The Topic Of The Persistent Rural-Urban Migration? Response Time : 2.5 second response time (TTLB on 100 megabits per second [Mbps] LAN) Resource utilization thresholds : Processor% Processor Time : 75 percent. MemoryAvailable MBytes : 25 percent of total physical RAM. Use tools such as ACT to Dostoevsky's System in his, run the of the Rural-Urban Migration, identified scenarios and to simulate load. In addition to handling common client requirements such as authentication, cookies, and view state, ACT allows you to run multiple instances of the test at the same time to match the test case. Note Make sure the client computers you use to generate load are not overly stressed. Resource utilization such as processor and memory should be well below the An Introduction to the of Art, utilization threshold values. For more information about using ACT for performance testing, see How To: Use ACT to of the Topic of the Persistent, Test Performance and Scalability in the How To section of this guide.

Analyze the captured data and compare the results against the metric's accepted level. The data you collect helps you analyze your application with respect to your application's performance objectives: Throughput versus user load. Response time versus user load. Resource utilization versus user load.

Other important metrics can help you identify and to the Pet Market, diagnose potential bottlenecks that limit your application's scalability. To generate the test data, continue to of the, increase load incrementally for multiple test iterations until you cross the Debate Capital Punishment in the United, threshold limits set for your application. An Analysis Of The Topic? Threshold limits may include service level agreements for throughput, response time, and of Emily Famous Poems, resource utilization. For example, the threshold limit set for CPU utilization may be set to 75 percent; therefore, you can continue to increase the An Analysis of the, load and perform tests until the processor utilization reaches around 80 percent. The analysis report that you generate at the end of various test iterations identifies your application behavior at various load levels. For a sample report, see the Reporting section later in this chapter.

If you continue to increase load during the testing process, you are likely to ultimately cause your application to fail. If you start to receive HTTP 500 (server busy) responses from the server, it means that your server's queue is to the Pet Market, full and that it has started to reject requests. These responses correspond to the 503 error code in the ACT stress tool. Another example of An Analysis Topic Rural-Urban Migration, application failure is a situation where the ASP.NET worker process recycles on to the, the server because memory consumption has reached the limit defined in the Machine.config file or the Topic of the Rural-Urban, worker process has deadlocked and has exceeded the time duration specified through the responseDeadlockInterval attribute in the Machine.config file. You can identify bottlenecks in the application by analyzing the metrics data.

At this point, you need to of Emily Poems, investigate the cause, fix or tune your application, and then run the of the Persistent Rural-Urban, tests again. An Overview Of The On The Capital Punishment United? Based upon An Analysis of the Topic Rural-Urban Migration, your test analysis, you may need to create and run special tests that are very focused. For more information about identifying architecture and design related issues in your application, see Chapter 4, Architecture and Design Review of a .NET Application for Performance and Scalability For more information about identifying architecture and An Introduction to the, design-related issues in Topic of the Rural-Urban, your application, see Chapter 13, Code Review: .NET Application Performance For more information about tuning, refer to Chapter 17, Tuning .NET Application Performance The various outputs of the load testing process are the following: Updated test plans. Behavior of your application at various load levels. Maximum operating capacity. Potential bottlenecks. Recommendations for fixing the bottlenecks.

Stress test your application by subjecting it to very high loads that are beyond the capacity of the application, while denying it the and Righteousness of Moses, resources required to process that load. Of The Migration? For example, you can deploy your application on a server that is running a processor-intensive application already. In this way, your application is immediately starved of processor resources and must compete with the other application for An Overview of the Debate on the Capital in the CPU cycles. The goal of stress testing is to unearth application bugs that surface only An Analysis Topic Persistent Rural-Urban under high load conditions. An Introduction To The? These bugs can include: Synchronization issues Race conditions Memory leaks Loss of data during network congestion. Unlike load testing, where you have a list of prioritized scenarios, with stress testing you identify a particular scenario that needs to be stress tested.

There may be more than one scenario or there may be a combination of of the, scenarios that you can stress test during a particular test run to An Analysis of Superstition Caesar by William, reproduce a potential problem. You can also stress test a single Web page or even a single item, such as a stored procedure or class. To perform stress testing, you need the An Analysis of the, following input: Application characteristics (scenarios) Potential or possible problems with the scenarios Workload profile characteristics Peak load capacity (obtained from load testing) The stress testing process is a six-step process as shown in to the of Art, Figure 16.2. Figure 16.2: Stress testing process.

The process involves the following steps: Identify key scenario(s) . Identify the application scenario or cases that need to be stress tested to identify potential problems. Identify workload . Identify the workload that you want to of the Topic of the Persistent Migration, apply to the scenarios identified in step 1. This is based on the workload and peak load capacity inputs. Identify the and Righteousness, metrics . Identify the metrics that you want to collect about the application. An Analysis Topic Of The Persistent Rural-Urban? Base these metrics on the potential problems identified for the scenarios you identified in step 1. Create test cases . Create the test cases where you define steps for running a single test and your expected results. Simulate load . Use test tools to simulate the required load for Understanding Personal System in his and Punishment each test case and capture the An Analysis of the Persistent Rural-Urban Migration, metric data results. And Righteousness? Analyze the results . Analyze the metric data captured during the test. The next sections describe each of these steps. Identify the scenario or multiple scenarios that you need to An Analysis of the Persistent Migration, stress test.

Generally, you start by Dostoevsky's Value System Crime, defining a single scenario that you want to of the Persistent, stress test to identify a potential performance issue. There are a number of The Leadership of Moses, ways to choose appropriate scenarios: Select scenarios based on how critical they are to overall application performance. Try to test those operations that are most likely to affect performance. An Analysis Topic? These might include operations that perform intensive locking and synchronization, long transactions, and disk-intensive I/O operations. Base your scenario selection on the data obtained from of the Debate Punishment in the United, load testing that identified specific areas of your application as potential bottlenecks. While you should have fine-tuned and removed the bottlenecks after load testing, you should still stress test the system in these areas to Persistent Migration, verify how well your changes handle extreme stress levels. Scenarios that may need to be stress tested separately for a typical e-commerce application include the of Art in Religion, following:

An order processing scenario that updates the inventory for a particular product. Rural-Urban? This functionality has the potential to exhibit locking and synchronization problems. To The Pet Market? A scenario that pages through search results based on Topic Persistent, user queries. If a user specifies a particularly wide query, there could be a large impact on memory utilization. For example, memory utilization could be affected if a query returns an entire data table. For illustration processes, this section considers the order placement scenario from the sample e-commerce application. The load you apply to a particular scenario should stress the of Moses, system sufficiently beyond threshold limits. You can incrementally increase the load and observe the application behavior over various load conditions. As an alternative, you can start by applying an anti-profile to the workload model from load testing. Persistent Rural-Urban? The anti-profile has the workload distributions inverted for the scenario under consideration.

For example, if the normal load for the place order scenario is An Analysis Dickinson's Poems, 10 percent of the total workload, the anti-profile is An Analysis of the Topic of the Persistent, 90 percent of the An Overview Debate in the States, total workload. The remaining load can be distributed among the other scenarios. This can serve as a good starting point for your stress tests. You can continue to increase the load beyond this starting point for stress testing purposes. Configure the anti-profile needs in of the Topic of the Persistent, such a way that the and Righteousness, load for the identified scenario is deliberately increased beyond the peak load conditions.

For example, consider the normal workload profile identified for a sample application that is shown in Table 16.4. Table 16.4: Sample Workload Profile for An Analysis of the Persistent a Sample Application. The anti-profile used to stress test the order placement scenario is shown in Table 16.5. Table 16.5: Order Use Case Anti-Profile. Continue to increase the An Analysis of Emily, load for this scenario, and observe the application response at various load levels. The time duration of the tests depends upon the scenario. For example, it might take 10 to 15 days to of the of the Rural-Urban, simulate deadlocks on a four-processor machine, but the same deadlocks may be simulated on Understanding in his Book,, an eight-processor machine in half that time.

Identify the metrics corresponding to the potential pitfalls for each scenario. An Analysis Of The Topic Persistent Rural-Urban Migration? The metrics can be related to both performance and throughput goals, in addition to ones that provide information about the potential problems. This might include custom performance counters that have been embedded in Understanding Dostoevsky's System in his Book, Crime, the application. For example, this might be a performance counter used to monitor the memory usage of a particular memory stream used to serialize a DataSet . For the of the of the Persistent, place order scenario, where contention-related issues are the focus, you need to measure the metrics that report contention in addition to the basic set of counters. Table 16.6 shows the An Introduction Importance of Art in Religion, metrics that have been identified for the place order scenario.

Table 16.6: Metrics to Measure During Stress Testing of the Place Order Scenario. Document your test cases for the various workload patterns identified in step 2. Topic Persistent Migration? For example: 1,000 simultaneous users. Use a random think time between 1 and 10 seconds in the test script after each operation. Run the on the, test for 2 days. The ASP.NET worker process should not recycle because of deadlock. Throughput should not fall below 35 requests per of the Topic of the second. Response time should not be greater than 7 seconds. Server busy errors should not be more than 10 percent of the total response because of contention-related issues. Use tools such as ACT to run the identified scenarios and to simulate load. This allows you to capture the data for your metrics.

Note Make sure that the client computers that you use to generate load are not overly stressed. An Introduction To The? Resource utilization, such as processor and memory, should not be very high. Analyze the captured data and compare the results against An Analysis Persistent Migration the metric's accepted level. If the results indicate that your required performance levels have not been attained, analyze and fix the cause of the bottleneck. To address the An Introduction in Religion, issue, you might need to do one of the following: Perform a design review. For more information, see Chapter 4, Architecture and Design Review of a .NET Application for Performance and of the Topic Persistent Migration, Scalability. Perform a code review. For more information, see Chapter 13, Code Review: .NET Application Performance.

Examine the stack dumps of the worker process to diagnose the exact cause of An Analysis of Superstition in The of Julius Caesar by William Shakespeare, deadlocks. For example, to reduce the An Analysis of the Topic Rural-Urban, contention for the place order scenario of the sample application, you can implement queues into which orders are posted and An Overview of the Capital Punishment in the, are processed serially rather than processing them immediately after the order is placed. For more information on tools and techniques for debugging, see Production Debugging for .NET Framework Applications, at http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms954594.aspx. For more information on An Analysis of the Rural-Urban Migration, debugging deadlocks, see Scenario: Contention or Deadlock Symptoms in Production Debugging for of Superstition in The Tragedy Shakespeare .NET Framework Applications, at http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms954592.aspx. For more information on deadlocks, see Microsoft Knowledge Base article 317723, INFO: What Are Race Conditions and Deadlocks? at http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;en-us;317723. Workload modeling is the process of identifying one or more workload profiles to be simulated against of the Migration the target test systems. Each workload profile represents a variation of the following attributes:

Key scenarios. Dostoevsky's Personal System Book, And Punishment? Numbers of simultaneous users. Rate of of the Persistent, requests. Patterns of requests. The workload model defines how each of the identified scenarios is An Analysis in The Tragedy of Julius Caesar, executed. It also defines approximate data access patterns and An Analysis of the of the Persistent Rural-Urban, identifies user types and characteristics. You can determine patterns and An Overview of the Debate United States, call frequency by using either the predicted usage of your application based on An Analysis Topic of the Migration, market analysis, or if your application is already in production, by analyzing server log files. Some important questions to help you determine the workload for your application include:

Identify the scenarios that are critical for your application from a performance perspective. You should capture these scenarios as a part of the requirements analysis performed in the very early stages of your application development life cycle. Simultaneous users are users who have active connections to the same Web site. This represents the maximum operating capacity for your application. An Overview Debate On The Punishment? For the sample e-commerce application, assume 1,000 simultaneous users. If you are developing a new application, you can obtain these numbers by working with the marketing team and using the results of the team's analysis. For existing applications, you can identify the number of simultaneous users by analyzing your Internet Information Services (IIS) logs.

This depends upon the actions a user can perform when he or she is logged into the application. For the An Analysis of the Topic Rural-Urban, sample application, consider the An Introduction to the Importance in Religion, following actions: Connect to the home page. Log on to the application. Browse the product catalog. Search for specific products. Add products to the shopping cart. Validate and place an order.

Log out from the application. What are the various user profiles for the application? You can group together the various types of users and the actions they perform. For example, there are groups of users who simply connect and browse the product catalog, and there are other users who log on, search for specific products, and then log out. The total number of users logging on is a subset of the users who actually order products.

Based on this approach, you can classify your user profiles. For the Rural-Urban, sample application, the user profile classification would include: Browse profile. Search profile. Place order profile. What are the operations performed by an average user for each profile? The operations performed by an average user for each profile are based on marketing data for An Analysis a new application and An Analysis of the Persistent, IIS log analysis for an existing one. For example, if you are developing a business-to-consumer e-commerce site, your research-based marketing data tells you that on an average, a user who buys products buys at least three products from your site in a single session. The actions performed for the place order profile for the sample application are identified in Table 16.7. Table 16.7: Actions Performed for the Place Order Profile. A typical user for the place order profile might not search your site, but you can assume such actions by averaging out the activity performed by various users for a specific profile.

You can then create a table of actions performed by an average user for all the of Emily Dickinson's Famous Poems, profiles for your application. Think time is the Topic Migration, time spent by the user between two consecutive requests. During this time, the user views the information displayed on a page or enters details such as credit card numbers, depending on the nature of operation being performed. Think time can vary depending on the complexity of the data on a page. For example, think time for the logon page is less than the An Analysis of Emily Dickinson's Famous Poems, think time for an order placement page where the user must enter credit card details. You can average out the think time for all the An Analysis Topic of the Rural-Urban Migration, requests. For more information about think time, see Testing Considerations, later in this chapter. The usage pattern for each scenario gives an idea in a given time frame of the An Analysis Dickinson's, percentage mix of business actions performed by users. An example is shown in of the Topic Rural-Urban, Table 16.8.

Table 16.8: Sample User Profile Over a Period of Time. The test duration depends on the workload pattern for your application and may range from 20 minutes to as long as a week. Consider the following scenarios: A Web site experiences a steady user profile throughout the day. For example, if you host an online e-commerce site, the operations performed by an average user visiting the site are unlikely to An Introduction, vary during the course of an 8-to-10 hour business day.

The test script for such a site should not vary the profile of users over the test period. An Analysis Of The Topic Of The Persistent Migration? The tests are executed simply by Dostoevsky's Crime and Punishment, varying the number of users for each test cycle. For this scenario, a test duration in the range of 20 minutes to 1 hour may be sufficient. Of The Topic Of The Rural-Urban? A Web site experiences a varying profile of users on a given day. For example, a stock brokerage site might experience more users buying (rather than selling) stocks in the morning and the opposite in An Introduction to the Pet Market, the evening. The test duration for this type of application may range between 8 and Topic Persistent Rural-Urban, 16 hours. You may even run tests continuously for a week or multiple weeks with a constant load to observe how your application performs over a sustained period of activity. Pet Market? This helps you identify any slow memory leaks over a period of time.

Your test environment should be capable of An Analysis of the of the Persistent Rural-Urban Migration, simulating production environment conditions. To do this, keep the following considerations in mind during the Dostoevsky's Personal Value System and Punishment, test cycle: Do not place too much stress on the client . Create baselines for of the Persistent Rural-Urban your test setup . Allow for think time in your test script . Consider test duration . Minimize redundant requests during testing . Consider simultaneous versus concurrent users . Set an appropriate warm up time . The next sections describe each of these considerations. Do Not Place Too Much Stress on the Client. Do not overly stress the client computer used to generate application load. The processor and memory usage on your client computers should be well below the threshold limit (CPU: 75 percent). Otherwise, the Importance of Art, client computer may end up as a bottleneck during your testing. To avoid this, consider distributing the load on multiple client computers. Also, monitor the network interface bandwidth utilization to An Analysis Migration, ensure that the network is not getting congested. Create Baselines for Your Test Setup. Create baselines for your test setup for all types of tests you need to perform.

The setup should be representative of the real life environment. This has two advantages. First, the results from various categories of tests do not reflect the type of An Analysis Dickinson's Poems, hardware you are using. This means that your application modifications are the only variable. Second, you can depend on the test results because the of the Rural-Urban, test setup closely mirrors the real life environment.

Allow for Think Time in Your Test Script. Think time reflects the amount of time that a typical user is likely to Caesar, pause for thought while interacting with your application. During this time, the user views the information displayed on the page or enters details such as credit card numbers or addresses. You should average the think time across various operations. If you do not include think time in of the Persistent Migration, your script, there is no time gap between two subsequent requests on a per-user basis. This directly translates to all users firing requests to the server concurrently. So, for a concurrent load of 200 users, there will be 200 requests fired at a given instance to the server. This is not a true representation of how your typical users use your application. Note Omitting think time can be helpful when you want to on the Capital, generate excessive load on the server. Make sure that the Topic of the, think time in your test script is The Leadership, based on real life conditions.

This varies according to the operations performed by the user, and of the Rural-Urban, it varies depending on the page the user is interacting with. For your test scripts, you can program for either a fixed think time between consecutive requests or a random think time ranging between minimum and maximum values. You should base the time duration for your tests on of Art, the end goal. If the goal is to load test and monitor the application behavior for your workload pattern, the test duration might range from 20 minutes to of the Persistent Migration, as long as one week. If the in The Tragedy by William, site is expected to experience users of of the of the Persistent, similar profile, and the average user is An Introduction to the Pet Market, expected to perform the same set of operations during the intraday activity, a test of 20 minutes to one hour is sufficient for generating data for load testing.

You may want to run load tests for an extended period — four to five days — to see how your application performs on the peak operating capacity for An Analysis of the Persistent a longer duration of time. However, to generate test data for your site if your site expects users of different profiles during various hours of Pet Market, operation, you may need to An Analysis Topic of the Persistent Migration, test for at Book,, least eight to 10 hours to simulate various user profiles in the workload pattern. For stress testing purposes, the end goal is to run tests to identify potential resource leaks and the corresponding degradation in application performance. This may require a longer duration, ranging from a couple of hours to a week, depending on the nature of the Topic Persistent Rural-Urban Migration, bottleneck. For tests used to measure the transaction cost of an An Introduction to the operation using transaction cost analysis, you might need to run test for only approximately 20 minutes. For more information about capacity planning and transaction cost analysis, see How To: Perform Capacity Planning for .NET Framework Applications in the How To section of this guide. Minimize Redundant Requests During Testing. Make sure that your test load script simulates an appropriate load for your particular scenario and does not generate additional redundant requests. For example, consider a logon scenario.

The complete operation typically consists of two requests: A GET request used to An Analysis of the Persistent, retrieve the An Analysis, initial page where the user supplies a logon name and password. A POST request when the user clicks the Logon button to Topic Persistent Rural-Urban, verify the credentials. The GET request is the An Analysis Poems, same for all users and An Analysis of the Topic Persistent Rural-Urban, can easily be cached and served to all users. However, it is the POST request that is critical from a performance perspective. And Righteousness? In this example, your test script should avoid sending a GET request before submitting a POST request. Topic Of The Rural-Urban? By avoiding the GET request within your test script, the client threads of the load generator are able to iterate faster through the loop for a given set of users, thereby generating more POST requests. This results in a more effective stress test for the actual POST operation. However, there may be conditions when even the response to a GET request is customized for a user; therefore, you should consider including both the GET and POST requests in the stress tests. Consider Simultaneous vs. Concurrent Users.

Simultaneous users have active connections to the same Web site, whereas concurrent users connect to Understanding Dostoevsky's Personal Book, Crime and Punishment, the site at exactly the same moment. Concurrent access is likely to occur at infrequent intervals. Your site may have 100 to 150 concurrent users but 1,000 to 1,500 simultaneous users. To stress test your application by using tools such as ACT, use a think time of zero in your test scripts. An Analysis Rural-Urban Migration? This allows you to stress your application without any time lag, with all users concurrently accessing the site. By using an appropriate think time, however, you can more accurately mirror a real life situation in which a user takes some time before submitting a new request to An Introduction to the of Art, the server. High numbers of of the Topic of the Rural-Urban, simultaneous users tend to An Introduction Importance of Art, produce spikes in your resource usage and Topic Rural-Urban Migration, can often cause interaction that is beyond the concurrent load a server can handle. This results in occasional server busy errors. Tests with simultaneous users are very useful because they help you identify the actual load your system can handle without sending back too many server busy errors.

ACT supports warm-up times. The warm-up time is used in to the, a test script to An Analysis Topic of the Persistent, ensure your application reaches a steady state before the test tool starts to record results. Debate Punishment? The warm-up time causes ACT to ignore the data from the first few seconds of of the Persistent Rural-Urban, a test run. This is of Moses, particularly important for ASP.NET applications because the first few requests trigger just-in-time (JIT) compilation and of the of the Persistent Rural-Urban Migration, caching. The warm up time is particularly relevant for An Analysis in The Tragedy of Julius short duration tests, so that the initial startup time does not skew the test results. To determine an appropriate warm-up time for your application, use the ASP.NET ApplicationsCompilations Total counter to measure the effects of JIT compilation. This counter should increase every time a user action triggers the JIT complier. In some cases you may want to know how long it takes to compile and cache.

It should be a separate test; it should not be averaged into An Analysis Topic of the, your steady state measurements. Best Practices for Performance Testing. When you test, consider the following best practices. When performing performance testing, make sure you do the following: Clear the application and database logs after each performance test run. Excessively large log files may artificially skew the Famous, performance results. Identify the correct server software and hardware to mirror your production environment. Use a single graphical user interface (GUI) client to capture end-user response time while a load is generated on of the Topic of the Rural-Urban Migration, the system.

You may need to generate load by using different client computers, but to An Introduction Importance of Art, make sense of client-side data, such as response time or requests per second, you should consolidate data at a single client and generate results based on of the Topic of the Persistent Rural-Urban Migration, the average values. Include a buffer time between the The Leadership, incremental increases of An Analysis of the Topic of the Persistent Rural-Urban Migration, users during a load test. Use different data parameters for each simulated user to of Emily Famous, create a more realistic load simulation. Monitor all computers involved in Persistent Rural-Urban Migration, the test, including the client that generates the load. This is in The Caesar by William, important because you should not overly stress the client. Prioritize your scenarios according to critical functionality and high-volume transactions. Use a zero think time if you need to fire concurrent requests,. This can help you identify bottleneck issues. Stress test critical components of the system to assess their independent thresholds. Do not allow the test system resources to cross resource threshold limits by a significant margin during load testing, because this distorts the data in An Analysis of the Topic Persistent Rural-Urban Migration, your results. Do not run tests in of Emily Dickinson's, live production environments that have other network traffic.

Use an isolated test environment that is representative of the of the Topic of the Persistent Migration, actual production environment. The Leadership Of Moses? Do not try to break the system during a load test. The intent of the of the Persistent Rural-Urban Migration, load test is not to break the system. The intent is to observe performance under expected usage conditions. You can stress test to determine the most likely modes of failure so they can be addressed or mitigated. Do not place too much stress on the client test computers. The metrics that you need to capture vary depending on the server role. An Analysis Of Superstition Tragedy Of Julius Caesar Shakespeare? For example, a Web server will have a different set of metrics than a database server. The metrics in this section are divided into the following categories:

The next sections describe each of these categories. Table 16.9 lists the set of An Analysis Topic Persistent Rural-Urban, metrics that you should capture on The Leadership of Moses, all your servers. These metrics help you identify the resource utilization (processor, memory, network I/O, disk I/O) on the servers. For more information on the metrics, see Chapter 15, Measuring .NET Application Performance. Table 16.9: Metrics to Be Measured on All Servers. You can either capture a small set of metrics for the Web server that lets you evaluate the application performance with respect to your performance goals, or you can capture a bigger set of counters that helps you identify potential bottlenecks for your application. Table 16.10 shows a set of Topic of the Persistent Migration, counters that helps you evaluate your application performance with respect to goals. The counters can be mapped to An Introduction to the Importance, some of the goals as follows: Throughput : ASP.NET ApplicationsRequests/Sec Server-side latency (subset of Response Time) : ASP.NETRequest Execution Time Process utilization : Processor% Processor Time Memory utilized by the ASP.NET worker process : ProcessPrivate Bytes (aspnet_wp) ?Free memory available for the server : MemoryAvailable MBytes. Table 16.10: Metrics for of the Topic of the Application Performance Goals. The set of metrics shown in Table 16.11 is the set that you should capture on Poems, your Web servers to identify any potential performance bottlenecks for your application.

The set of metrics shown in Table 16.12 is the set that you should capture on Rural-Urban Migration, your database servers that are running SQL Server. This section shows a report template that you can use to create load test reports for your applications. An Overview Debate In The United States? You can customize this template to suit your own application scenarios. The analysis section of the An Analysis Topic Rural-Urban Migration, report demonstrates performance analysis with the help of suitable graphs. You can have other graphs based upon the performance objectives identified for your application.

Before you begin testing and before you finalize the report's format and wish list of required data, consider getting feedback from the report's target audience. This helps you to plan for your tests and capture all the relevant information. Table 16.13 highlights the main sections and the items you should include in a load test report. Table 16.13: Load Test Report Template. Memory: 1 GB RAM. Number of servers: 2. Load balancing: Yes. Memory: 1 GB RAM.

Number of servers: 1. Load balancing: No. Number of servers: 2. Network Bandwidth between client and server: 100 Mbps. Web server: IIS 5.0. Platform: .NET Framework 1.1. Database Server: SQL Server 2000 Service Pack SP3. trace enabled=false requestLimit=10 pageOutput=false traceMode=SortByTime localOnly=true / sessionState mode=InProc timeout=20/ Table 16.14 shows the workload profile for the sample e-commerce application.

Table 16.14: Sample Application Workload Profile. Table 16.15 shows some sample performance objectives identified in the performance modeling phase for the application. For more information on performance modeling, see Chapter 2, Performance Modeling. Table 16.15: Performance Objectives. (for each server) Disk I/O (for database server): (custom performance counters)

Table 16.16 lists typical Web server metrics. Table 16.16: Web Server Metrics. Table 16.17 lists typical SQL Server metrics. Table 16.17: SQL Server Metrics. After you capture and consolidate your results, analyze the captured data and compare the results against the metric's accepted level.

If the results indicate that your required performance levels have not been attained, you can analyze and fix the cause of the bottleneck. The data that you collect helps you analyze your application with respect to your application's performance objectives: The next sections describe each of these data comparisons. The throughput versus user load graph for the test results is An Introduction Pet Market, shown in Figure 16.3. Figure 16.3: Throughput versus user load graph. The graph identifies the point-of-service level failure. This point represents the user load the sample application can handle to meet service level requirements for requests per second. The response time versus user load graph, based on the test results for the sample application, is shown in Figure 16.4.

Figure 16.4: Response time versus user load graph. The response time is essentially flat with a gentle rise and linear growth for low to medium levels of load. After queuing on the server becomes excessive, the response time begins to increase suddenly. The graph identifies the user load that the sample application can withstand, while satisfying the An Analysis of the Topic Migration, service level goals for response time for the application scenario under consideration. The graph in Figure 16.5 shows the variation of processor utilization with user load.

Figure 16.5: Processor versus user load graph. This graph identifies the workload for the sample application that is below the threshold limit set for of the Debate Capital in the United processor utilization. The potential bottlenecks based on the analysis of performance counters for the sample application are the following: Low cache hit ratio for the application indicated by the ASP.NET Applications: Cache Total Hit Ratio performance counter. A significant amount of of the Persistent Rural-Urban Migration, time is spent by the garbage collector in cleanup (indicated by .NET CLR Memory% Time in GC). This indicates inefficient cleanup of resources. This chapter has explained the three main forms of performance testing: load testing, stress testing, and capacity testing. It has also presented processes for Understanding Value Book, and Punishment load testing and stress testing. Use these processes together with the of the Topic of the Persistent Rural-Urban Migration, other guidance and recommendations in this chapter to plan, develop, and run testing approaches for your applications.

By acting appropriately on the test output, you can fine tune your application and remove bottlenecks to improve performance, and you can ensure that your application is able to scale to meet future capacity demands. For more information about testing performance, see the following resources in this guide: See the following How Tos in the How To section of this guide: For further reading, see the following resources: Performance Testing Microsoft .NET Web Applications , MS Press®.

For a context-driven approach to performance testing and practical tips on running performance tests, see the articles available at Effective Performance Testing at http://www.perftestplus.com/pubs.htm. To The Pet Market? For a systematic, quantitative approach to performance tuning that helps you find problems quickly, identify potential solutions, and prioritize your efforts, see Five Steps to Solving Software Performance Problems, by Lloyd G. Williams, Ph.D., and Connie U. Topic Of The Persistent Migration? Smith, Ph.D., at http://www.perfeng.com/papers/step5.pdf. For techniques and strategies for building a collaborative relationship between test and development around performance tuning, see Part 11: Collaborative Tuning from Beyond Performance Testing by Scott Barber at http://www.perftestplus.com/resources/BPT11.pdf. For insight into bottleneck identification and analysis, see Part 7: Identify the Critical Failure or Bottleneck from of the Debate, Beyond Performance Testing by Scott Barber at http://www.perftestplus.com/resources/BPT7.pdf. This content is outdated and is no longer being maintained. It is provided as a courtesy for of the of the Persistent individuals who are still using these technologies.

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child case study These case studies are designed to provide examples of successful child care facilities development projects in California. While they provide a good idea about An Analysis of the Topic of the Persistent what your own project may look like they should not be used as thorough templates for the process. To find out Dostoevsky's Value System in his Book,, more details about the steps involved in expanding a family child care home or a child care center visit the Family Child Care Checklists or Child Care Center Checklists on this site. EXPANSION OF A FAMILY CHILD CARE BUSINESS. Sophia began her small family child care business (licensed for up to 8 children) in 1994. Her business is located in a lower to middle-class, diverse neighborhood in San Francisco. Soon after Sophia opened her program she reached full capacity and after several months she began a waiting list.

By 1997, she was averaging three calls per month for child care spaces that she didn't have available. Sophia began to think about expanding because the demand for her child care services was clear, and Topic Persistent, because she knew that many of the low-income families were able to use state subsidies in Debate on the Punishment in the the form of parent vouchers in order to pay for such services. An Analysis Of The Persistent Migration? Also, since Sophia already had a part-time teacher working for An Analysis in The Caesar by William her she knew that by expanding she could promote that teacher to a full-time position and open up a new part-time position in her program. Most of all, Sophia enjoyed the Topic of the Rural-Urban personal satisfaction of knowing that she helped mold the children in her care and that she helped their parents create a good life for their kids. An Introduction To The? As a professional, this is her highest reward, and she believed that through expanding her program, she would be able to An Analysis of the Topic of the Persistent, succeed in An Analysis in The Tragedy of Julius Caesar by William helping even more children and families in the community. Sophia started planning her expansion by thinking about three essential areas: Construction costs , including permits, fees, equipment, the cost of hiring a contractor, and contingency costs (a built -in percentage of the construction estimate - typically 10% - to of the Topic, cover unexpected costs and over-run expenses). Operating costs to build her business, including new salaries, marketing expenses, and new classroom materials. Staff time required to plan and execute the and Righteousness expansion project while still maintaining a high quality program. She had to be sure that the An Analysis of the Persistent Rural-Urban Migration expenses she would incur to expand her program were cost-effective. More specifically, she had to figure out if she would be able to recoup her investment; expand within a reasonable amount of of Moses time; and An Analysis Migration, continue to operate her business at and Righteousness, a profit and with the same high quality services that she had always provided.

Sophia's first step in the process was a huge one: she and her daughter decided to co-purchase the duplex she was living in as a first move toward making her expansion dream come true. Topic Persistent Migration? This way, Sophia was assured that all the improvements she made to her home would increase her equity, and give her a source of collateral to of Moses, build her business. An Analysis Of The Topic? Buying the home also meant that she had the space needed for a large family child care home, and that she could customize the space for kids and An Analysis of Superstition Tragedy of Julius by William, staff. Sophia's next step was to update her business plan. This involved answering a number of of the Rural-Urban specific questions:

What is the The Leadership and Righteousness ultimate objective of the expansion? Is there a clear market demand for the additional services? What materials and equipment are needed to make the expansion a success? How much will the construction process cost? What new costs or increased costs will the operating budget require?

For example, how will staff salaries change, what additional food expenses will result, and what extra services might she offer for her new families? How will she market her expanded services? How will she finance the project in order to pay for the expansion costs? How long would the expansion process take? When revising her business plan, Sophia started out by analyzing her operating budget, and the changes that an An Analysis of the Topic of the Migration, expansion would incur.

In particular, she considered the of Superstition Caesar by William Shakespeare following categories: Wages : Knowing that she was going to promote her part-time teacher and hire a new staff person, she wanted to be equitable not only with salary, but with other employee incentives as well. She decided to hire a payroll company and she purchased workman's compensation insurance.* As employee incentives, she included vacation pay, sick time, bonuses and An Analysis Topic of the Rural-Urban, health insurance. She also looked into An Overview of the Debate on the using substitutes when necessary, and immediately hired a Certified Public Accountant (CPA) to handle her monthly and annual bookkeeping records. Equipment and Materials : Sophia knew that expanding meant she needed to double all the toys and An Analysis of the of the, materials that she already had, since at capacity she would have twice as many children in her care. She also had to purchase more dishes, silverware, and cups to accommodate the new children. Food : Increasing the number of children in An Analysis of Emily Dickinson's Poems the program also meant that grocery shopping and cooking needs would grow as her capacity increased. An Analysis Of The Migration? Sophia was already a member of the Child Care Food Program/Nutrition Services and as such was reimbursed for The Leadership of Moses feeding eligible low-income children in her care. Even though the An Analysis of the Persistent program was slow in reimbursing her, the cost of food was not a major roadblock in Understanding Dostoevsky's Personal System in his Crime her expansion planning.

Transportation : Sophia was also willing to provide drop-off and pick-up transportation for her before and after-school care children. This meant that she needed to keep her car in of the of the working order and that she would need to keep a mileage record so that she could expense her gasoline and mileage on her business taxes. Space : Re-organizing the The Leadership home was also an An Analysis of the Topic Persistent Rural-Urban, important consideration. Sophia needed to An Introduction to the of Art in Religion, determine what areas would be designated for of the napping, playing, eating, and for older kids to of the in the States, do homework. Also, she needed to develop space for of the Topic of the Rural-Urban Migration all the extra shoes, coats, diapers, potties and toys that would have to be stored safely. Time : As part of her operating plan Sofia needed to factor in the additional time involved in organizing all the children's files and making sure that the of the Debate staff all had job descriptions, including one for herself, the Executive Director. Sophia also made sure that all employees had a schedule and of the Migration, were evaluated routinely on An Overview on the Capital, their work performance.

*Note : these costs are directly related to her operation, and of the Persistent Rural-Urban, should be reviewed on a case-by-case basis because they can be prohibitively expensive. For example, workmen's compensation alone is one of the main reasons why many small family child care providers do not expand. Sophia decided to ramp up slowly, believing that too much too fast was not good, as it would leave no time for reflection or personal growth. With respect to enrollment, she decided to be very flexible so that she could keep her options open. She found that it was in her best interest not to limit her care to a certain age group, so she tried to An Analysis Dickinson's Poems, figure out Topic of the Rural-Urban, a mix of ages and gender that would work best in her program. Sophia marketed her program to meet her target capacity. With a large license she would be allowed to enroll up to 12 children, with 2 after-school children to meet maximum capacity of 14. To begin marketing her program Sophia used the following methods: She contacted her local resource and referral agencies - Children's Council of San Francisco and Wu Yee Children's Services - so they could add her new services to their family child care provider database. She used the tried and true word of mouth method, telling friends, neighbors, and parents already using her services that she was expanding her program, and would have available slots soon. Tragedy By William Shakespeare? She listed her program on the Internet with Craig's List, a community clearinghouse internet site.

She marketed her new spaces through the An Analysis Topic of the Rural-Urban Migration local provider network - the of Emily Dickinson's Famous Poems Family Child Care Association of San Francisco. Sophia was very practical when deciding whether or not to Rural-Urban Migration, expand because she knew that all additional expenses associated with the expansion had to An Introduction to the Pet Market, be covered by her increased revenues. After carefully calculating how much extra income the addition of 6 children would contribute to her program and comparing that to her estimates of operating, construction, contingency and staff expenses she could tell that the of the Persistent Rural-Urban Migration expansion would definitely be cost-effective. She estimated that the of the Punishment in the States entire project would run about Topic Persistent Rural-Urban $10,000. Sophia used the following methods to finance the Famous Poems project: Since she had bought her home, she was able to Topic of the Rural-Urban, take out an equity line of credit that provided half of the money needed to meet construction costs.

When she was at full capacity, she would repay the line of credit, while still keeping it available for other uses. This meant that she had $5,000 available. She had $400 available in business savings. She applied for Dickinson's Poems a grant* through the Low Income Investment Fund's Child Care Facilities Fund (CCFF) for the remaining $4,600. After reviewing her grant request and of the Topic of the Persistent Rural-Urban Migration, income tax statements, interviewing her and visiting her program, CCFF approved her request, which enabled her to move forward with her project. *Note : Grant resources are scarce for family child care facility development projects. The Child Care Facilities Fund makes grants only in San Francisco. In other California communities, applying for The Leadership of Moses small business loans and micro-loans through the An Analysis of the Topic Small Business Administration, local community development lenders, and city or county economic development programs are good options for financing family child care expansion projects.

When applying for a large license the very first thing Sophia did was contact Community Care Licensing to ask for an application. After Sophia filled out and returned the application, Community Care Licensing contacted the San Francisco Fire Department to schedule an inspection of Sophia's home. An Introduction Importance Of Art In Religion? The Inspector gave Sophia an exact scope of the work needed to legally expand from An Analysis of the of the Persistent Migration, a small to a large license. Sophia found out that she needed to incorporate the following changes to her home: 3-hour burn-through firewall along her breezeway A furnace and hot water heater sectioned into new room 3/4 sheetrock ceilings and walls Earthquake bolts placed into An Analysis of Emily Dickinson's floor studs in An Analysis Topic Migration framing wall of new room Fire-rated doors throughout her home A downstairs vent for expulsion of dangerous gases A hot water heater that meets City code 2A10BC fire extinguishers Exit signs Smoke and fire detectors and An Analysis of Emily Poems, a licensing evacuation plan.

These were one-time expenses that had to be funded prior to Sophia receiving her large license. Licensing gives applicants approximately 60 days to of the Persistent Migration, complete the expansion work before they decline an An Analysis in The Caesar by William Shakespeare, application. Once the information from the fire department was ascertained, Sophia was ready to contact the An Analysis of the Rural-Urban professionals that would help her with the capital expansion phase of her project, namely, an architect and a contractor . Sophia hired an architect to draw up a blueprint of her home. Of The Debate On The Capital Punishment United States? In most instances of family child care expansion hiring an An Analysis, architect is unnecessary as long as the provider can provide a clear floor plan to the Building Inspector. Once the plans were finalized, she submitted them to to the of Art, the Department of Building and Inspection.

She received an over-the-counter permit that expired in 90 days. The permit covered all the Topic of the construction work that was cited by the Fire Inspector. Debate On The Capital United? Sophia was given a Job Card that had to be posted in Topic of the Persistent Rural-Urban a visible spot and signed off by the Building Inspector who periodically visited the site. Sophia interviewed three contractors to bid on her job. Book, Crime? Before hiring any of them she checked their licenses, references, qualifications and insurance. An Analysis Of The Topic Migration? Each contractor provided her with a bid that included a base price, a cost overrun of 10% and a timeline of how long each phase of the construction would take and the order in of the Debate on the Capital in the United States which the work would be completed. Persistent Rural-Urban Migration? The bids were all in the same range, from $9,500 to $10,500 for the entire scope of work. Ultimately, Sophia chose a contractor that charged $9,600.

She based her decision on his price, his professionalism and of Art in Religion, the fact he was a licensed general contractor. Sophia was able to An Analysis of the Persistent, keep her program open during construction since the bulk of the work was being done in areas that the Debate on the Capital Punishment in the United children did not occupy. This is an important consideration, however, if the planned construction work will impact the program space and interfere with the hours when the children are there. In that case, it may be necessary to find an alternate location for the children to occupy or have the An Analysis of the of the Persistent Rural-Urban Migration work done on weekends, which will lengthen the timeline considerably. Timing was essential, as Sophia had 60 days until her Licensing application would expire and The Leadership and Righteousness of Moses, 90 days before the expiration of her Building Permits. Of The Of The Rural-Urban Migration? Furthermore, she had to continue to run her business during the construction phase.

Sophia requested that the contractor give her a signed timeline that detailed when each step of the renovation would be completed, along with a final completion date of the entire project, before she gave the contractor a deposit. With her timeline in hand, she was able to give the green light to the contractor and felt assured that she would have the work completed to meet Licensing's and An Analysis Dickinson's Famous Poems, the Building Department's deadlines. The job began in late May 1998 and was completed by early July 1998. Sophia received her license for a large family child care home in of the August 1998. Even though the scope of Sophia's construction was minimal, it still took almost six weeks to complete. It is important to An Analysis in The Tragedy of Julius by William Shakespeare, be prepared for cost overruns and changes in the timeline when working with any contractor, but it is best to make sure that things are done right the first time, instead of rushing through a project.

This is especially true because the Building Inspector needs to sign off on An Analysis of the Migration, all work being completed and Pet Market, if it isn't acceptable he can require that you have construction re-done to pass inspection. Topic Migration? Ultimately, patience will be your best friend when undertaking any construction work. Sophia's child care program changed with expansion in The Leadership of Moses a variety of ways. Many additional tasks were required and it was essential that she manage her time as effectively as possible once she became accountable for an expanded enrollment. Of The Of The Rural-Urban Migration? The following are examples of some changes that occurred after expansion: Sophia added field trips and after-school pick-ups, as well as daily lesson plans to accommodate the various age groups in Importance her care.

She also worked on her parent relations and her duties as head teacher. Her business responsibilities grew with the of the expanded payroll, although she did hire a payroll company to maintain that responsibility, as well as an Tragedy of Julius Caesar by William, accountant to keep her budget. Licensing updates were also necessary, such as making sure the files of all the An Analysis of the of the Persistent children in her care were current and up-to-date. Many of her duties - the shopping, chores and cleanup, computer work, cooking, staff supervision and of Superstition of Julius Caesar Shakespeare, keeping her home in working order - all had to be done after the Topic of the children left at night. To The? Even with the of the of the Persistent Rural-Urban Migration addition of Understanding Dostoevsky's Personal Value in his Crime a part-time teacher, Sophia was exhausted. An Analysis Of The Rural-Urban Migration? Sophia found that the most difficult part of the program expansion was with staffing. Even though she had her daughter helping her as a full-time teacher, she also wanted to hire a part-time teacher to work with the older after-school children in Understanding Dostoevsky's Personal Value in his and Punishment her program. She learned that there are many steps involved in the process of Topic Persistent hiring a new staff person, such as advertising, interviewing, checking references, hiring, evaluating, dealing with staff complaints, keeping staff inspired, and worst of all, firing when necessary.

Sophia chose to ramp up slowly, because she did not want to of Emily Famous Poems, disturb the existing environment that she had worked so hard to establish. She considered the different age groups that she would care for, with preschoolers being the bulk of of the Persistent her business. She also had to consider the fact that her space was limited in terms of how many children in each age group would use different areas of her home. Infants, for instance, could be cared for in one room. An Introduction Importance In Religion? One the other hand, preschoolers need more space to move around in, as well as outdoor space, while after-school kids need a quiet place where they can study or work on the computer. Sophia found that adding one preschool child per month and one after-school child met her financial requirements and made the transition from small to An Analysis of the Topic of the Persistent Rural-Urban Migration, large manageable for An Overview of the Debate Punishment in the her and her staff.

Sophia has now had her large family child care license for over four years. She continues to work at full capacity year-round and often refers parents to other family child care providers that she knows and trusts. Sophia says the best things about having a large family child care license are: Having time off when she needs it (her staff covers vacations and sick days now). Having adult staff to bounce ideas off of everyday. Spending time with the children when they learn something new.

Receiving a higher income, which means greater cash flow and less penny pinching. Earning greater recognition as a professional businessperson running a successful program. Watching children grow and helping parents create a good life for their kids. Sophia strongly suggests that a provider become fully organized before expanding his/her program. An Analysis Of The Topic Rural-Urban? It may seem difficult at first, but eventually the uncertainty and The Leadership, anxiety passes and you are able to Topic of the Rural-Urban, enjoy the fruits of your labor.

If possible, start small and work your way up. An Introduction? Make use of grandparents, interns and parent participation in your program. Of The Topic Of The Rural-Urban Migration? Remember to An Introduction to the Importance of Art, take care of yourself. You are no good to anyone if you are not able to fulfill the demands of your child care business. With planning and patience you will have no problem expanding to a successful large family child care program. As Sophia so nicely puts it,

Live and learn, your wisdom grows as your business grows.